# FUNDAMENTALS OF RF AND MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS PDF

A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers. This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF. This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power. ear properties of the bipolar or field-effect transistors, their equivalent circuit elements are and broadband RF and microwave power amplifiers using bipolar or. MOSFET Chapter 6 represents the fundamentals of the power amplifier de-.

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Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers / Inder Bahl. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (cloth). 1. Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers [Inder Bahl] on Amazon .com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date. this is your one-stop guide to RF and microwave transistor power amplifiers. HCI are fundamental to the design of LDMOS and VDMOS transistors. http:// myavr.info

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If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. Inder J. First published: Print ISBN: About this book A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage.

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Optimum load impedance can be selected to maximize the magnitude of the negative input resistance of the oscillator [11]. Figure 4. Similarly, in order to differentiate equation Select a suitable RF transistor to oscillate at the desired frequency. The maximum frequency of oscillation, fmax, for the transistor should be greater than the desired oscillation frequency.

The maximum frequency of oscillation represents the frequency at which the maximum power gain of the transistor drops to 0 dB. Perform DC simulation to sketch the input and output characteristics of the RF transistor in order to select a suitable Q-point.

Determine the transistor configuration and design the bias network. Perform large-signal S-parameter simulation by tracing the transistor S-parameter variation with input signal power level at the desired frequency. This simulation process is useful in viewing the threshold power level at which the large signal S- parameters deviate from their small signal counterparts. Test the stability factor of the amplifier Equation 6 , and sketch the output stability circle at the desired frequency.

If the circuit is stable, or the instability region is to be extended, series or parallel feedback elements can be inserted for such a task. Simulate the circuit using large-signal S-parameter technique at the desired frequency and a specified power level in the input port with RL and XL as sweeping variables.

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From the generated curves, select an optimum value of RL and XL for a better compromise between the performance parameters of the circuit.

A initial estimation of RL opt and XL opt can be evaluated from equations 17 and 27 based on the small-signal Z-parameters of the RF device. Simulate the circuit using the harmonic balance or large-signal S-parameter technique to display the variation of device input impedance with input power level.

Determine the input impedance Rin and Xin for the required output power level and linearity. The resonator impedance Zr is found from equation 3. Design of a MHz Oscillator Circuit In order to test the effect of the load impedance on the large signal behavior of the RF oscillator, an oscillator circuit is to be designed and implemented at the MHz mobile communication band GSM Throughout the simulation process of the circuit, some concluding remarks are extracted concerning the evaluation of the optimum load impedance.

This transistor has a unity gain-bandwidth frequency, fT, of 5 GHz, typical power gain of 10 dB at 1 GHz, and a minimum noise figure of 2. The selected Q-point represents a compromise between low noise figure and high gain characteristic.

The microwave computer program Advanced Design System ADS has been utilized in the simulation process for this oscillator. For an emitter current of 10 mA, the measured base-emitter voltage is 0.

Test of Device Instability A small signal S-parameter test for the active device can be carried out to view the load stability circle at the desired oscillation frequency. This is helpful to check if the active device requires additional feedback to present negative resistance at the input.

It is clear also from this sketch that the stability circle covers a large part of the upper half of the Smith chart which means that XL should be taken as inductive reactance to sustain oscillation. Figure 6. Load Stability Circle on the Smith Chart. Large Signal S-parameter Simulation Large signal S-parameter evaluation can give an indication about the input power level at which these parameters deviate from their small signal values.

This is useful in determining the required power level of the input port at the oscillation point. Figure 7. It is noticed that the large signal S-parameters change after an input signal level of -5 dBm approximately. It is also clear from Fig. To overcome this problem, ZL should be selected to maximize the magnitude of the input reflection coefficient, or to make the magnitude of the negative input resistance quite large.

Figure 8. Variation of S21 with Input Power Figure 9. Variation of S11 with Input Power 6.

The RF transistor is characterized with its nonlinear SPICE model, and the large signal scattering parameters are evaluated for a certain power level -3 dBm at the input port. Figure It is seen from this sketch that the optimum value of RL for maximum negative resistance differs in the three cases of XL. This means that RL opt is a function of XL in addition to the large signal device parameters.

The difference in values is referred to the effect of deviation in the large signal Z-parameters for the simulated circuit. Table 1.

Its value reaches about 1. It is noticed from Fig. This means that the optimum load resistance RL opt takes different values for optimum load power and maximum negative resistance conditions respectively. It is seen from this sketch that the optimum value of XL for maximum negative resistance differs in the three cases of RL. This means that XL opt is a function of RL in addition to the large signal device parameters. It is noted from the sketches of Fig.

## transistor amplifiers

There is a slight difference in their values for the two cases. The value of ZL opt for maximum negative input resistance does not necessarily coincide with its value for maximum output power as indicated from the previous simulations. This is referred to the nonlinear behavior of the RF device under large signal conditions.

Determination of the Input Impedance To determine the large signal input impedance and other predictable characteristics of the oscillator at the desired oscillation point, a simulation test setup is carried out to 16 Journal of Engineering and Development Vol. In this schematic, the output matching network is inserted at the output to present the optimum load impedance to the oscillator output port at MHz.

It is noticed that the characteristic in Fig.

So, at relatively high power levels in the input port, the circuit may fail to oscillate. At this power level, the input reflection coefficient is about 1.

At this point the output power is relatively high but not deeply saturated. Variation of Negative Input Resistance Figure This circuit has been designed using the Smith chart tool of ADS.

## Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers

The two capacitors are necessary to tune the frequency of the practical oscillator circuit. The Designed Resonator Network 6. Oscillator Performance Evaluation and Testing Up to this stage, the oscillator circuit has been designed to oscillate at MHz with a load power of more than 11 dBm.

This circuit needs computer simulation with the ADS harmonic balance simulator to view its performance characteristics. The selected Microstrip substrate is the epoxy-glass FR-4 which has a relative dielectric constant of 4. The tangent loss of this substrate is about 0. The Microstrip line lengths and widths were tuned for practical purposes. The obtained frequency of the output signal is As shown from Fig.

Simulated Output Voltage Waveform of Figure The input resistance and reactance of the active device are evaluated from equations The upper ground of the board was connected with the lower ground through VIA holes to reduce the RF ground currents.

## Engineering: RF, Microwave, Radar, Radio

Capacitors C1 and C2 were implemented by using high quality ceramic trimmer capacitors to adjust the frequency of oscillation for the circuit. The shorted stub at the output matching network was connected to ground through a pF bypass capacitor.

The output signal is taken from an SMA connector soldered between the output of the circuit and the ground plane. The practical attainable frequency is As depicted from this plot, the second harmonic level is about 22 dBc below the fundamental signal component.

Layout of the Printed Circuit Board Figure The Constructed Oscillator Circuit 7.

Conclusion A design technique of negative-resistance RF oscillators based on the effect of the optimum load impedance has been proposed and confirmed.Amplifier Design Methods Print ISBN: Artech House. The input resistance and reactance of the active device are evaluated from equations Linearization Techniques.

Design of a MHz Oscillator Circuit In order to test the effect of the load impedance on the large signal behavior of the RF oscillator, an oscillator circuit is to be designed and implemented at the MHz mobile communication band GSM Author Bios Inder J. The maximum frequency of oscillation represents the frequency at which the maximum power gain of the transistor drops to 0 dB.

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