DSLR PHOTOGRAPHY FOR BEGINNERS PDF
In this guide we share tips on how to use a DSLR. It's perfect for beginner photographers with their first camera. You'll be taking great photos in no time. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY BASICS FOR BEGINNERS by Robert Berdan to use different types of lenses. Digital SLR Camera with Interchangeable zoom lens. Basic principles of photography. David Capel years: the digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR) chemicals. Early photographers used silver halides.
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This complete guide to photography for beginners will walk you though A black and white photo of four beginners photographers holding DSLR cameras. Canon DSLR: the ultimate photographer's guide. – (Digital gov/iad// docs/Public%20SP%%20November%pdf. I wrote earlier that. Photography For myavr.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for Now, to put in simple words, DSLR is a Digital Single-Lens.
Aspect ratio is simply the ratio of the height to width. An 8 x 10 has an equal aspect ratio to a 4 x 5, but a 4 x 7 image is a bit wider. It will have an interesting effect on your image quality. Burst Mode You can take photos one at a time. Burst speeds differ based on what camera or film camera you own, some are faster than others.
Portraits often have a soft, unfocused background—this is a shallow depth of field. Landscapes, on the other hand, often have more of the image in focus—this is a large depth of field, with a big range of distance that stays sharp. Digital Vs. Optical Digital and optical are important terms to understand when shopping for a new camera.
Digital means the effect is achieved through software, not physical parts of the camera. Optical is always better than digital. These terms are usually used when referring to a zoom lens on a compact camera as well as image stabilization. Exposure compensation can be used on some automated modes and semi-automated modes like aperture priority.
File Format The file format is how your camera lens will record the image or image file. Raw files contain more information than JPGs, which makes them more suitable for photo editing in various editing software.
It informs the angle of view how much of what is being shot will be captured and the magnification how large things will appear. Different focus areas determine if the camera is focusing on multiple points or one user-selected point. Flash Sync You probably know that the flash is a burst of light—flash sync determines when the flash fires.
Normally, the flash fires at the beginning of the photo, but changing the flash sync mode adjusts when that happens. You will also learn about common mistakes that people make and whether or not you might be at risk of creating a photo that isn't as sharp as you want it to be.
You can also learn about the use of software to edit photos from a camera and the many aspects that come with different kinds of cameras. You might be amazed at just how interesting the world of photography is when you see how such a camera may be used.
Thanks again for downloading this book; I hope you enjoy it! Alright, so first things first, what is a DSLR camera? You must have heard from people wanting to buy a DSLR camera and to just get started on this beautiful journey called photography. It is basically your eyes, which makes everything look so beautiful. A DSLR has got reflex mirrors which helps in showing you the exact scene which you are going to shoot in your viewfinder.
All this is done with the help of a focusing screen, condenser lens and a prism wall. So basically a DSLR is a digital camera that works on mirrors and interchangeable lenses.
Now you must have seen those big nozzles photographers attach in front of their cameras right; yes, thats a lens. That is what gives you the required output for shooting images. There are various types of lenses available and the best part about DSLRs is the flexibility to attach these lenses.
Here are some common types of lenses: Macro lens: This is used for close object photography subjects like flowers, plants and insects. Tilt and shift lens: As the name suggests, it is used for tilt and shift photography. You must have seen those long perspective building shots that professionals like to take; this is what they use. Wide Angle lenses: Perfect for landscape photography.
Standard prime and zoom lens: This is a standard tool used to take pictures in weddings, events, photo journalism events and more. It is also ideal for portraits. Telephoto prime and zoom lenses: This one is for action, sports and wildlife photography.
Other Features Now apart from its transformer-like ability to change lenses, what really defines a DSLR is the quality and speed that comes with it.
The imaging sensors in this camera are much larger in a DSLR when compared with any compact digital camera. It works on bigger the better logic: the bigger the imaging sensor, the better the image quality. Another awesome thing about DSLR is the speed. It can capture images with a speed of 4fps [Frames per second]. No compact digital camera can beat that.
