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Gundam has also become a multimedia juggernaut with comic books (manga), novels, video games, toys, and 6 models all being produced. The 'oil shock'. New Gundam novel front cover · photo. Covers for the Kadokawa edition of now-legendary director Yoshiyuki Tomino's Mobile Suit Gundam trilogy. Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin, Vol. 1- Activation free ebook download Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin, Vol. 1- Activation freed pdf download.

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BOOK REVIEW: Book title: "[PDF] Edition Mobile Suit Gundam 4 For Trial" Author: Kazuhisa Kondo publisher: Kazuhisa Kondo Book. PDF | On Sep 30, , John Tennant and others published Mobile Suit Gundam and the Japanese Memory of War. The Shock of the Newtype: The Mobile Suit Gundam Novels of. Tomino Yoshiyuki . Patrick Drazen. Mechademia, Volume 1, , pp. (Review).

They kept the same basic Japanese configuration of three separate paperback volumes, retitling them to "Awakening," "Escalation," and "Confrontation. The poor artist ultimately employed alas doesn't even get a credit in the books. Unlike the Japanese originals, there are no illustrations included, but there is a map showing the layout of the near-Earth Gundam universe in U.

Among fans, there was also some controversy over the spellings I used for characters and place names. At the time,there was no standard English phoneticization of Tomino's names, and for reference some fans were using random and not accurately romanized spellings found on the box tops of plastic model kits or fan magazines sold in Japan, or spellings that they came up with themselves.

I tried to hew closely to the original Japanese names, but this upset some North American fans who had already developed an attachment to spellings that they preferred. It might seem odd today, given the current international appeal of the Gundam franchise, but in I wasn't even completely sure how to translate the title.

Although the former is firmly accepted today in English and seems obvious, for people seeing the title for the first time, there can be a certain illogic to it in English. But Del Rey was expecting success on a much larger scale. After a few years, Del Rey let the books go out of print. After that, I wrote the editors nearly every year, encouraging them to reprint the books, and telling them of the growing market for Japanese anime and the increasing number of Gundam anime fans.

Finally, after many years, in I was able to get the rights back to my translation, and I offered the book to Stone Bridge Press, a small independent publisher in Berkeley, California.

Just trivia information for Gundam fans, but Del Rey had originally acquired the rights to translate the original Gundam novels, as well as the Z Gundam series, and asked me to translate all of them. In , I said that I couldn't commit to all eight because it would take years and if the books didn't sell I would starve to death. I suggested doing the first Gundam series and seeing how it was received, then committing to the second series.

I have used the following naming conventions: There is the debate, both domestic and international, engendered by the Japanese government approval for use in high schools of a revisionist history textbook. There have also been a number of popular films dealing with war related themes Onishi, b; Gerow, , including a big budget battleship Yamato film Telegraph.

The last generation that experienced the war directly, mostly as children, has only recently begun to cede their prominence to those who experienced only the postwar. The current contestation for LDP presidency is an example of the current generational change with the initial challenger to the leading candidate, 51 year old Abe Shinzo, being 69 year old Fukuda Yasuo who eventually decided not to run. Meanwhile, the generation born during the oil shock is only now in their 30s and making their presence felt in society.

Anime, as a form of animated film, developed in Japan with its roots being in the limited animation necessary due to the cost constraints of television productions. The television production Tetsuwan Atomu , known as Astro Boy in English speaking markets, was among the first Japanese animated television programs, but because it was created by Tezuka Osamu1, storytelling was not sacrificed, but rather had to be emphasized.

In this series, the Yamato, the giant Japanese battleship sunk in the closing days of the Pacific War, is raised and refurbished to go on an interstellar journey to save the Earth from the effects of radiation unleashed during war. This anime series, although aimed at children, explores themes of war in relative complexity, is considered a classic of the anime form and was voted the 12 th best anime of all time in a TV Asahi poll from September Anime News Network, The number one anime from the TV Asahi poll was Gundam.

Gundam is not a merely single television series, but a number of television series, theatrical films, and direct-to-video releases that arguably occupy a similar niche in Japanese popular culture as Star Trek and Star Wars do in American culture. The various Gundam series generally tell a story of hegemonic warfare set in a science fiction setting where the war takes place on Earth and in space colonies close to Earth.

