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STORAGE MAGAZINE PDF

Sunday, June 9, 2019


PDF Version Editor's Comment: As this issue of Storage magazine goes to print , there are reports on the BBC and elsewhere that IBM has decreed that their. The best enterprise storage products of ; A secondary storage management answer to mass fragmentation; Hot data storage technology trends for Many - if not most - major enterprises are experiencing enormous increases in the demand for storage and computing power. Few, if any, will have the budget to .


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Download Storage - Spring magazine for free from ebookbiz. To download click on the following link. Title: myavr.info, Author: Tank Storage Magazine, Name: myavr.info, Prostar buys stake in China's third largest storage terminal Prostar Capital has. TERMINAL NEWS l INCIDENT REPORT. Incident report A summary of the recent explosions, fires and leaks in the tank storage industry 14/6/ 19/7/

Just as vital is the protection of the areas in and around and underneath tanks, including concrete tank pads, flooring, secondary containment and waste water areas. These areas must be able to withstand spills and splashes, and tank leaks from aggressive chemical exposures, including strong acids, alkalis, gases, solvents and oxidisers, to prevent migration into the concrete surfaces.

These coatings are based on a unique, patented cross-linking polymer system that creates a very dense, tightly knit chemical structure, with a virtually impenetrable surface.

UDME consulted with APC to review what high performance coatings would provide acid resistance on new concrete pads that will hold chemical tanks used in fertiliser production and the surrounding areas at the facility. These conditions included: For heat curing ChemLine coatings in these large outdoor areas, APC built a protective enclosed area using plastic sheeting wrapped around the staging as a support.

This provided adequate protection during the heat curing stage. ChemLine was applied at three different power facilities in the cities of Ahal, Lebap and Mary. Various chemicals are used at these facilities, including the following, and these are all safely contained with ChemLine: For these projects, APC first applied a ChemLine primer coat blue colour , with ChemLine red colour next as the base coat, finished with ChemLine grey colour as the top coat.

This protection is an imperative for any bulk liquid storage facility, tank farm or chemical processor that wants to meet regulatory compliance and that wants to protect the environment from the hazards of chemical products.

The value of the audience is defined by who reads the magazine and therefore who sees your advert. Tank Storage Magazine is printed six times a year.

For every issue: We are proud to print nearly 40, copies of the magazine every year. We distribute the magazine at ALL major trade shows. The BPA audit lets your compare our readership with. The coupler incorporates a U-pin design that enables an operator to disassemble the couple in a matter of seconds. This design enables the operator to gain access to the internal components, perform maintenance and quickly put the coupler back in service.

Dave Morrow, director of products for engineered systems says: Revolutionary singlepoint top-loading system launched The SmartTech Logic terminal ground system, the first all-in-one system for loading terminals, has been launched by SixAxis. It contains features including monitoring potential overfill; monitoring loading arm position, enabling dead-man control and the ability to log external environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. The interface allows the operator to immediately see operational issues and activities via a pre-set menu.

Real-time wireless communication to the terminal automation system is also possible with this grounding system.

Graeme Murphy, VP of business strategy and development for Saferack says: These certification standards are used in US and Canada to ensure that equipment meets certain standards for operating in potentially hazardous conditions. New wirelesslymonitored storage tank emergency vents Emerson has introduced wirelessly-monitored Enardo emergency pressure relief vents for abnormally high storage tank pressures in the oil and gas, chemical and petrochemical industries.

The new product design consists of a proximity indicator and wireless transmitter integrated with an EPRV. The indicator senses movement of the emergency vent. Along with the recent introduction of wirelessly-monitored pressure vacuum relief vents more information is now available to quickly identify and resolve pressure issues that can impact safety and emissions.

Pentair brings new series of pressure and vacuum relief valves to market The new Anderson Greenwood Series of pressure and vacuum relief valves, compliant with the latest API standard, has been launched by Pentair Valves and Controls. These valves are the first high capacity full lift valves verified to meet the requirements of the 7th edition of API , which covers normal and emergency vapour venting requirements for bulk liquid storage tanks. The valves remain closed longer and enhance flow capacity, resulting in increased productivity and reduced evaporation.

The range is available in weight or spring-loaded designs and comes in two to 12 inch sizes. European-wide insulation projects underway for Belfa Belgian-based Belfaconstruct is working on several tank insulation projects across Europe as insulation and cladding deliver proven cost savings for operators.

Additionally, Belfaconstruct is also underway with its first UK project in Nottinghamshire for the cladding of two concrete tanks and will begin a project in January for the insulation and cladding of 15 steel tanks in Norway. Belfaconstruct specliaises in the construction and insulation of steel tanks, and the cladding of concrete tanks, all over Europe.

In response to companies facing greater constraints on their budgets as larger projects struggle to get the necessary financing after the economic crisis in , Belfaconstruct offers greater project flexibility and detailed preparation before arriving on site to ensure works are completed swiftly and efficiently.

Owner Bert Boonen says: We come on site last and our works are the finishing touch to the project so the cladding is the aesthetic part. The cutouts and metal roofs are carefully made and produced on site. Boonen adds: The company worked with Jsc Ogcc Kazstroyservice to secure the project. Ergil will supply shell and tube heat exchanger to KSS. Diethanolamine DEA regenerator reboiler, methyldiethanolamine MDEA regenerator reboiler, reboiler sour water stripping SWS , hydrogenation cooler, stripped water trim cooler are the heat exchanger types that would be supplied.

The minimum design pressure was 4. These are some of the designing standards adopted to design the heat exchangers for KSS. Fort Vale launches new version of Safeload API bottom loading coupler Fort Vale is launching a new version of its loading coupler with an aluminium handle.

The new handle reduces the mechanical effort required to open and close the poppet during service. It has a grab handle to make it even quicker to manoeuvre the coupler onto the tank adaptor and a non-slip ball for extra safety during actuation.

Whilst the handle is rugged, it is lightweight and is an available option across the entire Safeload API range. The company says that its coupler improves safety and keep maintenance requirements minimal. A splined spindle offers greater engagement and strength to the handle and internal components than traditional pins. Safeload has internal compression springs which are more durable.

The actuating springs are also internal and are therefore not vulnerable to damage or corrosion.