Image sensors are basically what create noise in your photographs.
DSLR Basics: 8 Easy Steps to Learn Manual Mode for Canon DSLR Cameras
These sensors are responsible for maintaining the quality of the image and since point and shoot cameras or compact digital cameras have smaller image sensors, they lose quality when the sensitivity is increased. Also, DSLR cameras are pretty solid when it comes to exposing the image sensors to light. Most point and shoot cameras have settings where you can keep the exposure to mostly just up to 1 minute but a DSLR allows you to do that for as long as you want. Sometimes a good shot needs an exposure for around 5 long minutes and only a DSLR will allow you to do that.
So now you know what a DSLR is and what it can do. Once you get your hands on such a camera and start exploring, it will become like a Lego toy set. You can attach external flashes, various lenses, lens filters which affect colors and contrast and more.
Also, you can also upgrade the battery life for longer photography sessions. It is not a camera for your selfies and party clicks; use your smartphone for that. This is for great quality photographs and an amazing photography experience with limitless capabilities.
The following are some photography myths so you dont get disappointed just yet: 1. Taking photographs outdoors in good daylight is something which can be easily done with any camera so dont feel disappointed if you friend challenges you with his point and shoot camera. There is a lot more you can do which he cant. Indoor photography in sub-par light is a challenging task. So if you dont get a good output, dont blame the camera.
Learn the techniques and you will get a perfect photograph. Clicking pictures of moving objects is difficult: a moving car, your dog, your kids. This is especially when its indoors or when the lighting is not adequate. It is extremely difficult for any camera and all photographers may struggle to master this art. If you are spending money to buy a top notch camera from brands like Nikon, Cannon, Olympus then make sure you buy lenses of the same brand to get the best output.
Lastly, the most important myth is about megapixels. Dont fall for it. Many salesmen mislead customers to buy cameras with higher megapixels. The truth is that any camera over 4 megapixels is good enough to print an image as big as 2x3 feet in size. Its all about your photography skills. Tips for Getting Started 1. So, make sure your name is properly adjusted if you dont want to accidentally overwrite old photographs.
You are still far from learning everything about photography. There are way too many buttons and settings on your DSLR. Dont get confused with it, just play around with some default settings or switch to auto mode.
Get some hands on experience; feel comfortable before you start getting technical. Your camera is now your everyday companion; try to take it with you wherever you go.
You never know when a great photography opportunity might come up. Remember that quote Cool things always happen when you dont have a camera. So make sure you dont miss out on anything. And taking care of your camera is also important; dont keep it in extreme hot and cold conditions. Keep it in a covered space.
Setting up the date and time in your camera will help you when you try to sort your photographs. It is a digital camera and since you have so much memory you would not think twice before clicking a picture; it is like getting a gun with unlimited ammo.
But when you try to sort it later, it might a pain. Setting up the date and time accurately will help you with details like when was the picture taken and what the time was. It is a very minor detail but it can add value to your photographs. These are some basic tips to use to make sure you get a good photograph.
Cleaning: The lens and sensor always have to stay clean for the camera to work right. Cleaning them will prevent unwanted dots and dust particles from appearing in your beauty shot. Get a lens cloth and use it only to clean the lens. Always clean the lens in a circular motion. While changing the lens, make sure you are in a safe environment; it helps in keeping the sensor clean or else dirt can easily attack the sensor as it is exposed.
Keep the camera off while doing the transition. Most DSLRs have auto sensor cleaning options. Lock the target: Always lock your target before clicking a picture. It is about good composition and perfect order. You target can be your friends, a tourist group or maybe just some fruits on the table.
Frame your shots: Framing is what makes photographs appear rich and high in quality. To become a good photographer, you must have an eye to frame your shots.