Like Star Trek before it, Mobile Suit Gundam was actually cancelled during its initial run but became popular after being edited down to three compilation movies. Since then there have been Gundam releases almost annually.

For me, an interesting question is: Or to put it in a more straightforward manner, will Gundam help shape the post- postwar memory of the war? This is an unanswerable question at the moment, but what is relevant to the present is the shaping of that memory to be. These progressives were among the most enthusiastic supporters of the reforms imposed during the Occupation. This group wished to emphasize the progress made by Japan since the Meiji period while de-emphasizing the wartime period as an aberration.

Because these bureaucrats and politicians had been able to remain in government and political institutions through wartime, the occupation and after, this group had a vested interest in maintaining continuity with the past because they owed their position and status to that very past—they were continuity personified. The third and fourth groups of custodians were the media in all its forms, and individuals and their own memories of the war.


The suffering of ordinary people struck a chord with most individual Japanese since almost everyone suffered during either the wartime or the Occupation. Popular media representations of the past and the personal memories of people emphasized the helplessness and suffering of the Japanese. This shaped and was shaped by the commonly accepted narrative of the war where the Japanese people themselves were victims who had been involved in unjust war by their leaders Gluck, , Along with an emphasis of the Japanese as victims, there was a de-emphasis on the war in China and South-East Asia.

The long running textbook controversy in Japan illustrates the role of the first two custodians. Although immediate postwar highschool history textbooks clearly assigned responsibility for the war to Imperial Japan Ienaga, , , with the shifting political climate of the cold war, conservative politicians passed a law that enabled the Ministry of Education to screen textbooks Nozaki and Inokuchi, , Throughout the s, Ienaga submitted his textbook, Shin Nihonshi, to the screening process and was forced to make hundreds of changes to the text.

During his first lawsuit trial, the government elaborated its reasons for refusal: He filed three different lawsuits and fought an ongoing legal battle for over 32 years with only partial success. Nozaki and Inokuchi, Like the progressive critics Gluck describes, Ienaga believed the reforms introduced by the Occupation were of value to the Japanese people. Ienaga pursued his court cases because he felt it was necessary to remember the horrors of war; otherwise, history would repeat itself.

Ienaga believed an informed Japanese public could prevent Japan from following such a belligerent course again. Textbooks were critical for forming a consciousness of war in all its brutality, because he feared that the young people in Japan would form their memory of war from popular cultural representations of history which he dismissed as romanticizing the war , The idea that popular culture influences its audience has been common in cultural and media studies.

Certainly, many producers of cultural products would not create novels, films, TV programs, or any other culture products that express a viewpoint if they did not believe they could persuade their audience in some way. Interestingly for me, a rebuttal letter is also reprinted on page which emphasizes that there are anime which explore the consequences of war on the lives of the characters.

The 2 This book prints a selection of some letters of a total of concerning the war that were printed in the Asahi Shimbun between 10 July and 29 August As an academic, Ienaga is not alone in suggesting that the youth of Japan learn about war through popular culture. As well, Gerow argues that most recent chapter in the textbook controversy, initiated by Fujioka Nobakutsu and the Liberal View of History Study Group, owes as much to narratives found in popular culture as it does to historical facts, particularly, to the narratives of Japanese suffering during and after the war.

Although this text was adopted by only 0. Onishi a notes some of the changes between textbooks from , , and This time, only one does while the others refer to them even more vaguely. He goes on to note a similar shift in the textbooks discussion of Asian forced labourers during the war and the Nanjing massacre.

Ienaga would not be pleased. Clearly there is a need to go beyond textbooks and look at images of the past framed by popular culture as argued by Morris-Suzuki , Narrative and Popular Culture In order to discuss narratives of war in Japanese popular culture I first want to look at how the American Occupation from until defined and limited the expression such narratives.

Secondly I want to summarize some of the scholarly work that has been done in the area of memory of war as expressed in popular culture.

