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THE SECRET OF HACKING PDF

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Some of the commontypes of computer network include: Local Area Network LAN This is a type of computer network where interconnected computers are situated veryclose to each other say for example, inside the same building.

Wide Area Network WAN This is a type of computer network where interconnected computers are separated by alarge distance a few km to few hundreds of km and are connected using telephone linesor radio waves. It is aglobal system of various interconnected computer networks belonging to government orprivate organizations.

This computer can be a terminal or a web serveroffering services to its clients. For example, twocomputers on a network can communicate only if they agree to follow the protocols.

The following are some of the most widely referred network protocols: Internet Protocol IP Address An Internet Protocol address IP address is a unique number assigned to each computeror device such as printer so that each of them can be uniquely identified on the network. A typical example of private IP address would be somethinglike An example public IP address would be something like Once acomputer is on the ISP network it will be assigned a public IP address using which thecommunication with the Internet is made possible.

Finding your public IP is extremely simple. Figure 2. It is one of the most widely used protocol on the Internet forrequesting documents such as web pages and images.

Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP toexchange messages between the server.

TelnetTelnet is a network protocol that allows you to connect to remote hosts on the Internet oron a local network. It requires a telnet client software to implement the protocol usingwhich the connection is established with the remote computer. In most cases telnet requires you to have a username and a password to establishconnection with the remote host.

Occasionally, some hosts also allow users to make connection as a guest or public. After the connection is made, one can use text based commands to communicate with theremote host. However, SSH has an upper hand over telnet in terms of security. Telnetwas primarily designed to operate within the local network and hence does not take care ofsecurity. On the other hand SSH manages to offer total security while connecting toremote hosts on a remote network or Internet.

Akin to telnet SSH also uses a client software and requires a username and password toestablish connection with the remote host. Each of these services are uniquely identified by a number called network port or simply referred to as port.

If a computer wants to avail a specific service from anothercomputer, it has to establish a connection to it on the exact port number where theintended service is running.

For example, if a terminal is to request a web document from a remote server using HTTP,it has to first establish a connection with the remote server on port 80 HTTP service runson port 80 before placing the request.

In simple words, port numbers can be compared to door numbers where each door grantsaccess to a specific service on a computer.

When data such as a mail, message or afile has to be transmitted between two hosts, it is fragmented into small structures calledpackets and are reassembled at the destination to make the original data chunk.

Since Internet is the mother of millions of computers each having a unique IP address, itbecomes impossible for people to remember the IP address of each and every computerthey want to access.

So, in order to make this process simpler the concept of domainnames was introduced. However, since the network protocol understands only the IP address and not the domainnames, it is necessary to translate the domain name back to its corresponding IP addressbefore establishing a connection with the target server.

This is where DNS comes inhandy. All this processwill happen in a split second behind the scenes and hence goes unnoticed.

How DNS Works? This request is oftenreferred to as a DNS query. The local name server will receive the query to find out whether it contains the matchingname and IP address in its database. If found, the corresponding IP address response isreturned. This process continues until the query reaches theDNS server that contains the matching name and IP address.

The IP address response then flows back the chain in the reverse order to your computer. The following figure 2. A firewall can be simply compared to a security guard who stands at theentrance of your house and filters the visitors coming to your place.

He may allow somevisitors to enter while deny others whom he suspects of being intruders. Similarly afirewall is a software program or a hardware device that filters the information packets coming through the Internet to your personal computer or a computer network.

How Firewall Works? Firewalls may decide to allow or block network traffic between devices based on the rulesthat are pre-configured or set by the firewall administrator. Most personal firewalls such asWindows firewall operate on a set of pre-configured rules which are most suitable undernormal circumstances, so that the user need not worry much about configuring thefirewall. The operation of firewall is illustrated in the below figure 2.

However, in order to meet customized needs large networks andcompanies prefer those firewalls that have plenty of options to configure. For example, a company may set up different firewall rules for FTP servers, telnetservers and web servers. In addition, the company can even control how the employeesconnect to the Internet by blocking access to certain websites and restricting the transfer offiles to other networks.

Thus, in addition to security, a firewall can give the company atremendous control over how people use their network. Firewalls use one or more of the following methods to control the incoming and outgoingtraffic in a network: 1. Packet Filtering: In this method, packets small chunks of data are analyzed against a set of filters. Packet filters has a set of rules that come with accept and deny actions which are pre-configured or can be configured manually by the firewall administrator.

If the packet manages to make it through these filters then it is allowed to reach the destination; otherwise it is discarded. Instead, it compares certain key aspects of each packet to a database of trusted source. Both incoming and outgoing packets are compared against this database and if the comparison yields a reasonable match, then the packets are allowed to travel further.

Otherwise they are discarded.