The coupler underwent rigorous testing in various settings and environments. At the beginning of the company launched its new Safeload loading arm system, of which the key component is the balance mechanism, which is manufactured in stainless steel instead of traditional cast steel with a coated finish Euan Fisher, business development manager for petroleum products says: Our track record of success in the Ameri. Headquartered in Singapore, Rotary has established a strong Headquartered in Singapore, Rotary has established a strong presence in the Asia-Pacific region and continues to make presence in the Asia-Pacific region and continues to make its mark as a global player.

Established in , Rotary has its mark as a global player. Established in , Rotary has forged a reputation built on its hallmark traits of providing forged a reputation built on its hallmark traits of providing quality services, within budget, safely and on-time delivery. It will feature extensive analysis on the dynamics in this market as well as the latest storage terminal and technical developments as well as in-depth operator interviews.

It will also be distributed at: Editorial topics to include: We serve a w lightning PR Technologies combines a patented induction technology and robotics to reduce cost, down time and the environmental impact of tank refurbishment Every year there are millions of square meters of coated steel surface in storage tanks across the globe that require refurbishing. Estimates suggest that Europe along accounts for million m2.

Stripping of protective coating is traditionally carried out using manual or robotic abrasive blasting or UHP water. These technologies require large quantities of energy and processing grit or water.

Refurbishment expenses, extended down time and waste handling represent a considerable cost to storage tank owners and management. In addition to the economic impacts, the traditional stripping methods leave a heavy CO2 footprint, risk of local contamination and health hazards to operators and workers. RPR Technologies AS, with their unique patented solutions, provides a range of induction paint removal systems.

The technology operates by transferring high frequency electric currents to magnetic steel by moving an inductor head over the surface, facilitating a localised controlled and fast heating of the steel. This results in a fast disbonding of most types of coatings with thickness up to mm. The RPR system requires a minimum steel thickness of 5 mm to avoid damage on the backside coatings or insulation material used.

Easy containment and no contaminated deposits of sand or water make induction not only practical on tough surfaces but also on coatings containing hazardous substances like asbestos, lead or PCB. Unlike blasting methods, induction does not break the coating into small particles, but it rather comes off in strips and flakes for easy bagging and containment. The project intends to develop the RPR induction system for removal of coatings in storage tanks with focus on environment, health, safety, time and costs.

Alveberg AS. Other benefits are increased stripping rates per hour, more efficient working conditions and shorter down time. The cost reduction comes from reduced logistics and waste handling, shorter down time, higher removal rates, reduced energy costs and fewer man hours.

The eco-innovation initiative bridges the gap between research and the market. It encourages innovative ideas for new products, services and processes that protect the environment and helps them become fully-fledged commercial prospects, ready for use by business and industry.

In doing so the initiative not only helps the EU meet its environmental objectives but also boosts economic growth. In terms of tank refurbishment, the GreenTank project meets all these 04 objectives. RPR Technologies now offers optimised solutions for storage tanks where the induction heads are mounted to robotics and electric trollies with vertical support.

These automated aids are in particular ideal for removal of difficult coatings on tank floor and lower wall section, securing a consistent predictable result and alleviating work load for the operators. Surface coatings; coal tar epoxy microns , solvent free epoxy microns and amine cured epoxy microns were cleaned down to the zink silicate or iron oxide primer. Nonetheless even when sweep blasting is warranted, using RPR induction will still be a significantly more cost-effective solution.

Paint stripping inside storage tanks generally require up to kilograms sand per m2 that needs to be managed through the manhole.

Removal via RPR induction does not add any waste or contaminated water and thus greatly reduces handling, transport and disposal costs.

Energy wasted on transport and processing is one thing, another is the actual energy consumption in use. Adding to the merits of induction are quiet operation and safer working environment for the operator and co-workers. Airborne particles and gas emissions are very low and the work can be done in tanks simultaneously with inspection and other maintenance work taking place. The RPR induction system with. There are various options for end users who opt for a low maintenance IFR made of aluminum alloy or stainless steel.

There are various factors to consider when deciding which IFR to use. Carbon steel This is the oldest and still very common material found in IFRs. It can be supplied by the same tank builders who have built the storage tank and it is welded and has to comply to the same welding standards as storage tanks. It is robust yet flexible and suitable for virtually all storage products. Building an IFR in carbon steel takes quite some time and a lot of expertise on site as all the manufacturing and fitting is done there.

Also, carbon steel needs regular maintenance to control corrosion. This can lead to unpleasant down times.

It is nevertheless very important to use an experienced and trustworthy supplier who guarantees a proper functioning of the IFR during its life cycle. The costs of down time are much higher than the cost of the IFR, if it needs to be dismantled or modified later on. Stainless steel The most adaptive material to potentially changing storage products is stainless steel. Due to its relatively high price it is mainly used for corrosive products, or in the case of biofuels, for just those parts of the IFR that are in direct contact with the liquid.

GRE This can be provided in various qualities to comply with the stored product.

Its low degree of prefabrication requires a skilled workforce. Aluminum The lightest and ultimately cheapest option, aluminum is suitable for almost all storage products used in the industry. There are limitations in terms of corrosion resistance against sulfur, demineralised water and certain aggressive chemicals.

The biggest advantage of aluminum emerges during installation. This speeds up the installation. Also, this metal oriented industry has very little experience with plastic materials.

It thus may be quite difficult for a purchaser to present the correct specification. Full contact decks are fully immersed into the product and have no vapour phase between the product and the IFR. Pontoon-type decks however only have their floating pontoons wetted in the product, with the skin that acts as vapour barrier a few inches over the product level, thus leaving a certain amount of vapour space between the deck and the product.

The main advantage of skin and pontoon decks is probably the low material and installation cost, and it can usually be brought into the tank through the tank manhole, whereas full contact IFRs usually have much larger parts that need additional entry doors or roof openings.

Different manufacturers have introduced different designs, especially for the full contact decks. Foam filled panels make it nearly impossible to properly identify gas in them. The so called honey comb aluminum panels need special vapour permeable honey comb cells to make an inspection possible. In reality though this will be quite difficult. The best option would be empty floaters where no gas can be trapped. This would apply for pontoons as well as for certain makes of aluminum or stainless steel full contact decks.

