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There is a dearth of books covering drawing and product design. Drawing for Designers fills this gap, offering a comprehensive guide to drawing. Buy Drawing for Designers: Drawing Skills, Concept Sketches, Computer Tools and Materials, Presentations, Production Techniques 01 by Alan Pipes (ISBN. Drawing for Designers by Alan Pipes, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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In desktop publishing too, as exemplified in , the text is received as one infinite scroll, it is disconnected from its container.

Designers can then compose, cut and adjust the containers. The key difference being that the text continuously flows in the containers, offering greater exploration possibilities to designers.

A second example of the influence of the traditional process over desktop publishing can be found in its way of handling page format. In desktop publishing too, when creating a project, a designer must first select page dimensions as well as margins and a column system.

These parameters are then fixed and not supposed to be changed. This echoes the traditional paste-up process in which the designer first chooses a page size and establishes page margins and a grid.

This page becomes the canvas onto which she can experiment with text and image positioning. Yet, in desktop publishing, the choice to first set page size and margins is not dictated by a technical constraint, rather, it simply reproduces a pre-existing process.

The influence of Paste-Up can be seen in how InDesign deals with text. Designers can cut and paste the text in separate rectangles A last example can be found in the type of functionalities enabled by desktop publishing.

Here again, it is interesting to observe that desktop publishing first and foremost developed functionalities that matched previously existing ones in the industry. In fact, because their goal was to fit within existing workflow and to be easily adopted by designers, they tried to mimick the existing process. Therefore, they proposed very few functionalities that went beyond what traditional processes could produce.

On the other hand, they introduced the WISIWIG paradigm to designers who were previously used to work without seeing the end-result of their production. The conditions and environment behind the emergence of graphic design dedicated software led to the reproduction of pre-existing constraints and principles, coexisting with novel possibilities. After the initial standards were established, graphic design software mostly did not change. They gradually added more features but their core functionalities remained the same until now.

Design Software from a designer perspective Few graphic designers were able to experiment with computers before the era of personal computers.

Drawing for Designers

Yet, this limited access did not prevent a few designers to perceive that computing would transform the way they work. One of the designers who explored the impact of of computing was the swiss Karl Gerstner Armstrong, In his book entitled Designing Programs, he proposed a manifesto, advocating for a deterministic approach of graphic design.

He transposed what he understood from the rigor of computational programs into the typographic grid, turning it into a system. For Gerstner, the computer was mainly a computational machine that he could use to compute all the potential solutions of a design. The design process thus had to be discretized into a set of parameters in order to make it computable. An almost unknown, yet critical example of a designer who profoundly explored design software tools was MIT professor and graphic designer Muriel Cooper.

She also explored the influence that computers would have, in return, on the profession of graphic designer. Cooper, When she started exploring graphic design with computers, there were no design software.

Her students needed to directly program. For her, it was critical that they participate in the creation of their own tools and in exploring their potentialities. As designers were directly involved in the creation of their own tools, the interfaces and interactions created by Cooper and her students were radically different from the ones produced in the research world as well as from the tools that were developed in the industry.

For example, none of Cooper's projects contained the notion of the page. Because this notion did not exist in programming, Cooper and her students were able to think about novel ways to represent information outside of this frame. Instead, they chose to create a 3-dimensional world for displaying information Strausfeld, The reader could freely navigate this space to access the information presented on many different 2D planes. A second example is Perspective, a grid expert system developed in The system proposes several layouts based on images chosen by the designer and following a simple rule system.

Designers will simply be unable to produce the number of solutions for the vast majority of variables implicit in real-time interaction. Design will of necessity become the art of designing process. Programmed using Processing. At that time, personal computers had become affordable and graphic design software had appeared.

Designers had become users of design software applications created by the industry, rather than creators of their own tools. For designers, learning programming was tedious, because they needed to learn a lot before even being able to display a single square on their screen. Its goal was to make programming easily learnable by designers by emphasizing visual representation. Built on top of Java, Processing is a simple programming language whose focus is on producing visual and interactive output.

Yet, even if Processing is first and foremost a programming language, it also came with a minimalistic Integrated Development Environment also designed to encourage designers to visualize the result of their program as soon as possible. Processing has proved to be extremely influential within the design world, it even sparked a new aesthetic in graphic design. By giving designers access to programming, it contributed to bringing back discussions about graphic design tools in the spotlight.