Firewall Configuration:Firewalls can be configured by adding one or more filters based on several conditions asmentioned below: 1. IP addresses: In any case, if an IP address outside the network is said to be unfavourable, then it is possible to set filter to block all the traffic to and from that IP address. For example, if a certain IP address is found to be making too many connections to a server, the administrator may decide to block traffic from this IP using the firewall.

Domain names: Since it is difficult to remember the IP addresses, it is an easier and smarter way to configure the firewalls by adding filters based on domain names. By setting up a domain filter, a company may decide to block all access to certain domain names, or may provide access only to a list of selected domain names.

Otherwise they are blocked using the firewall so as to prevent intruders from using the open ports for making unauthorized connections. Specific words or phrases: A firewall can be configured to filter one or more specific words or phrases so that both the incoming and outgoing packets are scanned for the words in the filter. For example, you may set up a firewall rule to filter any packet that contains an offensive term or a phrase that you may decide to block from entering or leaving your network.

Hardware vs. Software Firewall:Hardware firewalls provide higher level of security and hence preferred for servers wheresecurity has the top most priority. The software firewalls on the other hand are lessexpensive and hence preferred in home computers and laptops. Hardware firewalls usually come as an in-built unit of a router and provide maximumsecurity as it filters each packet at the hardware level itself even before it manages to enteryour computer. In the presence of a proxy server, there is no direct communication between the client andthe server.

Instead, the client connects to the proxy server and sends requests for resourcessuch as a document, web page or a file that resides on a remote server.

The proxy serverhandles this request by fetching the required resources from the remote server andforwarding the same to the client. How Proxy Server Works? An illustration of how a proxy server works is shown in the Figure 2.

Computational Techniques for Resolving Security Issues

An example of client can be a user operated computer that is connected to the Internet. Since it the proxy server which handles the requests betweenthe client and the target, only the IP address of the proxy server is exposed to the outsideworld and not the actual one.

Therefore, most hackers use a proxy server during theattacks on their target so that it would be hard to trace back to them. Compared to Windows operating system Linux is more secure, stable, reliable,multi-user capable and compatible with both server and desktop usage. This makes it oneof the most popular operating system next to Windows.

As an ethical hacker, it is most essential to have a sound understanding of the Linuxplatform, its usage and commands. Some of the best hacking scripts and programs are designed only for Linux.

LINUXIt is no doubt that Windows is the most popular desktop operating system known for itsuser friendliness and graphical user interface. As a result, most computer users across theworld are familiar with the Windows operating system but are new to Linux. Known for its security, stability, flexibility and portability. Widely used for desktop usage by home and office Widely used for server usage by enterprise and corporations.

The operating system is mainly based on graphical The operating system is mainly based on command useruser interface GUI. Designed to operate with only one user at a time. Designed to support simultaneous multi-user operation. More than 70, viruses are reported for Windows Only around viruses are reported for Linux till datetill date. Comes as commercial product and hence available Comes as an open-source and hence freely available. Hat, Debian, CentOS etc. Table 3.

You can choose from a widevariety of Linux distributions like Ubuntu, Fedora or Debian where each of them containtheir own collection of software and applications but shares a common Linux kernel. As abeginner you can choose Ubuntu as it easy to install and user friendly. One is to install the operating systemon to the hard drive just like you do it for the Windows.

However, this method requires aprior experience of installing and configuring the operating systems. This in fact is a good alternative to installationand provides an easy way to get Linux running on your system without modifying any ofits previous settings and existing file system.

But this option does not save your workupon shutting down your computer and hence suitable only for usage like penetrationtesting and learning. One of my favourite distribution for hacking and penetration testing is Kali Linux.

This should give you a bootable live Kali DVD. For yourreference, I have used the bit 1. He posted about the source code that he developed in theMinix news group.

The feedback was good and the source code started to spread aroundthe world via FTP and over the years Linux became a very popular operating system. Today, many great network programs, security tools and servers including DNS, Emailand Web server are being developed for Linux by programmers and hackers around theworld. Kernel is the core component which lies at the heart of the operating system that directly interacts with the hardware using the machine language.

Figure 3. Tools and Applications reside on the outer crust and gives user most of the functionalities of an operating system. Linux Directory Structure A directory structure is the way in which the file system and its files of an operatingsystem are displayed to the user.

People who are new to the Linux operating system andthe structure of its File System often find it troublesome and messed up in dealing withthe files and their location. So, let us begin to explore some of the basic information aboutthe Linux File System. Any standard Linux distribution has the following directory structure as shown below: Figure 3. Alsocontains file and commands required to run in single user-mode such as: ls, ping, grep etc.

It also contains start-up andshutdown shell scripts used to start or stop individual programs. Examples of such files include log files,print queues, lock files and temp files. Linux CommandsAll commands in Linux are typed in lowercase and are case sensitive. It is a program similar to the command prompt ofMicrosoft Windows where a user can run the commands and get the results displayed.