Single deck open top IFRs can also be found made from aluminum.

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They provide ultimate visibility for trapped product but are subject to flooding from the top. A different type of IFR is the open-top bulkheaded design, which is an evolution of the.

It has multiple flotation compartments and qualifies for rim foam systems in NFPA but it does not provide protection against product or water from the top, as eventually the open top floaters will keep the liquid on the top side without the possibility to drain it. The design is rather simple though and therefore not very expensive. This type of IFR is usually made of carbon steel, but there are designs in stainless steel as well as in aluminum. The most common design for IFRs made from carbon steel has peripheral closed-top bulk-headed compartments and other closed compartments distributed over the surface if required.

This option ensures proper operation under virtually all conditions, allows drainage of product on the top side and offers good inspection possibilities of the flotation compartment through inspection hatches on the top side. The downside of this design is the weight, the subsequent loss of storage volume and ultimately the cost. Another option is the double-deck with continuous closed top and bottom decks, which contain various compartments.

All of those four designs are designed as full contact decks which are in full contact with the liquid surface. The IFR on floats is the most widely spread design for aluminum decks. It is easy to. It is the most cost efficient option compared to all other designs, it is very light weight and yet flexible to accommodate movement of the stored product.

As it is not in full contact with the product, the proper design of the structure, including the clamping systems, is very important. With around 5, installations worldwide, the pontoon type Vaconodeck is one of the most well-known products in the market. It is an array of different full contact designs made from aluminum. It may include honeycomb or foam cores for stability. This design combines the typical advantages of aluminum, such as very low maintenance cost, high level of prefabrication and easy installability with a full contact and robust design usually know from carbon steel decks.

The floaters are empty with neither foam nor honeycomb structures, which allows easy detection of combustible gases in the floaters. One aspect that has emerged recently, and mainly in the US, is the focus on welded vs clamped deck seams.

The potential leak from clamped seams is regarded as quite important by the Environmental Protection Agency who define the emissions for IFRs.

As there are quite different approaches in the market from different manufacturers it is probably quite simplistic to come this digital approach. The difficulty starts when it comes to welding nonferrous metals in a tank environment. Various installations by otherwise established manufacturers have shown unexpected difficulties. Also, aluminum weld seams have. The future will show if this approach can be maintained successfully, especially with a shortage of aluminum welders available in the market.

As a user there are choices to be made beyond price or install time and cost. So it is quite worthwhile to invest some time to find out what the requirements really are today and tomorrow. Serious and reasonable IFR manufacturers should be able and competent partners to discuss suitable options before the budgets are made.

In the end every solutions bears its ups and downs and there is no such thing as black and white for this choice. Stay on top of your tanks without leaving the control room Smart Wireless tank protection. Improve safety, emissions control and asset protection with a first-of-its kind emergency pressure relief vent EPRV with Smart Wireless technology.

Adding wireless monitoring to EPRVs provides real-time feedback and enables fast response to potential emergencies. Be in control without leaving the safety of the control room.

All rights reserved. Printed in the U. The growth of the company in the provision of fall prevention systems and fluid transfer solutions has prompted a growth in its distributor network to span the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

Loadtec managing director Alec Keeler explains: Giving them that confidence comes from close support, training and development of their skills. Familiarisation within the factory and our in-house team is important, but this has to be complimented with regional training events to understand the nuances of culture and level of technical development in their home countries.

This was followed by a talk about safety and fall prevention systems. Keeler highlighted real-life, operational examples of an inherent lack of understanding surrounding safety and fall prevention systems as well as how the company is working to address these deficits with their range of solutions including the multi modal elevating safety access system.

There have been a lot of companies coming to the market that are driving prices down for equipment but not offering the total care package. Customers have been disappointed, initially they get low capital cost but paying a high lifetime cost. We want to be involved at concept and consulting stage, to provide the best quality technical solution and to go on and support our products through their lifetime.

Keeler adds: Incontrol have also built some amazing systems for us in the last few years so the natural development of that is to join forces. There were working demonstrations of various loading arms for different applications as well as a wide range of safe access equipment. In the evening distributors were treated to a gala dinner at the Circolo della Caccia club as.

On the second day, as part of the networking event, distributors were given a tour of the private Righini Collection, which comprises a rare and unique collection of classical, vintage cars. Regulatory requirements have driven a host of tank upgrades now available to the industry.

Upgrades include internal floating roofs, external floating roofs, guide pole sleeves, double seals, liquid mounted mechanical shoe seals, closed loop sample systems, inert gas blanket pads and vapour recovery systems. In addition, updated tank monitoring systems, use of overfill alarms and operating procedures have further reduced vapour emissions by better product level monitoring, required scheduled seal inspections as well as minimising poor past practices like: Lowering of tank emissions from this point forward is a challenge as most of the larger emission sources have been addressed.

To achieve further reductions will require examining. Tank operations such as tank cleaning, initial filling and unscheduled maintenance activities can produce a substantial amount of hydrocarbon vapours. In order to mitigate emissions from these activities conventional practices should be challenged and replaced with use of better technologies, operational and maintenance practices.

That being said no one would or should challenge the benefits to the environment by industries adherence to API inspection and repair program. In an effort to combat the increased frequency of tank cleanings, several US states have placed specific requirements on tank cleaning operations in an effort to minimise vapour emissions. Use of vapour burning engines, thermal oxidisers, portable condensers, charcoal adsorptions packs and scrubbers have worked to some extent on specific clean product tanks where the tank atmosphere can be displaced rapidly, although less harmful emissions from the destruction of hydrocarbon HC vapors can still occur.

Once the sludge has been liquefied and pumped from the tank a more typical cleaning can take place similar to clean product tanks. An added advantage of the SJM system is the jet mixers can be permanently installed for future use of routine desludging and scheduled cleaning without the need for opening up of the tank. Lastly, unscheduled repairs and associated tank cleanings in many cases can be avoided all together by making in-service repairs. Friction forge bonding FFB is.

Reduction in tank emissions has come a long way due to regulatory driven innovative technologies Once the studs are installed an engineered gasketed lap patch plate is bolted in place. This in-service repair method restores integrity to the leaking or weakened area of the tank in a similar manner that a welded lap patch repair does only without need of conventional welding.