Dower describes in detail the censorship apparatus, known as the Civil Censorship Detachment CCD , noting the massive effort involved at its height: Although not explicitly prohibited by the CCD, photographs and films depicting the destruction and casualties wrought by the atomic bomb were suppressed Hirano, , and even writing about the atomic bomb experience became taboo through a mix of formal censorship and self-censorship by publishers Dower, , In her summary of the film censorship regime during the Occupation, Hirano states the atomic bombings had to be portrayed as a strategic measure that saved both Allied and Japanese lives , Under this censorship regime, coming to terms with the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mourning and memorialization of the soldiers who had died fighting, even discussion and debate of the political responsibility of the Japanese government for the war all became highly problematic.

During the occupation period, there could only be limited expressions of wartime experience in film and literature. Images of wartime destruction by Allied forces was prohibited in film and even spoken references could be censored Hirano, , The Occupation also saw the publication of collections of letters by soldiers who had died in the war, the most famous being Kike—Wadatuni no Koe 3 Published with a description of the Bataan death march in the same volume.

A strategy used in films as well where the censors insisted that reference to Japanese war responsibility be included with any reference to devastation Hirano,, Such early cultural representations of the war as these helped establish the pattern of emphasizing the suffering of the Japanese as a primary narrative of the war.

The Japanese peace movement put this suffering at the centre of its efforts because the victimization of the Japanese, particularly the victims of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, provided a moral gravity for the movement Dower, , The censorship combined with the decision by the Americans to keep the emperor Hirohito on the throne allowed for a simplification and a polarization of the memory of the war, particularly the debate over the responsibility for the war which has continued to the present.

On the one hand, those who questioned the premise that Japan was entirely responsible for the war were almost completely silenced by the Occupation censorship.

Because of the apparent hypocrisy of this censorship during the democratization of Japan which included an emphasis on freedom of speech Dower, , , neo-nationalist rightists in Japan, such as Fujioka, have been allowed a certain justification or righteousness to completely deny any responsibility for the war. These people had a personal stake in keeping silent on the issue of responsibility even if they believed Japan was responsible , since they had more to lose if the Japanese government openly admitted responsibility for the war.

Not only could political responsibility for the war not be expressed, the general abhorrence for war that was shared by almost all Japanese Dower, , 25 also limited expression, particularly public expression, of the kind of nationalistic feelings that had led to the war even after the Occupation had finished.

Because mainstream popular culture and mass media tend to be conservative and observe the status quo Strinati, , ; Pharr, , 9 , this had the impact of limiting the representation of the war, particularly the political responsibility for war, in mainstream cultural products such as television programs and popular movies.

There have been a number of studies that have dealt with memory of war as represented in popular culture in Japan. Igarashi argues that in many ways popular culture became the place to express Japanese nationalism in the postwar period since it could not be adequately expressed in the political sphere. With the postwar recovery erasing physical reminders of the war, Godzilla returns to destroy the cities of Japan once again in scenes reminiscent of the wartime air raids.

The simple good versus evil storyline of his wrestling matches against American wrestlers echoed wartime propaganda of Japan versus the Western powers that had colonized Asia.

This allowed an expression of Japanese nationalism through sport. He had come to Japan from Korea in , yet his public persona was that he was from Kyushu. Standish interprets a number of different Japanese films from the wartime through the postwar including wartime propaganda films, postwar films portraying kamikaze pilots, hibakusha films, and yakuza films from the s.

The films follow the central character, Kaji, through his experiences during the war in Japanese occupied Manchuria and in a Soviet labour camp following the war.

Although The Human Condition is an anti-war statement that does not glorify death in anyway and shows everyone as both victim and perpetrator at the same time, Standish indicts the film as advancing a world view where individuals have no power to change the circumstances of life , This interpretation emphasizes the victim consciousness of the Japanese.

Still the world is a transient place and this too is sad; what we feel today we forget tomorrow, this is not as it perhaps should be, but it is as it is. In the case of Godzilla, a prehistoric monster is awakened by American nuclear test explosions conducted in the South Pacific. Through the actions of mankind, the power of nature is unleashed.

Not every representation of history in popular culture emphasizes the victim consciousness, Nakar argues that the majority of war-themed manga created from the late s until the late s actually created narratives of limited victory rather than of victimization.

Nakar finds that the majority of manga set during the war told stories of pilots bravely fighting a losing battle at the end of the war , He shows these stories followed a mythic narrative of a tragic hero much the same as defined by Standish except with an emphasis on sacrifice who acts as a defender of his homeland. These manga avoided representation of the responsibility of Japan as a nation in two ways.