Place your target properly and make sure you leave some headroom. It is not necessary to keep your target directly in the center of the frame. Do some experiments and study some photographs in magazines. You will get an idea of what works best. Lighting makes a difference: Proper lighting helps in defining the mood of the photograph.
Play around with internal flash settings and check out how it works in various environments. Soon you will get an idea of what settings are best for each type of shot. You can also attach external flash units for advanced photography. A good lighting set up can change from night to day. Controlled Exposure: You need to learn how to manually control the exposure level on your camera. Auto exposure is good in some photographs but if you want to take professional photographs then you will need to master this art.
Controlled exposure will help you take pictures with more focus on your subjects. Exposure is directly related to the shutter. Manual controls will give you the best results. For example, if you try to take a picture of a cloudy sky then the auto exposure feature will focus on all the white clouds in the sky while you might just want to focus on one beautiful cloud. The iris will be closed to focus on all the white clouds and it can lead to an underexposed photo or a dark photo.
Depth of Field: Ever seen those photographs where you see an object in focus in front and the background is blurred? That is the depth of field.
Once you learn the basics of this, your creativity will expand beyond limits. This can really add professionalism to your photographs. This works best with a Macro lens for close up photography. You can set the focus on the exact target. ISO and shutter speed are the other two.
Needless to mention, aperture is as vital to photography as ISO and shutter speed are hence popular to talk about. What aperture does is one of two things: the background of an image is either blurred or in what may appear as wizardry, the background and the foreground objects are brought to focus.
A simplistic definition of an aperture would be a lens with a hole in it for light to travel into the body of the camera. A lens on a camera can be comparable to the human eye. The underlying concept behind all cameras of this day and age is the human eye. The cornea of a human eye is comparable to the front portion of a lens through which external light passes to reach the iris.
How much the iris would expand or contract is directly related to and indeed dependent on how much external light is available which in turn regulates the pupils size as well, thus letting light enter the eye even further. In photography, parlance pupil is comparable to aperture. A look at how much light would pass through to the retina is comparable to the sensor of a camera depends on how large or small the pupil is.
Hence, an aperture of a camera resembles and is indeed similar to the pupil of a human eye. The iris is commonly referred to in the photography world as a diaphragm.
What the diaphragm does is prevent light from passing or entering; the exception being those lights that enter through the aperture. They arent blocked by the diaphragm. F-Numbers The expression of aperture in photography is in f-numbers or stops. This is an indication of how large or small the aperture is.
If the f-stop is small, it indicates that the aperture is large.
Conversely, a large f-stop would mean the aperture is small. The logic behind such a relationship is skewed. Generally large numbers are associated with large values and vice versa but this is indeed an exception.
With a small f-number, all objects in the foreground and background will be brought to focus. It is to make the objects in the foreground look relatively sharper than the objects in the background which would look blurred. There is a limit that every lens has in relation to the size of the aperture. The specifications of any lens would mention the maximum and minimum apertures, in other words the lowest and highest fnumbers. The maximum aperture of a lens is more relevant than the minimum as it shows how fast or slow the lens is.
Hence for photography in low light, a slow lens would be ideal. Lenses Lenses are of two types: fixed or prime and zoom. A zoom lens is flexible as it can be used to zoom in or out.
Point and shoot cameras have zoom lenses and therefore it is not necessary to be physically near or far from the subject.
Fixed or prime lenses on the other hand only have a single focal length. The optical design of zoom lenses is complex; hence most lenses for consumers are equipped with variable apertures. What this means is that based on whether the user is zooming in or out, the f-number of the aperture would increase to a maximum or decrease to a minimum accordingly. Exposure Exposure in photography has to do with how light or dark an image is after it is captured.
To a great extent, photography is about intuition and tinkering with the exposure triangle would gradually and eventually turn a rookie photographer into a pro.
Step 3: Pick a decent subject with good light
Attaining just the right exposure has similarities with accumulating rain water in a bucket. Even though rainfall cannot be controlled, what can be controlled when you are taking a picture, for comparison's sake, is the size of the bucket, how long the bucket is left in the rain and how much rain water accumulates.