In summary it should be noted that reduction in tank emissions has come a long way due to regulatory driven innovative technologies over the years. The combination of drivers and innovation should continue as newer and more innovative technologies continue to evolve. Our product portfolio for emission control includes solutions for:. We execute many of our storage tank projects on a lump-sum, turnkey basis, performing every phase of the project with our in-house resources and providing a single point of contact for our customers.

This true EPC approach is possible because we have a vast global network of engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction resources that allow us to quickly mobilize people, material and equipment wherever they are needed.

Our integrated business model translates into shorter project schedules, lower costs, improved quality control and reduced risk for the customer—allowing them to focus on their core business operations. Compared to the competition, Blackmer gives us the reliability and dependability we need. CC Hydro is a new material from Concrete Canvas, which offers a different approach. It can be unrolled and jointed as easily as a conventional geomembrane liner, but it has an integrated protective concrete layer on one side, thus eliminating the need for burial.

Essentially it is concrete on a roll. The result is a range of flexible fabric from 5 to 13mm thick, in roll lengths up to m. More recently it has been adopted. The ability to be unrolled in the same manner as a geosynthetic product and then set hard to form a concrete surface with a design life of more than 50 years is a unique quality in the material.

The standard product does however have its limitations, the CC joint provides limited impermeability and cannot be easily leak tested. That means its use, until now, has been limited primarily to erosion control rather than for containment applications. CC Hydro can provide the same level of impermeability in containment applications as a conventional geomembrane but has an integrated protective concrete surface as part of the package. By contrast, conventional geomembranes typically require 0.

The logistical and time savings benefits of eliminating top cover are enormous, not to mention the safety benefits of reducing plant and personnel movements in a high risk environment such as a petrochemical plant. A key feature of CC Hydro is that it incorporates a high visibility welding strip along one edge.

This allows the product to be thermally. It also incorporates a high tensile reinforcement scrim embedded in the membrane, this gives the material a high level of puncture and tear resistance as well as adding stiffness. The system has already completed a raft of national and international tests standards including long term durability and fire certification tests. Concrete is inherently far more fire resistant than conventional geosynthetics, allowing CC to be assessed against building materials such as concrete and plaster board.

Under the European Norm for building material CC achieved a Euroclass B classification, the second highest level achievable. In addition, CC Hydro has been tested to and passed the Canadian national standard for flammability of secondary containment liners with a zero burn time. This also has the advantage of allowing installation with an existing thermal welding contractor with only minimal additional training.

The twin track weld for jointing CC Hydro layers together works by welding two parallel seams along each joint to create an air channel; and this is then pressurised to ensure joint integrity and continuous impermeable across the containment surface. Its distinct colour — bright blue — allows any uncovered areas, around joints or interfaces with upstands to be easily identified on site and addressed during installation, to ensure the membrane has complete protection.

Significant development time has been invested in the polymer chemistry, in order to create a material which. BENEFITS In the past there have broadly been two approaches, a hard structure, such as poured or precast slabs of concrete, often onto a trapezoidal earth berm. Or a flexible geomembrane liner buried deep within the bund to protect it from the effects of weather, UV and puncture.

Both of these approaches require large amounts of plant, personnel and time. Pre-cast or poured concrete offers long term durability but is logistically complex, subject to weather conditions and costly.

Geomembrane liners are generally seen as fast and easy to install but require large amounts of earth works and often expensive imported fill to provide top cover. CC Hydro offers a new approach. It can be unrolled and jointed as easily as a conventional liner system but provides the long term protection and durability of a concrete structure.

This has the added benefit when remediating existing infrastructure in that it can be laid directly onto an existing bund profile without any additional excavation works.

Also, because CC Hydro is the only surface lying containment product, it is easy to inspect post-installation — even several years after the contractors have finished. All joints are fully visible and any damage can by identified and repaired and re-tested, with nothing hidden from view, providing the terminal operator with peace of mind that they comply with current regulations. There is also a final benefit that comes when considering the total life cycle costs.

A standard earth covered bund for example, will normally require a high degree of ongoing maintenance. In arid climates this may be in the form of annual re-profile to combat the effects of weathering and erosion. Longer term, at end-of-life, any top cover may also contain hidden costs at the point of disposal. This is a significant cost when consider the volume of fill material laid over membranes in a typical tank storage facility.

By combining a containment liner and hard armour protection into a single product, Concrete Canvas has made a product which is as easy to install as a liner and as durable as concrete.

A growing world population with rising living standards requires more and more advances in energy supply and efficiency. According to the International Energy Agency, the demand for energy across the world is projected to grow by 1. A cornerstone of the energy supply, natural gas is the fastest growing fossil fuel at 1. It can be transported safely and delivered efficiently in its liquefied form, by specially designed LNG tankers, or from country to country or across continents, through a network of pipelines.

In addition countries such as China and India are facing more pressure to bring carbon emissions down by a shift away from coal.

It is also aiming to dominate the market for building ships fueled by both oil and gas. The Singapore government is also expanding gas infrastructure and investing heavily in LNG. Compared to natural gas, which has grown at 2. LNG is clearly set to be the fuel which will help fill this gap and bring about greater demand. Gardner Denver has undertaken extensive research on LNG as a fuel and has implemented a range of projects with industry partners.

LNG is set to thrive in both the shipping and transport sectors. The range includes the LNG loading arm, which has been designed for the bottom loading and unloading of road or rail tankers and the marine loading arm, for the loading and unloading of LNG product from river barges, ships and ocean going super tankers.

Engineering and design are constantly improved to ensure the safety and security of LNG terminals and ships. LNG is stored at an ambient temperature so that a tank rupture will not cause an explosion. LNG spills on the ground or in water it vaporises quickly and leaves behind no residues. It can ignite as it vaporises but only if there is a source of ignition.

While the LNG industry has created an enviable track record of safety in operations and transport, complacency should not be seen as a barrier to innovation and development across the supply chain and it is imperative that all parties conform to the same high level of attention to safety. The facility is able to transfer LNG between ships and compressed natural gas CNG to the shore using the permanently moored floating storage and regasification unit, the Golar Winter, which has had modifications including the addition of LNG loading arms.

