ADMINISTRACION DE OPERACIONES KRAJEWSKI PDF
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That is why the membrane must be flush with your surface. Reflection and Transmission of Normally Incident Plane. Lists with This Book. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Emphasis on plane waves in the first partof the book keeps the mathematics simple yet accommodates a broadrange of topics: Showing of 15 reviews. Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract blacmstock followers and customers.
Detailed Development of the Acoustical Wave Equation. DTB, as he is know in the ME Faculty, is a physicist, a top notch one, who became an applied acoustician i. Todd Mcalpine marked it as to-read Aug 10, The author has written a comprehensive text. Ngambaye marked it as to-read Oct 08, Please try again later. Fundamentals of Physical Acoustics. Leah rated it liked it Jun 23, Request permission to reuse content from this site.
Emphasis on plane waves in the first part of the book keeps the mathematics simple yet accommodates a broad range of topics: Write a customer review. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway.
However, to sustain customer interests, it should also have a lower cost and higher reliability design for manufacturability. What are the pros and cons of this idea? What factors must be traded off by product development before introducing a new product?
KRAJEWSKI. Administración de Operaciones. Procesos y Cadenas de Valor.pdf
The factors that need careful attention for new products are product performance, development speed, product cost, and development program expense. Smith and Reinertsen identify six pairs of trade-offs in their book.
These include all possible pairs among the four factors noted above. How does the QFD approach help?
What are some limitations of the QFD approach? QFD helps to get the voice of the customer into the design process using interfunctional teams. The limitations of QFD relate to the culture of the organization. In the United States, we tend to be vertically oriented and try to promote breakthrough. This can work against interfunctional teamwork, which is needed for QFD success.
If a breakthrough culture can be maintained with a www. Product Design Process 41 continuous improvement mentality through interfunctional teams, this would lead to tremendous improvements in productivity. Tuff Wheels Kiddy Dozer a. Chapter 4 42 b. The results are shown below for both scenarios. The impact of changing the interest rate is shown below. There is still a positive NPV but it shrinks the interest rate increases. This would be expected since a higher the interest rate reduces the present value of future cash flows.
Product Design Process 43 2.
Perot Corporation Patay2 Chip. See results below. Chapter 4 44 c. Reduced sales estimates have a significant impact on the NPV. The success of the Patay2 Chip is very dependent on the sales estimates. It would be wise for Perot to make sure that there is sufficient demand for Patay2 Chips. Answers will vary based upon the product selected and the student.
Issues that should be considered in the design and manufacture of a product include design process traditional vs. Product Design Process 45 4. Answers may vary. Chapter 4 46 5.
This can be a fairly extensive assignment depending upon the amount of research students do into paddle manufacturing. Without doing any library or field study on the production process, students should be able to come up with a solution approximating the one given below. Product Design Process 47 2 Assembly chart www. Main Piece Operation number Operation description Dept. Setup time Pieces per hour Tools 10 Cut to size Saw 1.
Handle Facing Operation number Operation description Dept. Setup time Pieces per hour Tools 15 Cut to size Saw 0. Rubber Surface Operation number Operation description Dept. Setup time Pieces per hour Tools 16 Cut to size in batches of 24 Saw 0. Chapter 4 50 5. Process Flow Diagram. The capacity of the entire process is 5, units per week, with assembly line 1 limiting the overall capacity. Product Design Process 51 The capacity of the entire process is 8, units per week, with drilling machines limiting the overall capacity.
The capacity of the entire process is 9, units per week, with final assembly machines limiting t he overall capacity. Set them equal to each other and solve for X to determine the breakeven point. Therefore, it is better to buy the units when you produce less than ,, and better to produce them when demand is greater than , units.
If you kept any of your old exam grades from last semester, get them out and write down the grades. Use Exhibits TN4. If not, can you give some reasons why not? It would be. In other words, doing the same exact task over and over again. In this case, new material is covered from one exam to the next.
This change in material might impact on the learning curve. Technical Note 4 54 2. How might the following business specialists use learning curves: As a manager, which learning percentage would you prefer other things being equal , percent or 60 percent? Students tend at first glance to erroneously associate higher learning percentages with faster learning.
