Religion Teach Yourself Romanian Pdf


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myavr.infoan - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Basic Romanian Language Lessons / Peace Corps Moldova. 1. AN INTRODUCTORY We are trying to use nontraditional teaching techniques that are based on listening and conversational .. Exercise 2: Introducing yourself. - Bună ziua!. The good folks at Live Lingua have put together and made available for free download online the Romanian Peace Corps Language Course.

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Dennis Deletant, Yvonne Alexandrescu myavr.infote. ISBN: , | pages | 7 Mb. Download Teach Yourself Romanian Complete Course. Teach Yourself Romanian Complete Course Dennis Deletant, Yvonne Alexandrescu ebook. Page: Dennis Deletant, Yvonne Alexandrescu. Teach Yourself Romanian Complete Course. ISBN:

Ce fel de vin. Like his contemporary Stephen the Great hefought against the Turks to keep Wallachia independent Contemporaries wrote of his extreme cruelty towards prisoners.

Ai nevoie de ceva? His notoriety led the nineteenth-century novelist Bram Stoker to borrow the name of Dracula for the principal character in his horror story of the same name. The best known of these are remembered by the Romanians for their attempts to defend their domains against invaders from the north nord and south sud such as the Poles polonezi and Turks turd.

Prince of Moldavia. Moldavia and Wallachia were created in the s and both were ruled by Romanian princes domnitori. Dialogue George asks Ion about how and when to buy some food. True or false? Exercises 1 2 Listen to. De ce? Fill in the right time: Use as many adjectives as possible. Q 8 Translate into Romanian. Write down in figures each of the amounts mentioned. It has not always been possible to reflect these changes in the texts and dialogues. If you do not have the recording write in full the numerals Q 1 On the recording you will hear George counting money.

Q 2 Formulate questions to match these answers: Cum merg spre o farmacie? Sunt englez. Can we go on foot? How long will it take us to get to the station if we go on foot? Stai mult? Where can we get tickets from? We do not have time to queue up. Q 8 Translate into Romanian: We need bus tickets. In the newspapers you'll find advertisements offering different things for hire or for rent.

You can rent cars. Before you start In Romania. To let: The is called the definite article. Grammatically speaking.. Unlike in English. Adopting the pattern of presentation of a forms in Units 2 and 3. We are at the post office. Sunt la hotel. She is at the swimming pool. I am at the hotel in my room. Mergem cu metroul. As pointed out in Unit 4 words indicating position or direction like pe or spre do not require a form for the.

We are going on the underground. We are leaving by car. Ea este la bazin. President Popescu. Here are some more examples of male titles: Nicu becomes Nicule! Radu becomes Radule! Dan becomes Dane! Mihai remains Mihai! Note the unusual: With feminine names either the indefinite form is used as in the following: Mrs Enescu!

Miss Popescu. Dr Popescu. Mr Popescu. I Mrs Popescu. Here are its forms: Here they are again.

We have already used some reflexive forms in Unit 3: I wash myself. Ma means myself. In the plural we may find either: The reflexive pronouns in Romanian are: Myself is called a reflexive pronoun in English. You already know these forms in Romanian from Unit 4.

How do we say? Cum se spune? How do we Cum se traduce? Cum se scrie? How do we write? Cum se cere? How do we ask for? In this unit we shall meet two verbs which are reflexive in Romanian but not in English. A se uita belongs to the first type of verb ending in -a: This special form of the verb is known technically as the subjunctive and it differs from the nonsubjunctive so-called indicative forms which you have met up to now only in the third person. They are: Here are some examples.

Two of the most common are a trebui to have to. In the present tense a trebui has a single form: Tot can mean too. Ana merge tot la cinema. Moldavia and Transylvania. From Michael the Brave to Carol I One of thefigures of history whom the Romanians celebrate is Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazul who for the briefest of periods at the beginning of the seventeenth century brought all Romanians together under one ruler.