In order to meet the extreme pressure, flows and conditions required, as well as stringent international safety standards, the transfer process between the Golar Winter and the liquefied natural gas shuttle is accomplished through Emco Wheaton LNG marine loading arms. The LNG will be vapourised onboard the FSRU to the gaseous state and then injected into the gas pipeline network by means of the CNG marine loading arm and into the shore based pipeline.

Emco Wheaton supplied 2 x 12 inch CNG marine loading arms which. To ensure safe operation, an integrated safety feature will allow the rapid and automatic release of the loading arm from the ship in the event of an emergency. As well as being able to handle the high pressure, the loading arm had to be designed such that a maximum arm availability throughout the lifetime of the unit can be guaranteed.

This was one of the key requirements of the customer as the CNG arm is the only available interface to the shore based gas pipeline. A failure or even short unavailability of the unit would result in a shutdown of the regasification vessel and consequently in a shortage of gas supply. Due to the potential motion of the vessel when connected, the balancing of the arm is achieved by a rigid link pantograph system with independent counterweights directly linked to the inboard and outboard arm.

Brodie BiRotor Plus positive displacement meters offer unsurpassed accuracy and reliability. They are the industry standard when it comes to accuracy of custody transfer measurement. Some cloud storage services, such as Apple iCloud, Google Drive and Microsoft OneDrive, are generalists, offering not only folder and file syncing, but also media-playing and device syncing.

These products even double as collaboration software , offering real-time document coediting. Distinct from but overlapping in some cases with cloud storage are online backup services. Some of these, such as Carbonite, are all about disaster recovery, while IDrive combines that goal with syncing and sharing capabilities.

In fact, most cloud services offer some level of backup, almost as a consequence of their intended function. It follows logically that any files uploaded to a cloud service are also protected from disk failures, since there are copies of them in the cloud. But true online backup services can back up all of your computer's files, not just those in a synced folder structure.

Whereas syncing is about managing select files, backup tends to be a bulk, just-in-case play. With syncing, you pick the documents you might need and keep them in the cloud for easy access. With backup, you protect everything you think you might regret losing. Easy, immediate access is not guaranteed with online backup, nor is it the point. Peace of mind is. The Deal With the Cloud Just to clear up any confusion, the cloud part of cloud-based storage services refers to storing your files somewhere other than your computer's hard drive, usually on the provider's servers.

As one tech pundit put it: "There is no Cloud. It's just someone else's computer. Your data is usually encrypted before making the journey over the internet to the providers' servers, and, while it lives on those servers, it's also encrypted. Well-designed services don't upload entire files every time they change. They just upload the changes, saving your connection bandwidth. You can access your cloud files through an app or software installed on your computer once it's installed, it's usually pretty much invisible , though you need an internet connection for it to work.

If you temporarily don't have an internet connection, that's okay. With around 5, installations worldwide, the pontoon type Vaconodeck is one of the most well-known products in the market. It is an array of different full contact designs made from aluminum. It may include honeycomb or foam cores for stability. This design combines the typical advantages of aluminum, such as very low maintenance cost, high level of prefabrication and easy installability with a full contact and robust design usually know from carbon steel decks.

The floaters are empty with neither foam nor honeycomb structures, which allows easy detection of combustible gases in the floaters.

One aspect that has emerged recently, and mainly in the US, is the focus on welded vs clamped deck seams. The potential leak from clamped seams is regarded as quite important by the Environmental Protection Agency who define the emissions for IFRs. As there are quite different approaches in the market from different manufacturers it is probably quite simplistic to come this digital approach.

The difficulty starts when it comes to welding nonferrous metals in a tank environment. Various installations by otherwise established manufacturers have shown unexpected difficulties. Also, aluminum weld seams have. The future will show if this approach can be maintained successfully, especially with a shortage of aluminum welders available in the market.

As a user there are choices to be made beyond price or install time and cost. So it is quite worthwhile to invest some time to find out what the requirements really are today and tomorrow.

Serious and reasonable IFR manufacturers should be able and competent partners to discuss suitable options before the budgets are made. In the end every solutions bears its ups and downs and there is no such thing as black and white for this choice. Stay on top of your tanks without leaving the control room Smart Wireless tank protection.

Improve safety, emissions control and asset protection with a first-of-its kind emergency pressure relief vent EPRV with Smart Wireless technology. Adding wireless monitoring to EPRVs provides real-time feedback and enables fast response to potential emergencies. Be in control without leaving the safety of the control room. All rights reserved. Printed in the U. The growth of the company in the provision of fall prevention systems and fluid transfer solutions has prompted a growth in its distributor network to span the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

Loadtec managing director Alec Keeler explains: Giving them that confidence comes from close support, training and development of their skills. Familiarisation within the factory and our in-house team is important, but this has to be complimented with regional training events to understand the nuances of culture and level of technical development in their home countries.

This was followed by a talk about safety and fall prevention systems. Keeler highlighted real-life, operational examples of an inherent lack of understanding surrounding safety and fall prevention systems as well as how the company is working to address these deficits with their range of solutions including the multi modal elevating safety access system.

There have been a lot of companies coming to the market that are driving prices down for equipment but not offering the total care package. Customers have been disappointed, initially they get low capital cost but paying a high lifetime cost. We want to be involved at concept and consulting stage, to provide the best quality technical solution and to go on and support our products through their lifetime.

Keeler adds: Incontrol have also built some amazing systems for us in the last few years so the natural development of that is to join forces. There were working demonstrations of various loading arms for different applications as well as a wide range of safe access equipment. In the evening distributors were treated to a gala dinner at the Circolo della Caccia club as. On the second day, as part of the networking event, distributors were given a tour of the private Righini Collection, which comprises a rare and unique collection of classical, vintage cars.

Regulatory requirements have driven a host of tank upgrades now available to the industry. Upgrades include internal floating roofs, external floating roofs, guide pole sleeves, double seals, liquid mounted mechanical shoe seals, closed loop sample systems, inert gas blanket pads and vapour recovery systems. In addition, updated tank monitoring systems, use of overfill alarms and operating procedures have further reduced vapour emissions by better product level monitoring, required scheduled seal inspections as well as minimising poor past practices like: Lowering of tank emissions from this point forward is a challenge as most of the larger emission sources have been addressed.