Keep the exposure right so the picture looks its best. The underlying concept of combining width, time and quantity variables in as many different combinations as possible aims at achieving just the right exposure. A bucket which is wide enough would be full in no time whereas a bucket that is not as wide would not be full even if it were to be left in the rain for the same length of time.
Natural light for a photographer is just like rainfall: Both cannot be controlled. It relates to how well the camera can get a photo taken. This is a part of DSLR cameras that cannot be ignored. The sensor of a camera has a curtain in the front.
This is the camera shutter which remains closed until the camera shoots. The moment the camera shoots, the curtain or the shutter opens instantly and the sensor is exposed to enable light to pass through the aperture of the lens.
As soon as the sensor captures the light, the shutter shuts down instantaneously, thereby preventing the light reaching the sensor. The button that triggers the camera to shoot is known as the shutter button.
Shutter speed, or exposure time, means the duration the shutter of a camera is open to expose the sensor to light. A fast shutter speed would result in frozen action. A slow shutter speed would result in an effect known as motion blur where objects look blurred as they are in motion in a certain direction.
Motion blur is widely used in car and motorbike advertisements to convey the notion of motion and speed by blurring the wheels that are in motion or the surroundings of that vehicle. Photographs of thunder and lightning or low light photography that are achieved through mounting the camera on a tripod are examples of shots where the shutter speed is slow. Photographers who take photographs of landscapes that have rivers and waterfalls maintain slow shutter speeds to accentuate and convey a sense of motion and speed and yet keep all else in focus.
Action can be frozen with a high shutter speed. With a slow shutter speed, an artificial sense of motion can be created. A fraction of a second is all it takes to measure shutter speed. The shutter speed on almost all DSLRs is typically 30 seconds which is the longest.
A shutter speed of more than one second is considered a long shutter speed and a tripod is recommended for low-light photography at night or for motion photography. Shutter speeds and aperture are set by most cameras automatically with the auto mode feature. If aperture priority mode is selected then the lens aperture can be selected and the shutter speed can also be automatically set by the camera.
Manually, the shutter speed can be set by selecting the shutter priority mode where the shutter speed can be set and the aperture is automatically selected by the camera. Shutter speed can be found by looking on the viewfinder. There should be a number on the bottom left corner of the screen. On most DSLRs, the shutter speed would not be represented as a fraction of a second but rather as a number.
Step 4: Important Camera Settings for Canon DSLRs
If the shutter speed still cannot be ascertained, the camera should be set to aperture priority mode and by looking through the viewfinder; the camera should be positioned in the direction of an area that is dark. The display will have numbers which should be noted. Manual Mode After practicing on aperture priority mode and shutter priority mode in terms of which mode is better, there isnt a unanimous opinion, good or bad, for either of the two modes.
The fact is they are both available for a definite purpose and can be used according to the demands of a situation. As they say, practice makes perfect. Playing around with different shooting modes would instill a style in photography to ascertain which mode is best to be used in a particular situation. For instance, if the background needs to be blurred or if everything should be in focus then aperture priority should be used. On the other hand, if the speed at which the image is captured is more important then shutter priority mode should be used.
Anyone who's an expert in these particular modes will have a much easier time with the manual mode feature on the camera. Shooting in manual mode is possible by turning the dial on the top part of the camera to M. You can check the manual with your camera for information on what shutter speed and aperture to use while you are on manual mode. Being familiar with what aperture priority and shutter priority to use can help you to quickly set your preferences in terms of shutter speeds and apertures.
Care should be taken on exposure while the shutter speed and aperture are reconfigured. An ideal setting for an exposure would be zero. For brighter pictures though, an exposure setting anywhere between 0 and 1 would be ideal. Inbuilt Flash Every camera has an inbuilt flash. The computer of the camera ascertains whether or not flash is required in relation to exposure, focus and zoom level.