It does not often correspond to its equivalent in English. In the rump of Moldavia and Wallachia were united and were given the name Romania.

This was the first time that the Romanians in all three provinces were nominally united. Note their position in Romanian. Below are some examples. Ana merge la cinema. In Michael was murdered and each of the three provinces reverted to separate rule. In the eastern half of Moldavia. Both are commonly used in everyday speech with other meanings.

Ana tot merge la cinema. George is still watching the film. George is going too. After he came to the throne of Wallachia in Michael rose against the Turks and defeated them in the same year. Ann keeps going to the cinema. In the province of Dobrogea Dobrogea on the Black Sea. George merge. It remained under Russian rule until Ann is going to the cinema too. Do you want another cup of coffee? Are you going to stay any longer? Nu am.

Exercises 1 Listen to the dialogue and answer the following questions. Write the form with the in Romanian for each noun. This expansion o f Romania was literally crowned three years later by the coronation o f Charles.

If you do not have the recording refer to the text. E scump? Nu este comod: O 7 Translate into English: Unde este un restaurant? Unde este restaurantul? Grammar 1 The future In Unit 5, you saw that the present tense could be used in Romanian to express the near future: Here are examples using the verb types seen previously.

To help you use the correct feminine form of the noun with unei just remember that it is always the same as the plural. To indicate of or to with plural nouns both un and o change to the same form unor: Here are some examples with, for comparison, the un and o forms. There is no special form of. Dau bani unui prieten. I am giving money to a friend.

Trimitem un pachet unor We are sending a packet to colegi. De ce nu scrii unei Why don't you write to a girl prietene?

The of forms also denote possession: And so just as the endings of nouns change to indicate the to and of forms, so too do those of adjectives accompanying the nouns. Study these examples of adjectives used with the nouns given above: Remember that they are all masculine: Here is a list of further expressions of time: Other expressions: Unde este Ana? Where is Ana? Where is George going?

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He is going to Romania. She is in Romania. Unde merge Elena? De unde vine ea? Ea vine din Romania. Where is Helen going? She is going to Bucharest. Where is he coming from? He is coming from London. During the reigns of Ferdinand. Ea este din Londra. She is from Romania. Thus in the dialogue we will meet the phrase: She is from London.

De unde vine el? El vine de la Londra. Note these other examples: Prietenul de la mare este The friend who was at the american. The provinces of Transylvania. Ea este din Romania. Compare din Anglia. Where is she coming from? She is coming from Romania. Ai dreptate. The complete subjugation subjugare of Romania to the Soviet Union was marked by King Michael's forced abdication abdicare in December and the proclamation proclamare of the Romanian People's Republic. Carol II and Michael This involved the abolition of all institutions and the creation of new ones.

At the end of the Second World War in Soviet troops occupied Romania and the first steps were taken to communize the country.

Exercises 1 Listen to the dialogue and identify the correct answer. Write the form with of a. Example a: Este biletul unui domn. Q 8 Replace the present tense with the future. Dau un telefon unor prieteni. In this unit you will learn what has happened? What have you done with f Example: What have you done with the housei Key words and phrases acrobat.

I did work ai lucrat you have worked. I worked. This unit looks at the forms of the past tense. These are made up by combining reduced forms of a avea to have with a special form of the verb known as the past participle.

How do you mean? You have already been introduced to the present and future forms of verbs.. With infinitives ending in -a and -i the past participle is formed by adding -t. I did go ai mers you have gone. I went. I saw. I did wish ai dorit you have wished.

The infinitive ending in -ea is replaced by -ut as is. Other infinitives ending in -e replace the ending with -s. Have you got many things to buy? Note these unusual forms a fi am fost I was. Here are some examples of their past tense forms: These verbs were introduced in Unit 7.

Ce-ai spus? What did you say? Ce-a spus? What did he say? I have five books to read. To indicate to the and of the you have to add endings to the Romanian noun which differ according to whether the noun is masculine.