To achieve further reductions will require examining. Tank operations such as tank cleaning, initial filling and unscheduled maintenance activities can produce a substantial amount of hydrocarbon vapours. In order to mitigate emissions from these activities conventional practices should be challenged and replaced with use of better technologies, operational and maintenance practices.

That being said no one would or should challenge the benefits to the environment by industries adherence to API inspection and repair program. In an effort to combat the increased frequency of tank cleanings, several US states have placed specific requirements on tank cleaning operations in an effort to minimise vapour emissions. Use of vapour burning engines, thermal oxidisers, portable condensers, charcoal adsorptions packs and scrubbers have worked to some extent on specific clean product tanks where the tank atmosphere can be displaced rapidly, although less harmful emissions from the destruction of hydrocarbon HC vapors can still occur.

Once the sludge has been liquefied and pumped from the tank a more typical cleaning can take place similar to clean product tanks. An added advantage of the SJM system is the jet mixers can be permanently installed for future use of routine desludging and scheduled cleaning without the need for opening up of the tank.

Lastly, unscheduled repairs and associated tank cleanings in many cases can be avoided all together by making in-service repairs. Friction forge bonding FFB is.

Reduction in tank emissions has come a long way due to regulatory driven innovative technologies Once the studs are installed an engineered gasketed lap patch plate is bolted in place. This in-service repair method restores integrity to the leaking or weakened area of the tank in a similar manner that a welded lap patch repair does only without need of conventional welding.

In summary it should be noted that reduction in tank emissions has come a long way due to regulatory driven innovative technologies over the years. The combination of drivers and innovation should continue as newer and more innovative technologies continue to evolve. Our product portfolio for emission control includes solutions for:. We execute many of our storage tank projects on a lump-sum, turnkey basis, performing every phase of the project with our in-house resources and providing a single point of contact for our customers.

This true EPC approach is possible because we have a vast global network of engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction resources that allow us to quickly mobilize people, material and equipment wherever they are needed. Our integrated business model translates into shorter project schedules, lower costs, improved quality control and reduced risk for the customer—allowing them to focus on their core business operations. Compared to the competition, Blackmer gives us the reliability and dependability we need.

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CC Hydro is a new material from Concrete Canvas, which offers a different approach. It can be unrolled and jointed as easily as a conventional geomembrane liner, but it has an integrated protective concrete layer on one side, thus eliminating the need for burial.

Essentially it is concrete on a roll. The result is a range of flexible fabric from 5 to 13mm thick, in roll lengths up to m. More recently it has been adopted. The ability to be unrolled in the same manner as a geosynthetic product and then set hard to form a concrete surface with a design life of more than 50 years is a unique quality in the material. The standard product does however have its limitations, the CC joint provides limited impermeability and cannot be easily leak tested.

That means its use, until now, has been limited primarily to erosion control rather than for containment applications. CC Hydro can provide the same level of impermeability in containment applications as a conventional geomembrane but has an integrated protective concrete surface as part of the package.

By contrast, conventional geomembranes typically require 0. The logistical and time savings benefits of eliminating top cover are enormous, not to mention the safety benefits of reducing plant and personnel movements in a high risk environment such as a petrochemical plant.

A key feature of CC Hydro is that it incorporates a high visibility welding strip along one edge. This allows the product to be thermally. It also incorporates a high tensile reinforcement scrim embedded in the membrane, this gives the material a high level of puncture and tear resistance as well as adding stiffness. The system has already completed a raft of national and international tests standards including long term durability and fire certification tests.

Concrete is inherently far more fire resistant than conventional geosynthetics, allowing CC to be assessed against building materials such as concrete and plaster board.

Under the European Norm for building material CC achieved a Euroclass B classification, the second highest level achievable. In addition, CC Hydro has been tested to and passed the Canadian national standard for flammability of secondary containment liners with a zero burn time.

This also has the advantage of allowing installation with an existing thermal welding contractor with only minimal additional training. The twin track weld for jointing CC Hydro layers together works by welding two parallel seams along each joint to create an air channel; and this is then pressurised to ensure joint integrity and continuous impermeable across the containment surface.

Its distinct colour — bright blue — allows any uncovered areas, around joints or interfaces with upstands to be easily identified on site and addressed during installation, to ensure the membrane has complete protection.

Significant development time has been invested in the polymer chemistry, in order to create a material which. BENEFITS In the past there have broadly been two approaches, a hard structure, such as poured or precast slabs of concrete, often onto a trapezoidal earth berm. Or a flexible geomembrane liner buried deep within the bund to protect it from the effects of weather, UV and puncture. Both of these approaches require large amounts of plant, personnel and time.

Pre-cast or poured concrete offers long term durability but is logistically complex, subject to weather conditions and costly. Geomembrane liners are generally seen as fast and easy to install but require large amounts of earth works and often expensive imported fill to provide top cover. CC Hydro offers a new approach. It can be unrolled and jointed as easily as a conventional liner system but provides the long term protection and durability of a concrete structure.

This has the added benefit when remediating existing infrastructure in that it can be laid directly onto an existing bund profile without any additional excavation works. Also, because CC Hydro is the only surface lying containment product, it is easy to inspect post-installation — even several years after the contractors have finished. All joints are fully visible and any damage can by identified and repaired and re-tested, with nothing hidden from view, providing the terminal operator with peace of mind that they comply with current regulations.

There is also a final benefit that comes when considering the total life cycle costs. A standard earth covered bund for example, will normally require a high degree of ongoing maintenance. In arid climates this may be in the form of annual re-profile to combat the effects of weathering and erosion.

Longer term, at end-of-life, any top cover may also contain hidden costs at the point of disposal. This is a significant cost when consider the volume of fill material laid over membranes in a typical tank storage facility. By combining a containment liner and hard armour protection into a single product, Concrete Canvas has made a product which is as easy to install as a liner and as durable as concrete. A growing world population with rising living standards requires more and more advances in energy supply and efficiency.

According to the International Energy Agency, the demand for energy across the world is projected to grow by 1. A cornerstone of the energy supply, natural gas is the fastest growing fossil fuel at 1.