The activation of the inbuilt flash in compact cameras is synchronized with the shutter speed. The difficult part though is controlling how intense the flash would be and at what exact time the flash would trigger. As a result, pictures could appear washed-out. Pop-up flashes are also available on DSLRs and the pop-up flash and the shutter speed used at a given time can be synchronized.
How intense the flash would be would depend on the general light of the shot and may be tweaked accordingly. The flash on DSLR cameras can be used in a manner that is artistic and soothing to the eye. Chapter 3 Getting a Photo Ready Now we can start talking about getting a photo ready the right way. Here are a few points to figure out. Fast and Slow Speeds The name itself is suggestive of the speed at which the curtain of the shutter in front of the sensor opens and closes.
In other words, it is how fast or slow the curtain of the shutter opens and closes, thereby enabling an exposure as light passes through to the sensor. How much light would enter the camera depends on the apertures size which translates to a hole in the lens. Shutter speed commands the duration of the sensor s exposure to light. The shutter speed is visible at the bottom of the viewfinder and on the LCD screen as well.
Fast shutter speeds typically have high numbers. Low numbers are indicative of slow shutter speeds: 1. A certain level of exposure can be maintained consistently when the shutter speed and aperture are in sync. Shutter speed and aperture have an inverse relationship. With an increase in the shutter speed, there would be a decrease in aperture and vice versa. Apertures that are relatively smaller restrict light from entering the camera, necessitating the shutter speed to be slow.
The purpose of a slow shutter speed is to ensure that the sensor is exposed for a little longer than with a fast shutter speed. If the aperture is wide it means there is plenty of light coming into the image. With this, shutter speed needs to be fast and therefore there would be less time for the snapshot. In automatic and semi-automatic modes, the camera will automatically adjust to a proper speed.
However, on manual mode the adjustment has to be done on your own. How fast or slow the shutter speed would be is limited by the aperture of the lens set to maximum. How to Focus An image will be formed when light passes through a convex lens. What the image will look like depends on the path that light travels on to enter the lens. Which path light will take depends on two vital factors; one is the angle at which the beam of light enters the lens and the other being what the lens is made of. The angle at which light enters the lens can vary with the proximity of the object in relation to the lens.
The light beam regardless of how it enters is bent by the lens to a certain degree. Hence, light beams with a sharp angle of entry would have a blunt angle of exit and vice versa.
The bending angle on the lens remains constant at any specific point. Light beams within proximity of the lens can converge at a distance while light beams from a point that is far away from the lens converge at a nearer spot.
The crux of the matter is that the actual image of an object that is closer is formed at a distance whereas the actual image from a distant object is formed nearer. This phenomenon could be observed by lighting a candle in the dark with a magnifying glass held between the candle and the wall. The image of the candle can be seen upside down on the wall.
If the candles image cannot be seen on the wall then it would appear a little blurred. Thats because the light beams emanating from a certain point are yet to converge. To bring the image of the candle in focus, the magnifying glass should be moved nearer or kept at a distance from the candle.
This is exactly what is done by turning the camera lens to focus it essentially what is done is the lens is nearer or at a distance from the surface of the film. As the lens moves, the actual focused image is aligned so that it rests on the surface of the film.
Choosing AF Points Focusing has never been as simple and easy as it is to do these days. All one has to do is use any of the basic zone shooting modes Full Auto, Portrait or Landscape and the DSLR camera is fully automated and programmed to work in the background. Its that simple and easy. The shutter button needs to be feather-touched and more often than not the camera would be in focus within a fraction of a second as the snapshot is ready to be taken.
Every now and then though, there might be photographs that just arent sharp enough. The solution lies in the autofocus system and how it actually works. If free rein were to be given, a typical DSLR would use its entire gamut of nine autofocus sensors that are strewn in and around the frame of the image. The AF points are scattered and spread out at different sections of the frame. Sophisticated cameras can have six AF Assist points in addition to the first nine but unlike the first nine, no one can actually select them on a manual basis.