Here are some examples with. Unlike in English there are no separate words for to the. Apartamentul lui Radu Radu's flat is to let. Feminine names in -a may either be preceded by lui or have the ending -ei: Ann is giving the money to orphanage. You will find further examples in the dialogue.

Geamantanul lui George George's case hasn't arrived. And the of the forms are used to denote possession: In Romanian. Thus they follow the noun which is always in the definite article form and adapt their own forms to it by adding a variety of endings. The possessive adjectives are: George looks at his watch.

George said that he wanted a flat. George vrea un apartament. They are called pronouns. Unde este gara? Lui and ei do not change their form. George wants a flat. Where is the station?

She asked where the station was. In other words. Azi m-am trezit devreme.

Illegitimate births soared and many young children were placed in orphanages orfelinate. At the same time.

He took office in and continued the policy of his predecessor Gheorghe Gheorgiu-Dej of developing Romania's industry Industrie. He has a story to tell about his new flat. Enormous food queues cozi were a feature of daily life in the towns and cities and in the winter of quotas were introduced for the domestic consumption of gas and electricity.

Most homes could be barely heated in winter.. By there were almost George este. Exercises 1 Listen to the dialogue and answer the questions. If you do not have the recording consult the text. Am sunat la vecin. Unde ai a pune cartea profesorului? Unde ai pus cartea profesorului? Translate into English: Complete the blanks using the correct reflexive pronouns.

Replace the verbs in brackets using the past participle. Translate into Romanian: Dau un telefon domnului Popescu. Dau un telefon domnul Popescu. Key words and phrases a ajuta aprovizionat. Happy Christmas and Happy New Year. It means literally here's to many more years and is most commonly used as a toast to celebrate a festive occasion. It can mean Happy Birthday.

As you have read in Unit 5 page 45 Romanian requires adjectives to adapt their forms of those of the noun and so acest and acel will change to agree with the noun. Geamantanul acestui This friend's suitcase is heavy.

Grammar 1 'This' and 'that1 The word for this in Romanian is acest and for that is acel. Romanian well When they follow a noun acest and acel carry more emphasis.

Note that when they are placed after the noun. Grammatically speaking. Here are some examples of their use before a noun. Acela este un politician abil. This is my glass. These Americans speak Romanian well. Acelea sunt biletele voastre. Those are their clothes.

Acesta and acela may also stand on their own to mean this and that. Cafeaua aceasta nu are zahar. That wine is better. Acesta este paharul meu. These are most frequently found in the following forms: Vinul acela este mai bun. That man is an able politician. In conversation. Acelea sunt hainele lor. In such cases they are known as demonstrative pronouns.

Those are your tickets. On that day I went to the restaurant. This is our money. I hit you. The feminine forms a cea sta. That worries me. What am I to do with these? These cars are wrecks. The same Romanian forms for myself yourself. When you use the past tense. I am coming to see them. I am coming to see him.

Some of them have shortened forms Thus: She is inviting us to the theatre. He'll drop me off at the station. We left her at the hotel. These pronouns are: I'll be seeing her tomorrow. Since all these words are found as objects of an action.

They want to take them f by car. I couldn't find my shoes. Didn't you see her yesterday? Compare this use with that of the other pronouns. I've paid the money already.

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Banii i-am dat deja. Am dat deja banii. They are used for emphasis and only when the noun precedes the verb. As for the money. Problema n-am rezolvat-o. I've paid that over already. In such situations. I found the clothes. I haven't solved it.

Are you going to decide on the food menu you are going to give them yourself? Compare the normal word order: Study these examples: As for clothes. She is coming to see me. Here they are with their unstressed equivalents in brackets. The apples. Regarding the problem. They are always used together with the unstressed forms introduced above and can never be substituted for them. Ann bought the apples. Ana bought them. You will see that the stressed forms are all preceded by pe which has no equivalent in English.