Best Hacking Books & Hacking Tutorials Available for Free Download in PDF 2019

Penetration Testing Essentials This book covers a broad range of topics for the beginning pentester. The following is a list of the chapters with a brief description of what each focuses on. The general rationale for penetration testing as well as giving an idea of the skills and knowledge required to be successful. Download Now Security This book assumes that you are a competent computer user. That means you have used a computer at work and at home, are comfortable with email and web browsers, and know what words like RAM and USB mean.

For instructors considering this as a textbook, that means students will have had some basic understanding of PCs but need not have had formal computer courses. Hackers Beware This book is designed to provide information about computer security. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied.

Network Performance and Security This book is intended to help you practically implement real-world security and optimize performance in your network. Network security and performance is becoming one of the major challenges to modern information technology IT infrastructure. Practical, layered implementation of security policies is critical to the continued function of the organization.

Modern Web Penetration Testing This book targets security professionals and penetration testers who want to speed up their modern web-application penetration testing. It will also benefit intermediate-level readers and web developers, who need to be aware of the latest application-hacking techniques.

To make matters worse, the information stolen had not been properly protected by VTech before the hack took place. Python Web Penetration Testing Cookbook This book contains details on how to perform attacks against web applications using Python scripts. CompTIA Cybersecurity This book will help you to assess your knowledge before taking the exam, as well as provide a stepping-stone to further learning in areas where you may want to expand your skill set or expertise.

Wireshark for Security Professionals Wireshark is the tool for capturing and analyzing network traffic.

Originally named Ethereal but changed in , Wireshark is well established and respected among your peers. But you already knew that, or why would you invest your time and money in this book. I leave that to others to explain.

Best Free Hacking Books PDF Related To Security and Pentesting

Honeypots and Routers Collecting Internet Attacks This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use.

Practical Information Security Management This book looks at just one of the myriad career paths you could opt for if you want to get started in security: information security manager ISM. Information security management is a tough subject to master and there are dozens of standards and guidelines that explain what you need to do to secure your organization, without explaining how to do it.

Phishing Dark Waters Social engineering. Those two words have become a staple in most IT departments and, after the last couple of years, in most of corporate America, too. It encompasses gaining access to computer systems and retrieving data.

An old analogy is that of a cold war spy who picks the lock on a house, sneaks in, takes pictures of documents with his secret camera, and gets out without leaving a trace. A Hacker Numbers of books are being released every year with the sole purpose of teaching people how to become a hacker. Throughout the years, I read many of them to analyze their teachings. The more I read these books, the more I realized that they were missing a lot of demonstrations for the reader.

Even when some of these examples were presented in the book, they were not broken in a step-by-step formation. Hacker School The Hacker Highschool Project is a learning tool and as with any learning tool, there are dangers.

Some lessons, if abused, may result in physical injury. Some additional dangers may also exist where there is not enough research on the possible effects of emanations from particular technologies. Students using these lessons should be supervised yet encouraged to learn, try, and do.

Or special commands that help you get even more out of the site than you could before. Cool stuff like that—and more. Automated Credit Card Fraud For several years the Honeynet Project and Alliance members have been monitoring individuals using the Internet to trade or deal in stolen credit card information.

Black Book of Viruses and Hacking This first of three volumes is a technical introduction to the basics of writing computer viruses.

It discusses what a virus is, and how it does its job, going into the major functional components of the virus, step by step.

Several different types of viruses are developed from the ground up, giving the reader practical how-to information for writing viruses. You can use the Table of Contents to find the area of immediate interest.

Or, you can look at the Index to find a particular word or concept. Feel free to just skip around until you find the information you seek. Cracking Passwords Guide This document is for people who want to learn to the how and why of password cracking. I do my best to provide step by step instructions along with the reasons for doing it this way. Other times I will point to a particular website where you find the information. In some cases source code is available but the original developers who created it are unavailable.Saves Time As a business owner, your time is money, and you cannot spend too many days to get done with a project.

Black Hat Hacker: A black hat hacker also known as cracker is someone who always uses his skills for offensive purposes. Processes are divided into three regions: Text, Data, and Stack. The last part of that exchange uses the QuickUp protocol. The traceroute tool is available on both Windows and Linux. LINUXIt is no doubt that Windows is the most popular desktop operating system known for itsuser friendliness and graphical user interface.

It is a program similar to the command prompt ofMicrosoft Windows where a user can run the commands and get the results displayed. If the packet manages to make it through these filters then it is allowed to reach the destination; otherwise it is discarded. This in fact is a good alternative to installationand provides an easy way to get Linux running on your system without modifying any ofits previous settings and existing file system.

KATHARYN from Missouri
Look through my other posts. I have a variety of hobbies, like textiles. I enjoy studying docunments longingly .