Digital design tools created by designers resulted in very different types of tools. Whereas the industry tried to mimick existing design techniques to fit within a pre-existing ecosystem, designers of digital design tools used the opportunity of the digital medium to question the notion of design and to redefine their field. Design Software - User perspectives In the second part of this chapter, I now review the different types of accounts about digital design tools from the perspective of their users.

I review three approaches to this inquiry. I first focus on what a few designers themselves wrote and said about the impact of digital tools on their practices. Empirical studies, mostly from an HCI perspective give us other ways to understand the relationship by observing it in more controlled or longitudinal ways. Finally, I give an overview of different theories that have tried to characterize designers' work with their tools as well as to understand digital tools' underlying conceptions from the perspective of media studies.

Designers accounts To understand the relationship between designers and their digital tools, we can look at what designers themselves wrote and said. In her documentary Graphic Means: A History of Graphic Design Production, graphic designer and director Levit interviews many graphic designers and shows the spectacular transformations happening in the graphic design industry as computers progressively find their way into designers hands Levit, Before the digitalization of the printing industry, graphic design was an entire industry with many different and complementary professions typesetters, paste-up artists, photomechanical technicians At a macro level, one of the most crucial transformation brought by computers to graphic design happened off-screen.

Because designers could do everything themselves, most of the aforementioned intermediary profession disappeared, leaving all the work in the hands of the designers.

This movement greatly empowered graphic designers as their prerogative grew to encompass layout but also type-setting, the art of composing text. It also required designers to acquire new skills. This profound transformation drew a lot of critics from established designers Armstrong, The inclusion of computers in the design work also led to a drastic acceleration of the work Levit, One of the first and most famous examples of this revolution was produced in , by April Grieman, with the first Macintosh and MacDraw.

She produced a large poster for the issue of the magazine Design Quarterly.

She found inspiration in the potentiality of the tool, moving away from the very rigid grid revered by many graphic designers at that time. Because of the inherently limited resolution of the dot matrix printer she was using, she accepted and fully embraced pixelization as part of her work. In contrast to Grieman's work, graphic designers Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum did not see graphic design software as liberating. For them, there is an inherent limitation in the fact that graphic design software is a commercial mass product.

It is therefore designed to target a large group of professionals by providing functionalities that are perceived by software designers as the most desired by the community. But as it is precisely the task of designers to discover new possibilities, in their case, the use of a computer can be more of a handicap than an advantage.

Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum were creating typography in the early 's.

This notion is the result of a technical process, not the other way around. Instead of using a graphical user interface to draw their Beowolf font, they modified the underlying language, Postscript. These two valuable accounts on graphic design during the early age of graphic design software present their authors reflections on design as a field and on their own practice.

Yet, because their target audience is generally other designers, these documents provide relatively little information on the concrete practice of design with digital tools. Empirical Account Empirical studies are a second way to apprehend designers' relationship with their digital tools.

As early as , Cross conducted a study with designers to figure out what the design requirements for Computer Aided Design systems might be as well to evaluate the impact of such systems Cross, At that time, only a few years after Sketchpad's major breakthrough, fully functional CAD systems were still hypothetical.

Because design software did not exist at that time, practitioners did not know what to expect from such systems. Cross conducted a first series of 10 experiments, giving a design brief to designers and asking them to produce a sketch concept with the help of a simulated CAD system.

They could interact with it by writing message on paper and showing them to a camera and they would receive answers on the screen. Cross explored an alternative version of the experiment by asking the system or rather the human behind the curtain to create the design while the designer was judging the results.

This version was more enjoyable for designers but required the CAD system to be able to design, which, as Cross tested in later experiment, did not work so well Cross, Similarly, Diane Murray conducted an ethnographic study of graphic designers in Murray, She revealed how material traces are interwoven with the social aspect of a design studio life.

Designers leave visible their sketches and work in progress so that anyone can look at them and enrich them by critiquing them. In , Sumner conducted an ethnographic study of user interface designers working with digital tools Sumner, She witnessed the evolution of tooling environment and practices at a time when software were quickly appearing and changing. She realized that designers were creating what she calls Toolbelts, a collection of several tools supporting their different practices.

Designers did not simply used the tools, but appropriated them and re-purposed them for specific activities. These different ethnographic accounts demonstrate the complex interplay between designers, computer tools and corporate needs.

They however focus mainly on the relational aspects of design work but give us little detail on how concretely designers work with their digital tools. Three visual composition strategies for the same visual composition task, in Jalal, More recently Jalal conducted a structured observation Jalal, with 12 designers to investigate the different tools and strategies used by designers to reproduce a poster in Adobe Illustrator.