Relative to the percent learning rate, strict interpretation of this would mean that every time output doubles, production time per unit increases by 10 percent.
With a 60 percent learning rate, every time output doubles, production time per unit decreases by 40 percent. These statements can be verified by simple arithmetic. What difference does it make if a customer wants a 10, unit order produced and delivered all at one time or in 2, unit batches? Aside from the costs of resetup, undoubtedly some relearning is necessary each time one of the 2, unit orders is produced.
This would result in additional time and more material and other resource usage. What might be better and cheaper at least from a learning curve perspective is to produce the entire 10, unit order and simply deliver 2, units at a time to the customer. Ratio for 50th unit from Exhibit TN4. Unit Ratio Exhibit TN4.
Technical Note 4 56 3. For labor the following learning was experienced: From Exhibit TN4. This would assume no forgetting. However, the worst case would be total forgetting, which would imply that there was no benefit to having produced units 1 and 2.
This cost would be as follows. Complete forgetting: For 1,th unit from Exhibit TN4. Technical Note 4 58 6. Learning Curves 59 8. According to the following table, that doesn't occur until after car Unless each mechanic is going to service over 25 cars, it's not a good deal.
Technical Note 4 60 9. For the 22nd unit: Labor 4, Do not hire. Two factors determine if an individual will meet the 30 minute requirement for the 20th unit: Using tables such as Exhibit TN4. Compare this value to the required 30 minutes.
Concern is that the value of the learning rate is estimated from on two points. Learning Curves 61 Time for 1, units from Exhibit TN4. Since the average time per unit is less than 20 hours, take the contract.
We interpolate to find the factor for the 11th. For the 10th unit from Exhibit TN4. For the th unit from Exhibit TN4.
Technical Note 4 62 From TN4. Compare McDonald's old and new processes for making hamburgers. How valid is McDonald's claim that the new process will produce fresher hamburgers for the customers? Comparing McDonald's new process to the processes used by Burger King and Wendy's, which process would appear to produce the freshest hamburgers?
Exhibit 5. McDonald's old process was a make-to-stock, where orders were pulled from finished goods. However, McDonald's new process will assemble-to-order. Therefore, McDonald's claim of a fresher hamburger should hold. Burger King's process is a combination of McDonald's old and new processes.
The best Burger King can hope to do is match McDonald's with their orders that are assembled-to-order. The ones that are taken from finished goods will generally not be as fresh. Wendy's, on the other hand, should beat both McDonald's and Burger King on freshness, since they cook-to-order Make-to-order! State in your own words what Little's Law means. Think of an example that you have observed where Little's Law applies. Little's Law shows the relationship between throughput rate, throughput time, and the amount of work- in-process inventory.
Specifically, it is throughput time equals amount of work-in-process inventory divided by the throughput rate. Little's Law is useful for examining the performance of a process. Example 5. Explain how having more work-in-process inventory can improve the efficiency of a process? How can this ever be bad?
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More work-in-process inventory can be used to buffer multiple stage processes. Specifically, it can help with blocking or starving. Blocking is when the activities in the stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed.
Starving is when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work. Buffer inventories between operations can help relieve these problems, and improve the efficiency of the overall process. Increasing work-in-process inventory can be bad in that it involves more investment in inventory, as well as taking-up valuable floor space. Also, the JIT philosophy view work-in-process as being negative for a variety of reasons more on JIT in a later chapter.
Recently some Operations Management experts have begun insisting that simple minimizing process velocity, which actually means minimizing the time that it takes to process something through the system, is the single most important measure for improving a process. Can you think of a situation when this might not be true?
The problem with focusing exclusively on process velocity is that other dimensions might be ignored, such as quality or safety.
There are many examples. One would be if drying time was reduced, this might impact the quality of the process. Another example would be whiskey, reducing the aging time would probably impact its quality. Traditional method: Alternative method: Therefore, the traditional method is best.
The longest process on this "assembly line" will govern the output. Therefore, the maximum output from this line will be: Therefore, this line cannot produce the 2, students per week.