First, the stories focused on junior officers who were expected to follow orders rather than the superior officers who issued those orders Nakar, , The colonialism of the West and the atrocities of the United States, particularly the strategic bombing campaign that culminated in the atomic bombings, showed the reader that the battles the hero fought were just. Tachibana examines how postwar writers in Germany and Japan dealt with issues of guilt, responsibility, and memory.

She divides the postwar literature of each country into three stages which historical narratives become increasingly wider in perspective. She describes the third stage as one where writers attempted to demonstrate that Hiroshima and Auschwitz were neither one-time events nor the problem of the participant nations alone, but instead belonged to all of humankind. This third stage can apply to other cultural productions that feature a narrative including films, theatrical plays, television programs, comics, and even video games.

She highlights the relationship between history as identification and history as interpretation. The former being usually associated more with ideas such as memory, heritage, and politics, and the latter usually with academic history.

Secondly, speaking very broadly, Morris- Suzuki asserts that we are all implicated in the past because the ideas, events, institutions, and people of the past have affected the present that we live in and that we our values and beliefs have been shaped by them. For her, popular culture is an important means by which all this is communicated , An example of historical truth versus historical truthfulness may be the debate over the Nanjing Massacre Incident.

Some of the discrepancy between estimates comes from differing definitions of the event in length of time and geographical space Askew, However, historical truthfulness would be more concerned with why most Chinese people believe people were massacred and why most Japanese believe the number to be much lower including some who argue that there was no massacre. At its simplest, historical truthfulness with respect to popular culture is about the relationship between a story about an historical event, the storyteller and the audience.

Morris-Suzuki, , 61 These are all interesting questions and applicable to any representation of history in any media. Clearly examining historical truthfulness can be very demanding.

Anime and War Anime depictions of war tend to fall into three categories according to Drazen: Most anime that depict the Asia-Pacific war focus on the impact of the war on non-combatants, particularly children. These anime emphasize the suffering of the Japanese populace and the enemy is often faceless, a trope carried over from Japanese war-time films Dower, , The film Tsushima Maru: Sayonara Okinawa tells the story of the sinking of an evacuation ship carrying school children from Okinawa; of the children aboard only 59 survived.

The only image of the American submarine that sinks the Tsushima Maru is the wake of its torpedoes before they strike. The viewer has no choice but to identify with the suffering of the protagonists. While Grave of the Fireflies accepts victimization consciousness, Barefoot Gen rejects it. What there is tends to focus on either alternative retellings of the war or how the apocalypse is represented.

While Frieberg examines the feature film anime Akira as a vision of the post-apocalypse, contrasting it with western conceptions of the apocalypse which is about the end of the world. In the West, the apocalypse is unimaginable, inconceivable, unrepresentable Frieberg, The Japanese modernization includes an element of cyclical destruction and rebirth: A narrative shared by Barefoot Gen. He argues that a subtext of suicide and violence in anime undermines any overt message of peace , Why Gundam?

On one hand we have a need to look at images of the past framed by popular culture Morris-Suzuki, , On the other hand, Japanese popular culture has shied away from presenting images of both the battlefield and the politics of the period, focusing only on the suffering of ordinary Japanese.

Secondly, it is science fiction. Finally, I believe that is has become a genre. Aliens and other common science fiction devices such as faster than light travel are absent creating a very plausible and human world Vernal, , Whether it is fair to say that Gundam is a celebration is debatable, but it is undoubtedly about hegemonic warfare.

David Vernal, who conducted an interview with Tomino as part of his research, states that: Tomino identifies factors such as miscommunication and obedience to ideology—both part of the Japanese conception of WWII—as causes of war, and develops them as themes that run through the various Gundam series , As a science fiction program, Gundam can avoid controversy and possibly the issue of responsibility that other more direct representations cannot.

Morris-Suzuki , notes that historical comics have been used to address contemporary issues critically in a way that avoids censorship. Science fiction can serve a similar function: In other words, a genre can tell something about society because of its nature. A large supportive audience is necessary for a television program, because it is the advertisers who pay for the production of the program. Because of this need for advertising in television, genres tend to be conservative in character and do not question the status quo much Strinati, , I intend to show that Gundam can be defined as a genre, and I think it reflects a mainstream narrative that does not examine specific issues of political responsibility yet is generally critical of war.

