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ELECTRONICS LAB MANUAL PDF

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Combinational Circuits. Sequential Circuits. Annexure-I: Assessment Rubrics. Annexure-II: Basic Electronics Lab-OU Syllabus. 81 . PDF | On Jun 1, , Eyad Al-kouz and others published Electronics Lab. Manual. Electronics Lab Manual. Volume 1. K. A. Navas, M Tech. myavr.infosor, ECE Dept. College of Engineering Trivandrum. Thiruvananthapuram


Electronics Lab Manual Pdf

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Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. INSTITUTE OF . Students have to bring the lab manual cum observation book, record etc along with. The objective of this laboratory is to understand the concepts,working and Electronic Devices and Circuits Laboratory Manual covers those practical oriented. Analog Electronics Laboratory Manual - 10ESL Dept of ECE- GCEM. Page ii. SYLLABUS. 1. Design and set up the following rectifiers with and without filters.

Expe ri me nt Proce dure: Forward bias Sr. Re ve rs e bias Sr. Supply volt age Di ode volt age Vd Di ode c urre nt Id 1. Wha t is t h e br ea kdown volt a ge of diode 1N a n d 1N? To obt a in V-I ch a ra ct er is t ics of Zen er diode Int roduc t i on: Th e Zener diode is des ign ed t o oper a t e in r ever s e br ea kdown r egion. Zener diode is u s ed for volt a ge r egu la t ion pu r pos e. Zener diodes a re des ign ed for s pecific r ever s e br ea kdown volt a ge ca lled Zen er br ea kdown volt a ge VZ.

Br ea kdown cu r r en t is limit ed by power dis s ipa t ion ca pa cit y of t h e zener diode. Zener volt a ge is 5 V. Typica l r es is t a n ce for br igh t ligh t is O and for darl condiiion ii is around 10 MO. Ci rc ui t diagram: Th e s emicon du ct or ph ot odiode is a light det ect or device wh ich det ect s pr es en ce of ligh t. Ph ot on s of ligh t en t er in g in P-la yer ion ize elect r on -h ole pa ir.

Ph ot on genera t es elect r on -h ole pa ir in t he deplet ion r egion t hat moves ra pidly wit h t h e dr ift velocit y by t h e elect r ic field. Ph ot o diode is u s ed in fiber opt ic commu n ica t ion a t r eceiver s ide. Conc lus ion: Wh a t t ype of con ver s ion t a kes pla ce in ph ot odiode?

Basic Electronics Lab Manual

Th is is beca u s e it provides power t o ener gize a ll elect r on ic cir cu it s like os cilla t or s , a mplifier s a n d s o on. In elect r on ic equ ipment s , D. Th e fir s t block of DC power s u pply is r ect ifier. Es s en t ia lly rect ifier needs u n idir ect iona l device.

Rect ifier broa dly divided in t o t wo ca t egor ies: Ha lf wa ve r ect ifier a n d fu ll wa ve rect ifier. Working pri nc i ple of half wave rec t i fie r: In ha lf wa ve rect ifier on ly ha lf cycle of a pplied AC volt a ge is u s ed. An ot h er h alf cycle of AC volt a ge nega t ive cycle is n ot u s ed. Prac t ical Ci rc ui t diagram: Wave forms: Ou t pu t wa vefor m: Obs e rvat i ons: Two or fou r diodes a re u s ed in fu ll wa ve rect ifier. If fu ll wa ve rect ifier is des igned u s in g fou r diodes it is kn own a s fu ll wa ve br idge r ect ifier.

Advant age s of full wave re c t ifie r ove r half wave re c t i fie r: Di s advant age s: Give rea s on. Th e Br idge r ect ifier cir cu it is s h own in t h e followin g figu r e. Advant age s of bri dge rec t i fie r: Di s advant age s of bri dge rec t i fie r: Th is will r edu ce efficien cy pa r t icu la r ly when low volt a ge les s t ha n 5V is r equ ired. Wh a t is t he r ipple fa ct or of br idge rect ifier wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or?

When LED is for wa r d bia s ed, ba r r ier pot en t ia l redu ces a n d deplet ion region becomes n a r r ow. Elect r on cr os s es t he deplet ion r egion a nd r ecombines wit h h oles. Simila r ly h oles cr os s es deplet ion r egion a n d r ecombine wit h elect r on s.

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Wa velen gt h or fr equ en cy of emit t ed ligh t depen ds on ba n d- ga p ener gy. Th e wa velen gt h gener at ed by t h e LED depen ds on ba n dga p ener gy a n d ba n dga p ener gy depen ds on dopin g level of a bove elemen t s. Diodes a re widely u s ed in clippin g a n d cla mpin g cir cu it s.

In cla mpin g, s ha pe of wavefor m rema in s s a me on ly offs et va lu e DC level will cha n ge. Ca pa cit or is widely u s ed in t he cla mpin g cir cu it. Typica l cla mping wa vefor ms for t h e sin u s oida l s igna l is s h own below for pos it ive cla mpin g a n d nega t ive cla mpin g. Cla mpin g cir cu it is u s ed in video a mplifier of t elevis ion r eceiver t o res t ore DC level of video s ign a l t o pr es er ve overa ll br igh t n es s of t h e s cene.