The average amount being supplied is only 2. The market will be shy by. One operator per project: The productivity of this option is also 1.
For the two operator approach, www. The first operator would be idle for an average of 10 minutes each project. The labor content for the first option is hours.
The second option requires hours of labor. Current plans are to make units of component A, then units of component B, then units of component A, then units of component B, etc, where the setup and run times for each component are given below. This packaging time is small enough that you can ignore it. What is the average hourly output, in terms of the number of units of packaged product which includes 1 component A and 1 component B?
Chapter 5 66 6. If we take the maximum of orders then: Orders are taken for 12 hours. Process Analysis 67 d. Orders are picked for 15 hours. Chapter 5 68 8. We can not handle all the customers by 5: The last customers are processed after National State closes their doors at 5: The maximum waiting time is A customer should complete service every.
The expected output is 3. But, after simulating this process, the actual output would be less due to the starving that takes place in the system. Why might practicing managers and industrial engineers be skeptical about job enrichment and sociotechnical approaches to job design?
Job enrichment by definition moves away from specialization, which, from a purely mechanical standpoint, is the most efficient way to work. Sociotechnical approaches include job enrichment as a design strategy and in addition emphasize worker and work group autonomy. Thus, managers and industrial engineers have legitimate concerns about the implications of these approaches on output, planning, and control.
Professors commonly complain to their families that book writing is hard work and that they should be excused from helping out with the housework so that they can rest. Which exhibit in this chapter should they never let their families see? Exhibit TN5. Thus, from a purely physical standpoint, professors cannot plead overwork on the job to avoid chores at home.
Is there an inconsistency when a company requires precise time standards and encourages job enlargement? This depends greatly on the job at hand. However, if the elements of the enriched job are well defined and standardized, there is no reason why objective standards cannot be set for enriched jobs. As an aside, it is worth emphasizing that work simplification notions are not incompatible with any of the behaviorally oriented approaches to job design.
Match the following techniques to their most appropriate application; a. Worker-machine chart a. Washing clothes at a Laundromat b. Process chart b. Tracing your steps in getting a parking permit c. Work sampling c. Faculty office hours kept www. Technical Note 5 70 5.
You have timed your friend, Lefty, assembling widgets. His time averaged 12 minutes for the two cycles you timed. He was working very hard, and you believe that none of the nine other operators doing the same job can beat his time. Are you ready to put this time forth as the standard for making an order of 5, widgets?
If not, what else could you do? The average time in hours for the first two cycles is. Since there are to be 5, widgets each requiring one cycle, then according to Exhibit TN5. Thus, six additional cycles should be timed. Comment on the following: We have automated our office, and now we run every bill through our computer after our 25 clerks have typed the data into our computer database.
Most large companies have specific policies on how standards are to be set and rarely would a union agree to the covert approach advocated in the above statement. Wage incentives should never be instituted until jobs are measured and standardized.
Organization wide financial incentive plans cover all the workers. Some units or individuals may have contributed more to corporate profits than others. Does this detract from the effectiveness of the incentive plan system? How would your incentive scheme for a small software development firm compare to an established auto manufacturing firm?
Employee participation is an important dimension of incentive plans. The contribution of units or individuals to corporate profits will naturally be different due to the law of diminishing marginal returns. This means that effective plans will be designed to generate productivity improvements across the entire organization. A small software development www. Job Design and Work Measurement 71 firm could likely get by with one general plan covering all employees, while a large automobile manufacturing company would likely apply different plans to the various parts of the organization.
We have used this exercise to illustrate the fact that the degree of correspondence to the guidelines for job design is a pretty accurate predictor of the general level of subjective satisfaction people have with their jobs.
Similarly, if a person ended up with a score of three or more, they probably found it to be a fairly satisfactory job. Technical Note 5 72 2. Job Design and Work Measurement 73 3. Time Assign Number 8: Random number Observation time 8: Technical Note 5 74 6.
Job Design and Work Measurement 75 9. Random number Observation time 9: What does the product-process matrix tell us? Where would you place a Chinese restaurant on the matrix? Products and processes are closely interrelated and both go through life-cycle stages. The stage in the lifecycle of the product will determine the process. The advantages of cost and flexibility can be combined through the adoption of Flexible Manufacturing Systems technology.