She discovered that, to achieve the same result, designers would deploy a wealth of strategies and tools. For example, one of the tasks was to cut 12 rectangles into triangles. Among the 12 designers, she observed eight different strategies to achieve this effect. Even when the software had built-in dedicated tools, designers tend to rely and prefer tools that allowed them a more direct manipulation of graphical elements.

Yet, we still have very little knowledge on how designers design with and around software. Bellotti and Rogers, in , were already advocating for more studies to understand how designers work with design software applications Bellotti, Theoretical accounts To understand designers relationship with digital tools, we can look at the different theories that tried to explain it.

How Professionals Think in Action to explain how designers work. He argues that tools also affect our perception and understanding of the world and help us explore and make sense of it.

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They propose to consider creative software as instrument in the musical sense, to be able to move away from the ideals of transparency and usability. They argue that the notion of instrumentness can be adapted beyond music creation and be relevant to describe designers relationship with their digital tools. In , professor of cultural studies Matthew Fuller explored the principles behind authoring software Fuller, Taking Microsoft Word as an example, he highlighted the dissonance between creative activities and the task oriented way in which authoring software application were built on.

According to Fuller, they embed a very specific notion of work borrowing from Taylorism, where human actions are decomposed into minimal tasks.

Drawing for Designers

He remarks, for example, that the use of templates and wizards makes it very easy to create certain types of work-related documents, such as letters and CVs, while some others suicide notes, for example do not receive the same attention.

Fuller, In his PhD dissertation about the design of software, Masure shows how new versions of Adobe Photoshop add functionalities that are in fact specific automated functionalities, for example, automatically replacing objects on a photograph with a generated background in Photoshop CS5.

He argues that this type of functionalities is meant to simplify the work of the designer by automatizing it. Summary This chapter explores the history of design software from the perspective of those who created them as well as those who used and analyzed them.

In the first section, I analyze the history of design software, focusing on how their condition of creation affected their design. I introduce how design software were produced from three complementary perspectives.

The first one are design software created as HCI experiment by computer scientists. The second one, in the context of graphic design, came later and sought to replace traditional, analog, graphic design tools.

The third path are design tools created by graphic designers themselves and that sought to reinvent what graphic design meant. In the second section, I explore how designers perceive these digital design tools and how they work with them.

Designers themselves wrote about the impact of digital tools on their work during the early days of computers. They demonstrate how, from their origin, digital tools were both seen as empowering and limiting. Empirical studies, mostly from an HCI perspective give us other ways to understand the relationship by observing designers daily work with computers in more controlled ways or in longitudinal studies.

They reveal the complex interplay between on-screen and off-screen design work. These three different perspectives all show the intricate interplay between designers and their tools. However, we still lack an empirical understanding of designers daily practices with their digital tools, from very specific tasks to more global endeavors. Part I Studying Designers How do designers work with digital tools?

We need to understand how designers work with and around digital design tools: how do they appropriate and adapt them for their specific needs? We also need to understand to what extent current design tools support these practices. Tools play a key role in any given creative process Bertelsen, and it is difficult to decouple and analyze a creative process without taking into account the different tools that support it. To do so, I chose four specific and concrete specific design tasks within overall design projects.

In the following chapters, I present the results of four complementary projects investigating design tasks at different levels of complexity. I chose them because their different scales would allow me to look at design tools from very different points of view and, hopefully, reveal both different and common traits across design task scales.

I first started with extremely specific practices: color selection as well as alignment and distribution. Both these practices are currently supported by dedicated tools, namely the color selector and the alignment and distribution commands. Key Selling Points: PaperbackISBN - No tags were found Short-link Link Embed. Share from cover. Share from page: More magazines by this user. Close Flag as Inappropriate. You have already flagged this document.

Thank you, for helping us keep this platform clean. Alan pipes kombiniert die mglichkeiten aufs beste und stellt neben klassischen werkzeugen und materialien wie marker airbrush und papier auch neue instrumente wie zeichenboards und computerprogramme sowie deren umgang vor.

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Drawing for designers alan pipes Erik van Blokland and Just van Rossum were creating typography in the early 's. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x 22mm 1, I review three approaches to this inquiry. Digital design tools created by designers resulted in very different types of tools. Dibujo para disenadores. Processing has proved to be extremely influential within the design world, it even sparked a new aesthetic in graphic design.

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