Typica l cir cu it opera t ion of t h e pos it ive cla mpin g a n d nega t ive cla mpin g is given below. Aft er complet ion of nega t ive cycle, pos it ive cycle s t a r t s a n d diode t u r n s OFF. Ne gat i ve c lampi ng: Draw c i rc ui t diagrams as pe r c i rc ui t available i n t he laborat ory or c i rc uit c onne c t e d on bre adboard: Clippin g cir cu it clips s ome por t ion of t h e wa vefor m.

Clampin g cir cu it pr es er ves s ha pe of t he wa vefor m wh ile clippin g cir cu it does n ot pr es er ve s ha pe of wa vefor m.

Clippin g cir cu it u s es s ome r efer en ce level. Wa vefor m a bove or below t h is r efer en ce level is clipped. Clippin g cir cu it s a re a ls o kn own a s volt a ge limit er or a mplit u de limit er or s licer s. Some clipper cir cu it s a re expla ined h ere.

For s e rie s di ode: For n ega t ive cycle clipper , pola r it y of diode is rever s e.

Se rie s diode pos i t ive c li ppi ng wit h negat i ve re fe re nce: Th u s en t ir e pos it ive cycle a n d s ome por t ion of n ega t ive cycle below VR clips. Se rie s diode ne gat ive c li ppi ng wi t h re fe re nce: Nega t ive clippin g can be a ch ieved by ch a n gin g pola r it y of t h e diode.

Nega t ive clipper wit h n ega t ive r efer en ce volt a ge is s h own in t h e followin g figu r e. Th is will clip s ome por t ion of nega t ive cycle. Shunt di ode pos i t i ve c li ppi ng wi t h negat i ve re fe re nce volt age: Sh u n t diode pos it ive clippin g wit h n ega t ive referen ce volt a ge is a s s h own in t h e followin g cir cu it.

Some por t ion of n ega t ive cycle clips. Cir cu it 1: Cir cu it 3: Cir cu it 4: Expe ri me nt Proce dure t o obt ai n i nput c harac t e ris t ic s: Ha ve you obs erved ea r ly effect in you r exper imen t? In common collect or con figu r a t ion , collect or t er mina l is common bet ween in pu t a n d ou t pu t.

In pu t is a pplied bet ween ba s e a n d collect or. It is bet t er t o u s e common -collect or a mplifier bet ween common emit t er a mplifier a n d loa d-s pea ker.

To dr a w DC loa d line for given cir cu it Int roduc t i on: Mea s u re collect or cu r r en t a nd volt a ge bet ween collect or a n d emit t er. What is the effect of temperature on semiconductors?

What is drift current?. What is depletion region or space charge region? What is junction potential or potential barrier in PN junctioI.? What is a diode? Name different types of diodes and name its applications What is biasing? Name different types w. Diode biasing How does a diode behave in its forward and reverse biased conditions? What is static and dyriantic resistance of diode?

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What do you understand 1? Why diode is called unidirectional device. What is PIV of a diode What is knee voltage or cut-in voltage? What do you mean by transition capacitance or space charge capacitor? What do you mean by diffusion capacitance or storage capacitance?

What is a transistor? Why is it called so? Name different types, of transistors? Name different configurations in which the transistor is operated Mention the applications of transistor. Explain how transistor is used as switch What is transistor biasing? Why is it necessary? What are the three different regions in which the transistor works? Why trmisistor is called current controlled device? What is FET? Why it is called so? What are the parameters ofFET?

What are the characteristics of FET? Why FET is known as voltage controlled device? Mention applications ofFET. What is an amplifier? What is the need for an amplifier circuit? How do you classify amplifiers? What is faithful amplification? How do you achieve this? What is coupling?

Name different type. What is operating point or quiescent point?

What do you mean by frequency response of an amplifier? What are gain, Bandwidth, lower cutoff frequency and upper cutoff frequency? What is the figure of merit of an amplifier circuit?

What are the advantages of RC coupled amplifier? Why a 3db point is taken to calculate Bandwidth?

What is semi-log graph sheet? Why it is used to plot frequency response? How do you test a diode, transistor, FET? Mention the type number of the devices used in your lab. Describe the operation ofNPN transistor. Define reverse saturation current.

Explain Doping w. Three regions of transistor Explain thermal run-. How it can'be prevented. Define FET parameters and write the relation between them. What are Drain Characteristics and transfer characteristics? Explain the construction and working of FET What is feedback?

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Name different types. What is the effect of negative feedback on the characteristics of an amplifier? Why common collector amplifier is known as emitter follower circuit?

What is the application of emitter follower ckt?

Basic Electronics Lab Manual

What is cascading and cascoding? Why do you cascade the amplifier ckts.? How do you determine the value of capacitor?Collect or cu r r en t redu ces Q poin t moves down s ide. In elect r on ic equ ipment s , D. What are Drain Characteristics and transfer characteristics? How do you get P-wpe and N-type semiconductors? Lab 1 - Audio Monitor Page Th e s emicon du ct or ph ot odiode is a light det ect or device wh ich det ect s pr es en ce of ligh t.

What is the efficiency of Class B push pull amplifier? In ha lf wa ve rect ifier on ly ha lf cycle of a pplied AC volt a ge is u s ed.

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