Neither these forms nor pe can be translated into English. I'll ask Mr Porter. They got it for you. It's quiet in your house lit. I'll ask Maria. These same stressed forms follow prepositions such as with. Examine these examples carefully: Sometimes the stressed form precedes the verb for extra emphasis: Pe mine m-a ignorat ea Me she ignored completely.

It's him we'll ask. Look at these examples. There's a great deal of kindness in him. At you there is quiet. Ea vine cu noi. She is coming with us. La dvs. Ei au luat-o pentru tine. I met those girls. Pe may also be found with words introducing questions such as cine who. In written usage you are more likely to find a different compound.

Cine a sosit? Who has arrived? Pe cine ai chemat? Whom did you summon? He won't leave without us. I met the girls. They will have a wash in the evening.

L-am condus pe studentul I accompanied the american.

American student. I accompanied the student. We'll know tomorrow. I'll know tomorrow.

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After pe the the form of the noun is not used unless the noun is followed by a name or by another qualifying word. L-am condus pe student. Radu George Radu Radu George.

A provisional government was formed and it immediately took steps to improve living conditions. Shortly afterwards resistance by the secret police ceased. George Eu. Now we need reason. On the following day. Multi-party elections were held for the first time in over 40 years in May and the National Salvation Front.

In December Pe cine va invita? George Prieteni.

Ca de obicei. George E foarte ocupat.. Fighting began in Bucharest and other major towns between the army. Food was withdrawn from export and put on sale in the shops. If you do not have the recording study the text of the dialogue. George Exercises 1 Listen to the recording and answer the following questions in English. George Avem ce este mai important pentru tineri: Acest tren merge la Cluj.

Acesta merge la Cluj. I was reading etc. Verbs ending in -a or -ea follow one pattern. I have worked is translated by am lucrat. This form of a lucra is known as ths past tense. I used to work. Where the action that takes place in the past is nai completed. In this unit. They add -am. Since all these words are found as indirect objects of an action.

Here are the forms: There are a number of important verbs which do not follow the above patterns. He wants to tell them something. He sends me parcels frequently.

Ne spune minciuni. We'll pay you. The forms of ne. I'm not giving you anything.

He wants to tell us something. He wants to tell you something. Ei nu ne-au trimis bani They haven't sent us any luna aceasta. Here are some examples of their use: He tells us lies. What am I to say to him tomorrow? You will note that to her. Ne plac cursurile. I like chocolate. I need a knife. English money. Possession is also commonly expressed by using the pronouns to me.

I like swimming. In such cases the noun is usually in the the form: Imi place ciocolata. Did you tell the driver to wait? I like the dresses. A trebui has to be used in the manner it is necessary to me which means that it has a fixed form: We like the courses.

They liked the speeches.

We need extra investments. Note that you can also say: He sold his someone else's flat. Mi-e foame. In certain constructions introduced in English by J. The most common are: He sold his flat. He found a taxi for me on the corner.

Do not confuse the above example with: I am thirsty. I'm buying myself a hamburger.


I am hungry. The noun may also be used in the a form: Tot is an adjective and therefore when it stands next to a noun it makes its form agree.

The noun. Cadourile tuturor copiilor All the children's presents are sunt sub pom. Are you warm? I am sleeping. It is difficult for you.. We are cold. Mi-e somn. I miss. I feel ill. Masculine the whole year all Englishmen. Ne e frig. The forms of tot can also be used on their own: Everything you do is mistaken.

Its original Romanian inhabitants were joined in the tenth century by Hungarians and in the late twelfth century by Germans. To the east. Romania's capital Bucharest lies in the centre of the region.

T the east of Transylvania is Moldavia Moldova. Romania's chief port. D The regions of Romania Romania has five principal regions.

The fifth region is the Banat. In The Republic should not be confused with the rest of Moldavia which has remained part of Romania. The soldiers are courageous. Transylvania is the largest of the regions and is bounded on its eastern and southern flank by the Carpathian mountains which in the past offered a natural defence against invasion from the East. Ba da. Mergeam zeci de kilometri pe jos.. Nu pot uita! Nu mi-ai spus unde este teatrul.