The Chinese restaurant case might be debatable since it involves both high volume and high variety. It has been noted that during World War II Germany made a critical mistake by having its formidable Tiger tanks produced by locomotive manufacturers, while American car manufacturers produced the less formidable U. Sherman tank. Use the product-process matrix to explain that mistake and its likely result.
The locomotive manufacturers likely used project technology and processes. This is low volume, high cost production. On the other hand, mass-producing automakers had the technology to make high volume at low per unit cost. How does the production volume affect break-even analysis?
A break-even analysis takes into account the production volume and the relevant cost of producing the volume by the available alternative processes. It calculates the relative profit or loss of the alternative processes, thus helping to decide which alternative to choose for a certain volume of production. What is meant by a process?
Describe its important features. A process means a set of tasks that transform input into useful outputs. The important features of process are a tasks, b flow of material and information , and c storage of material and information. Assembly chart answers may vary. Chapter 6 78 b. Flow process chart answers may vary.
Manufacturing Process Selection and Design 79 2. Chapter 6 80 2 Assembly chart www. Chapter 6 82 4 Process route sheets Part Name: Manufacturing Process Selection and Design 83 3. Chapter 6 84 The capacity of the entire process is 8, units per week, with drilling machines limiting the overall capacity.
The capacity of the entire process is 9, units per week, with final assembly machines limiting the overall capacity. Higher c. Lower 5. Not possible. Determine capacity analysis, look at moving from job shop to continuous flow production, price low and make up profits in volume, analyze production deadlines in order to determine labor needs i.
General Workforce Skill Skilled workforce. Lower skill levels. Statistical Process Control Less important. More important. Facility Layout Process, functional.
Product, line, flow.
Labor intensity assuming you mean of workers would probably increase as well depends on the level of automation. Ratio would increase in a flow shop because capital requirements are so much greater.
What kind of layout is used in a physical fitness center? Process layout—similar equipment or functions are grouped together, such as rowing machines in one area, and weight machines in another.
The exercise enthusiasts move through the fitness center, following an established sequence of operations. SLP is used to evaluate and include qualitative factors and does not require numerical flow of items between departments. CRAFT is a quantitative heuristic program that requires a quantitative measure of interdepartmental work or information flow. What is the objective of assembly-line balancing? How would you deal with the situation where one worker, although trying hard, is 20 percent slower than the other 10 people on a line?
The objective is to create an efficient balance between the tasks and workstations to minimize idle time. Also, faster workers may assist the slowpoke if the balance and physical features of the line permit. How do you determine the idle-time percentage from a given assembly-line balance? It is simply one minus efficiency, where efficiency is equal to the sum of the task times divided by the number of workstations times the cycle time.
What information of particular importance do route sheets and process charts discussed in Chapter 3 provide to the layout planner? Route sheets and process charts tell the layout planner the sequence of steps, the processing times, the equipment needed, and the delays and storage for the product to be made.
Clearly, this information is critical to planning effective use of plant facilities. What is the essential requirement for mixed-model lines to be practical?
The need to develop a cycle mix that minimizes inventory build-up while keeping cycle time constant. Facility Layout 89 7. Why might it be difficult to develop a GT layout?
Distinct parts families must exist. This requires developing and maintaining a computerized parts classification and coding system. This can be a major expense. Several of each type of machine must be available. This could be an expensive proposition, given the cost of purchasing and maintaining duplicate sets of machinery.
Taking a machine out of a cluster should not rob a cluster of all of its capacity. There may be parts that cannot be associated with a family and specialized machinery that cannot be placed in a cell because of its general use. Training personnel to perform multiple types of tasks may be initially difficult. Union regulations and interpersonal problems within a group working in a cell must be resolved before the cell is implemented.Design for manufacturability, on the other hand, makes the product design less complicated and easier to manufacture.
For the th unit from Exhibit TN4. Labor 4, Published Menlo Park, Calif. Chapter 4 50 5.