It can be transported safely and delivered efficiently in its liquefied form, by specially designed LNG tankers, or from country to country or across continents, through a network of pipelines. In addition countries such as China and India are facing more pressure to bring carbon emissions down by a shift away from coal. It is also aiming to dominate the market for building ships fueled by both oil and gas.

The Singapore government is also expanding gas infrastructure and investing heavily in LNG. Compared to natural gas, which has grown at 2. LNG is clearly set to be the fuel which will help fill this gap and bring about greater demand.

Gardner Denver has undertaken extensive research on LNG as a fuel and has implemented a range of projects with industry partners. LNG is set to thrive in both the shipping and transport sectors. The range includes the LNG loading arm, which has been designed for the bottom loading and unloading of road or rail tankers and the marine loading arm, for the loading and unloading of LNG product from river barges, ships and ocean going super tankers. Engineering and design are constantly improved to ensure the safety and security of LNG terminals and ships.

LNG is stored at an ambient temperature so that a tank rupture will not cause an explosion. LNG spills on the ground or in water it vaporises quickly and leaves behind no residues. It can ignite as it vaporises but only if there is a source of ignition. While the LNG industry has created an enviable track record of safety in operations and transport, complacency should not be seen as a barrier to innovation and development across the supply chain and it is imperative that all parties conform to the same high level of attention to safety.

The facility is able to transfer LNG between ships and compressed natural gas CNG to the shore using the permanently moored floating storage and regasification unit, the Golar Winter, which has had modifications including the addition of LNG loading arms. In order to meet the extreme pressure, flows and conditions required, as well as stringent international safety standards, the transfer process between the Golar Winter and the liquefied natural gas shuttle is accomplished through Emco Wheaton LNG marine loading arms.

The LNG will be vapourised onboard the FSRU to the gaseous state and then injected into the gas pipeline network by means of the CNG marine loading arm and into the shore based pipeline.

Emco Wheaton supplied 2 x 12 inch CNG marine loading arms which. To ensure safe operation, an integrated safety feature will allow the rapid and automatic release of the loading arm from the ship in the event of an emergency.

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As well as being able to handle the high pressure, the loading arm had to be designed such that a maximum arm availability throughout the lifetime of the unit can be guaranteed.

This was one of the key requirements of the customer as the CNG arm is the only available interface to the shore based gas pipeline. A failure or even short unavailability of the unit would result in a shutdown of the regasification vessel and consequently in a shortage of gas supply. Due to the potential motion of the vessel when connected, the balancing of the arm is achieved by a rigid link pantograph system with independent counterweights directly linked to the inboard and outboard arm.

Brodie BiRotor Plus positive displacement meters offer unsurpassed accuracy and reliability. They are the industry standard when it comes to accuracy of custody transfer measurement. Superior Performance Linearity: We are all aware of the impact of failures resulting in possible personnel injury, environmental contamination, and loss of revenues. A range of standards has been developed which the industry has to meet covering inspection regimes and fitness for service assessment.

Operators rely on inspectors and asset engineers to make these assessments, report on condition and specify preventative actions, so it is imperative that these people are suitably trained and qualified to carry out their duties.

The non-destructive testing NDT community has always taken its responsibility very seriously and has developed a wide range of training approaches to ensure high standards. The range of training approaches includes the following: However, the limitations include consistency of knowledge transfer and independent review to assess capability.

Often the training is targeted at a particular skill development, but lacks the background theory to enable the trainee to fully understand the impli-. Additionally, it requires existing knowledge within the organisation to train others which can have an impact on productivity.

Whilst this can be fairly comprehensive they can also be no more than basic operation. This is certainly useful, but rarely equips the inspector with the broad background knowledge to apply the technique, and does not prove the same competency and an independently certified course.

This can be very effective at building a level of skill and knowledge which is examined and assessed. Again it requires knowledge already in-house, or bringing in an external trainer. The standard of training can be very good, however without external review can also fail to achieve best practice.

In larger organisations with teams of similarly skilled inspectors this can be effective, but smaller organisations find it difficult to resource within and may not have Level III people to approve schemes. PCN is one such scheme that has become very successful globally and is a recognised standard for competence of inspectors.

However, there are limits in that the generic nature of the syllabus, incorporating broad theory and most common practice, often means that actual knowledge of a. For instance, a PCN ultrasonic level II qualified person may not fully appreciate the techniques required for pitting measurement under coating on a tank floor. The main advantage is that it can be used to ensure a base level of competence that will cover theoretical and practical knowledge, and experience in application of the general technique.

Example schemes here are API and EEMUA whereby an inspector undergoes an education and assessment programme specifically designed for storage tank inspection. These schemes deliver qualified people, independently assessed and capable of meeting the needs of industry.

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The bodies behind these schemes also develop best practices and review and update the knowledge bank to ensure the qualifications remain relevant. It is also possible for any training programme to be externally assessed to ensure it meets the criteria set out. In using such an approach it is possible to quickly develop a high quality, independently assessed programme, for specific applications and needs where the generic programmes fall.

This is of particular benefit when bringing new approaches and technology to the market since it can use a small group of experts in the field to peer review, rather than design by committee that a generic scheme often requires. This means a new technology can be developed and the training put in place quickly to enable asset owners to use it in a controlled way.

The elements of SNT-TC-1A include sections on general theory, specific theory, practical training, regular assessment and examination. Practical training would be based on actual machines used for inspection with real tank floor plates incorporating the full range of defects likely to be found. Within SNT-TC-1A the duration of the course is specified as 80 hours to achieve level II, however to qualify and be awarded a certificate the trainee must also complete four months supervised onsite experience and be signed off by an appropriate person.

Sufficient training and examination samples of real world conditions must be available to ensure the training reflects situations the engineers will find on site, and trainers should have real world experience of the application to discuss the sort of challenges faced. As an industry we have been well served by API and EEMUA in developing training programmes for engineers and inspectors regarding the specifics of tank integrity assessment, but the NDT part of the inspection has depended on either employer-based, or generic third party training.

Based around the latest technology Floormap systems the programme ensures operators understand the technology, capabilities and limitations, and can analyse data accurately to provide the best assessment of tank condition. The best way to do this is to ensure any inspection contracts awarded specify the qualification requirements of the team, and records examination certificates.