Exercises 1 Listen to. Tu 10 Use all the persons of the verb. Put the past tense verbs in the previous exercise into the present. Supply the answer following the example. Modify Exercise 7 following the example. Nu-mi spui. As soon as you get on friendly terms with a Romanian you are likely to want to know his or her likes or dislikes. You will find the following conversational gambits useful: Do you like sitting in the sun? Before you start In Unit I like the theatre.

I like to go to exhibitions. I don't like war films. Just as me and you have in Romanian separate forms for emphasis. Grammar 1 Saying 'to me'. The use of the emphatic forms is optional but you will never find them in place of the unstressed forms and they are usually used with them. You will see from the examples that the emphatic forms may either precede or follow the verb. It suits me. It's enough for me. To help you associate the unstressed and emphatic forms of to me and to you the former are reproduced for reference in brackets see the box on the next page: Further uses of the emphatic forms Certain prepositions such as because of and thanks to are followed by the emphatic forms of to me and to you.

I like using this textbook. I promised her too that we would go. The three principal examples are: In Unit It doesn't suit them for us to raise this problem. The emphatic sie corresponding or ei: She sent me the money.

He wanted to give her the permission. I told you not to leave without me. Ea mi-a trimis banii. These reduced forms are also used. Here are a number of examples: For simplicity's sake we will call an impersonal verb one which does not have a person as its subject. We were given many books. I was told that they had arrived. Since both these verbs are reflexive in Romanian. This is a common practice in Romanian and requires the use of the reduced forms of to me. We became ill.

Mi se cuvine. This is my due. IO 3 Saying 'I would' To use a verb in its would form in Romanian we simply place auxiliary forms in front of the infinitive without a. Nothing was offered to them. Do you miss Romania? He got hungry. Nu li s-a oferit nimic. They became sleepy. The same reduced forms of to me. I said that I would come. In conversation would can also be rendered by the imperfect was forms: De ce nu le-ai scris? Puteai sZWhy didn't you write to themf le scrii? You could have written to them?

You could have written to them. In reported speech in English you may meet statements containing would which is expressed by the future in Romanian: Nobody loves us. The mountains also provide several excellent centres for winter sports.

Nu iubesc pe nimeni. Nor do we want to go. I don't love anyone. Can't you hear anything? It has been o spared the excesses of over-hunting characteristic of some of Romania's neighbours and there are still many brown bears. Cassettes can be obtained with the book. They seem helpful though I have rarely used them since I am generally surrounded by Romanian speakers.

There are a few drawbacks to the book. The author strangely thinks that Romanian does not have stress. In fact, he says Romanians emphasise each syllable of a word evenly, when they simply don't. As a result, the stress of vocabulary is not indicated, except in the table of verbs in an appendix.

One must therefore invest in a good dictionary that marks stress. There are some typos as well, but not more than in the usual Teach Yourself publication. One rather odd aspect of the book is the negative tone of some many example sentences.

Illustrating grammatical points with bits like "There were more than corpses there", "The eggs in the market are never fresh", "No matter how much you try you won't succeed", and "He was as stupid as he was ugly" gives a rather morbid tone to the book.

And of course there's a slanderous dialogue in chapter seven that will make the student think Romania is a third-world country where all hotels are falling apart. I should mention that in addition to this book one should obtain a reference grammar.For simplicity's sake we will call an impersonal verb one which does not have a person as its subject.

Fill the squares in the puzzle with the correct Romanian words. Unde este gara? Unde este Ana? We have already used some reflexive forms in Unit 3: How much does that cost? This makes it relatively easy to read texts in Romanian of a non-literary nature, in particular, newspapers. Avei Copii? London is in the south-east of England Britain. Dialogue The dialogue should be read in conjunction with the Key words.

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