Meanwhile Kobayashi ignores the testimony of women who were involved and any corroborating documentary evidence Ueno, , Table 1 is a summary of most of the major Gundam television series, original animation videos OAV that are released direct to video, and feature films. It is not an exhaustive list but only excludes most OAVs and feature films that consist mainly of footage recycled from a television series.

I have used the title of each work as it is commonly given in English. Table 1. Tomino Yoshiyuki Mobile Suit Gundam: Film Dir. Strinati summarizes a number of useful ideas regarding genres. First of all, genres are products, manufactured for consumers, and must make a profit Rose, , 5 quoted by Strinati, , In order to make a profit, producers create products that balance familiarity and novelty Neale , Buscombe as cited by Strinati, , Genres develop over time because of the success of previous products; successful products inspire similar products by other producers which leads to standardization.

Verisimilitude can divided into two main types: Like all commercial animation, Gundam has an industrial mode of production like any mass-produced product; there are scores of people involved in the creation of a single episode of animation, each with their own specialized tasks.

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The very quantity of Gundam anime that has been produced suggests that Gundam has been profitable. Super robot programs featured fantastic, giant, super-powered humanoid robots that were often semi-sentient.

These programs were generally funded by toy companies and often acted as extended length toy commercials. In , Tomino was given the opportunity to create a new super robot anime. While keeping a number of the super robot narrative conventions intact, Tomino changed a number important details. The robot itself features superpowers and often has fantastical weapons.

Tomino kept the Gundam protagonist much the same: Amuro Ray is the teenaged son of the engineer who designed the Gundam mobile suit. The Gundam itself was also a brightly coloured giant robot featuring a wide variety of weapons. However, the changes were significant: Mobile Suit Gundam presented a serialized story with the Gundam being a manufactured weapon of war requiring maintenance rather than a superhero. Because of these changes, particularly the more complex storyline dealing with the moral ambiguity of war, Mobile Suit Gundam was cancelled before completing its entire run, demonstrating the difficulty of change in a genre.

After the series was cancelled, Bandai, a toy company, acquired the rights to make plastic models based on the series, and the models were extremely successful and are still today Uranaka, ; Mainichi Daily News, Gundam remains as an archetype of the genre.

The original Mobile Suit Gundam was not successful in part because it challenged the expectations of the super robot audience: To appeal to this market segment interested in military models, Gundam and other real robot anime, such as Macross and Patlabor, depend upon the generic verisimilitude of robots that are plausibly high tech pieces of hardware, usually military hardware. To maintain generic verisimilitude, some of the identifying features of the Gundam real robots mobile suits are: See Figure 1.

Also each new Gundam series requires the introduction of multiple new mobile suits that can be marketed and sold to the plastic model fans.

Generic verisimilitude also requires the story to follow the narrative conventions of the genre. Since the original Mobile Suit Gundam is a war story that takes place on the battlefield, it borrowed a number of its narrative conventions from the pilot manga described by Nakar The Japanese word mamoru meaning to defend or to protect is commonly heard in Gundam.

Finally, Nakar notes that the heroes of the pilot manga were always junior officers and that their superiors were often portrayed as cruel, overbearing, foolish or even corrupt ,69 ; this too is a common theme in Gundam. Of course, not only must Gundam possess generic verisimilitude, it must also have cultural verisimilitude. Unlike pilot manga, Gundam, especially the television series, is more constrained by the general anti-war sentiment of the Japanese public, because a television program has a wider audience than a manga.

As a battlefield drama Gundam needs to express an overt anti-war sentiment throughout the story. It does so by focusing on the personal dilemmas, conflicts, and motivations of the each individual characters as they fight. Narrative Conventions As established by Mobile Suit Gundam there are a number narrative conventions that the audience expects when watching a Gundam series.

This is particularly true of the various television series. It will be useful to summarize a few of the conventions that Gundam follows by providing a brief synopsis of Mobile Suit Gundam followed by an explanation of some of the archetypal tropes found in Gundam. Most of humanity is living in space colonies in Earth orbit.