Info from all AF points is used in the focusing process. The distance between each object from the camera is calculated and the nearest object is selected and in sync with an AF point and the AF is configured.
This is how focusing on the nearest object is achieved but that isnt the case every time. Close-up shots or a camera with a telephoto lens attached would reduce the depth of field. This would force the photographer to be as accurate as possible with no real room for error in the process of taking an image.
Chapter 4 Getting Objects Sharp You can get different objects to look clear with ease with such a fine camera. There are many things that you can do to make your photos look more attractive. Getting Things Sharp Tack sharp is a part of photography jargon which means that an images clarity is as great as it can be. Focus and contrast are two elements that impact the sharpness of an image. An image is tack sharp when the focus of the image is crisp, has a suitable contrast and is from a pixel level where there isnt any noticeable blur.
The notion that image clarity can be enhanced by a photo editing software program is ill conceived. If the image itself is not tack sharp while the photograph is being taken, editing an image with software isnt going to rectify and enhance the quality of the image in terms of contrast.
Also, software may not work all that well with regards to fine detailing or with trying to remove blur from the image to make it sharp. Hence it is absolutely vital to master the art of capturing tack sharp images directly from the source the camera.
Shutter Speed Shutter speed is a big point to see when you are trying to focus on sharpness. The reasons behind blurred images that aren't sharp come firstly from how the camera may shake as it may be held in hand. The shutter speed may either be slow or not as fast as it should be to capture a subject that is moving. Knowing how to rectify the issues is crucial to capturing images that are tack sharp.
What shutter speed should be used would depend on the subject that is being shot, whether the subject is in motion or is still and the effect that the person taking the photograph intends to attain. A salient point to be noted is that the proximity of an object in motion in relation to the person taking the photograph would determine the shutter speed.
In other words, if the person is near an object in motion then a fast shutter speed would cause the action to stop. A rule of thumb in photography is the reciprocal rule which is widely used. What this rule aims at achieving is to find the slowest shutter speed that can be used while the camera is hand held and to also keep the camera from shaking. The rule mentions that while the camera is held by hand, the shutter speed should be faster than the lenss reciprocal focal length.
The rule is controversial and at the same time can be relied upon. It is only meant to be used as a guideline for setting shutter speeds. This is a big point for photos that need to be as sharp as possible.
Effective Focal Length A good indicator of a lenss focal length would be the size of a 35mm film roll. If the camera has a full frame digital sensor which is similar in size as a 35mm frame then the effective focal length would be the lens markings.
A basic DSLR would have a relatively smaller sensor and the effective focal length has to be calculated manually. If there is a crop factor then the focal lengths reciprocal has to be multiplied to ascertain a minimum shutter speed. Multiple Bursts Your chances of capturing tack sharp images while the camera is hand held would increase exponentially if the camera is on a continuous shooting mode where multiple shots are taken back to back.
It can be expected that at least one shot out of so many would be tack sharp. Image Stabilization Shutter speed can be slow with an image stabilizer on the camera.
You can try and shoot at speeds of stops if the lens permits.Thanks again for downloading this book; I hope you enjoy it! A simplistic definition of an aperture would be a lens with a hole in it for light to travel into the body of the camera.
The Ultimate Guide to Learning how to use Your first DSLR
Just play with it. Reds and yellows are warm colors while greens, blues and violets are cold colors. All that needs to be done to begin remote shooting is to plug in the infrared transmitter to the smartphone. When shutter speeds are fast, the mirror will be invisible to the photographer. The fact is that secondary focal points can indeed add depth to shots but at the same time can be distracting and therefore repositioning or adjusting focal length and or depth of field to keep or remove them from shots.
An image editing software program can do this type of editing work as well. For a longer exposure during the daytime, an ND filter could be used.
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