Tensions between the colonies and the Earthbound government the Earth Federation led to a single cluster of colonies Zeon declaring its independence from Earth. War eventually broke out between Zeon and the Earth Federation. There were massive casualties especially on the Earth after Zeon dropped an empty space colony from orbit onto the Earth. The prologue concludes by saying the war is at a stalemate. Although not mentioned in the prologue, Zeon is supposed to have a significant tactical advantage in combat because it has mobile suits and the Earth Federation forces do not.

The story begins with a surprise and unauthorized attack by a Zeon reconnaissance team on an Earth Federation space colony, L7. The Zeons attack because they discover a new Federation secret weapon, the prototype mobile suit Gundam, at L7.

A young civilian, the protagonist Amuro Ray, is unexpectedly able to pilot the Gundam, and he battles the Zeon mobile suits in order to protect his friends.


The space colony was destroyed during the Zeon attack, and the White Base is crewed by a mix of junior officers and refugees from the colony. The first story arc follows the White Base as it tries to make it to the safety of a Federation base and then the Earth while being pursued by a Zeon force commanded by Char Aznable.

Char is depicted as an ace mobile suit pilot and experienced commander who inexplicably cannot sink the White Base with its ragtag crew and inexperienced mobile suit pilot. In episode 5, the White Base returns to the Earth, landing in Zeon controlled territory, and the ship on the run narrative continuous.

As the White Base flees the Zeon, there are several character developments. Amuro struggles with his responsibility as the primary defender of the White Base. Char, who is using an assumed name, is shown to be seeking revenge against the Zabi family.

By episode 29, The White Base has eventually made it safely to the Federation forces main base, and the tide of war has turned against Zeon with the introduction of mass produced mobile suits based on the Gundam prototype. The final story arc finds the White Base with the Gundam returning to space for the final push against the Zeon forces. There are a number of battles in space with mass casualties on both sides.

The character Lalah Sune is introduced to create a love triangle between her, Char, and Amuro. As the series closes out, Degwin Zabi, the Zeon head of state, is shown to be in a state of grief due to the death of his youngest son who was killed in battle with the White Base during episode With the death of his second son in battle, Degwin decides to negotiate a cease-fire with the Federation forces. The Zabi family collapses with the daughter killing her brother because he committed patricide.

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She in turn is killed by Char to complete his revenge. The series concludes with the Federation forces in victory. In Gundam, as with pilot manga, the main protagonist is usually quite young. Table 2. The pilot manga follows the tradition of the phantom enemy of Japanese war-time propaganda film: The manga author aids the reader in this discovery by having the American pilots speak Japanese using katakana.

Gundam takes this further by presenting its story from both sides, and the viewer is constantly reminded of the humanity of the combatants. Gundam does this in a number of ways. As an example from Mobile Suit Gundam, Dozel Zabi, the second son of Degwin Zabi, does not get much screen time during the series until the episode where he dies. He is shown parting from his wife and infant daughter as they are evacuated just before a Federation attack.

He is resigned to a hopeless defence of the Zeon base, because it is the life he has chosen as a soldier and a member of the Zabi family. As he enters what is to be his final battle, his thoughts go to his wife and daughter who he hopes have made it to safety.

He even goes so far as to allow his subordinates the option of remaining with him in the suicidal defence of the base or leaving.

The chief antogonist, Char pronounced syaa Aznable, has become an archetype in Gundam. WordPress Shortcode. Lykourgosnu Follow. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No.

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Book details Author: Kazuhisa Kondo Pages:This is an unanswerable question at the moment, but what is relevant to the present is the shaping of that memory to be. Although Kira and Athrun had once been best friends when they were children, in the course of war they found themselves as enemies. But no matter whether it was real or not, it was a fact that people like Syam were eliminated and dumped into outer space first.

As Tomino writes: Two of the three scenes feature the same character, Reccoa Londe. When the influence of the drugs wears off, they are then depicted as going through painful withdrawal symptoms, often surrounded by lab coat wearing doctors who seem show no hint of sympathy for their suffering. Crowley, James B. It was common to collide with space dust. Interestingly for me, a rebuttal letter is also reprinted on page which emphasizes that there are anime which explore the consequences of war on the lives of the characters.

As the station's orbit and the equator were at right angles, Laplace wouldnt orbit behind the Earth, but instead orbit such that the sun always shines on it.

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