Offering ultimate installation flexibility, the brand NEW Safeload Loading Arm can be configured to suit a top or bottom fuel supply and left or right orientation. Fort vale SaFeload loading armS. The earliest tanks Verwater jacked were located in the Rotterdam harbour area. The soft soil conditions in the river delta resulted in settlements due to the load of filled storage tanks.

Jacking projects in the years that followed are spread to areas with similar soil conditions throughout Europe and later to locations worldwide. Nowadays, tank settlements are not the prime reason for tank jacking and in fact, a combination of repair works and tank improvements now form the basis for many requests for tank jacking.

Aging is an important concern as many tanks were constructed in the growth decennia around the s and 70s. In the 50 years since, tank bottoms have lost their thickness in such a way that replacement is now necessary. Environmental requirements have also changed significantly, adding special applications to ensure tank bottom tightness and to also extend their lifetime. Secondary containment is new in tank construction and is a requirement by authorities in many places. As a result, under any older repair, tank liners are installed to prevent for ground pollution in case of leakages.

Both internal and external coatings result in an extension of the lifetime of a tank. In parts of the world, the jacking of tanks is seen as an additional cost on top of repair works.

Unfortunately this view is very limited, only seeing direct costs filtered from quotations. The combination of several types of repairs and installation of. The following repair works can or should be combined to achieve optimum result: This should be combined with re-levelling of the tank foundation. Tanks with diameters up to feet have been shifted for various reasons including a new designed plotplan, a new owner on a.

Examples are available of a temporary shifting of a tank for installation of a piled foundation or for the removal of polluted soil underneath the tank. For each type of relocation, different techniques are developed, ranging from skid tracks, modular trailers, floating barges to floating cranes. Verwater has the experience of more than 10, tanks being jacked and as such have solutions for any problem with a storage tank.

To ensure all tanks are maintained to the highest standard, most companies undertake regular NDT testing and Viking Inspection provides this service in the UK. On an inspection of an adjacent tank, some CUI corrosion under insulation was identified and attributed to penetration in the lagging. The decision was therefore made to scaffold the tank and remove the lagging for full inspection. In recent years it has become popular with some terminal operators to leave the bottom section of the shell un-insulated.

This results in some loss of heat but has the advantage of leaving the lower shell readily available for inspection and eradicates the risk of CUI degradation for this area. However, this area should be reviewed periodically regardless as it may be affected by thermal stresses due to low ambient temperatures. In insulated tanks, CUI is very common in the lower section of the tank shell, as well as the stiffening rings, roof, and any gaps or defects in the lagging, and can be identified via visual inspection.

Once the lagging was removed, a visual inspection needed to be carried out, which identified multiple areas of CUI and pitting to the tank shell. Then a UT thickness survey was carried out and was completed using a Krautkramer USM36 flaw detector, which uses dual element probes to provide both the thickness measurement and the A-scan for maximum reliability. This procedure assists in minimising the risk of shell buckling; a major safety issue for thin walled steel tanks operating at low levels of contained liquid.

On this occasion, the data showed no issues with the structural stability of the tank and that it was comfortably within the parameters of safe operation. Another key area where corrosion can occur is the stairways and platforms. Water can pool on the stairs causing heavy pitting and corrosion. Some minor defects were found due to surface corrosion and recommendations made. EEMUA recommends the use of cellular glass closed cells for suscep01 tible areas that include the bottom section of the shell, and secondary wind girders on insulation support rings or locations where water can pool.

In addition to internal pressure, storage tank shells are subjected to loads that must be transmitted through the structure without gross. Examples of these loads include tank roof weight, wind induced forces, vacuum load, connected pipework loads and dead weight of mixers.

The diagram details load combinations working on a tank shell. The three load conditions are: Hydrostatic pressure including maximum operating static pressure 2. Weight of roof, including a live load 1. Wind load including maximum operating vacuum. To conclude the initial shell inspection, Viking determined the locations for patch plates and insert plates, and provided this information in a detailed report to the client. As well as the raw data provided in the readings, the report included photographic evidence of the tank flaws and recommendations to remedy any issues.

Heating coil penetrations in the bottom shell should always be equipped with annular pipes to separate insulation from contact 03 with the nozzles. This prevents accelerated corrosion at these points; no issues were found with the tank in question. Once the wall inspection was completed, a floor survey was also required. This was completed using a Silvering floormap 3Di. Viking Inspection was able to identify defective areas more efficiently and accurately than before, finding surface defects on the tank floor that were predominantly due to heavy corrosion.

A decision was taken to replace the entire tank floor as opposed to patch repair the affected areas to maintain the high facility standards. The full analysis and reporting took two people seven days to complete.

Viking Inspection managing director Steve Delves says: This facility recognises the importance of this. While there is no legal agreement, various countries have shown that energy policy discussions cannot neglect climate change. This will have huge implications on the energy mix of different countries. There is a significant uncertainty for project developers and investors due to a lack of any commitment in the COP 21 discussions. Hence it is important to understand the forecasts for a variety of scenarios to assess the effect of uncertainty in policy implementations.

Enerdata has complied an energy mix forecast for Asia until Three scenarios are presented — one scenario Ener-Blue provides an outlook of the energy system up to based on the central assumption that the different countries implement their stated commitments made during the COP Rapid economic growth, urbanisation and.

Demand will increase at the fastest rate from — and will progressively slow down as the Asian economies mature from the high growth stage. India and Vietnam will see the fastest growth in energy demand followed by China. The structure of energy supply to meet the growing energy demand is also expected to change. Increases in electrification and fuel switch to electricity will increase the share of electricity in the energy supply.

Currently, we have an LNG oversupply situation that has brought LNG at low price levels and supported an increase on spot trade thereby increasing the importance of storage.

When looking at the current global regasification capacity we can see that it is more than twice the liquefaction capacity implying the possibility of low utilisation terminal factors and high competitiveness. In the near future regasification terminal operators, including LNG storage tank operators, need to be ahead of the competition with their business strategies.

Renewable implementation will require additional efforts to bring significant affordable energy storage technologies. Today, the most used solution for energy storage is pumped hydro power, however it has its own limitations. No matter which scenarios we prefer, we see two common themes emerging: Both of these energies will require additional storage solutions and further development of storage to capture the electricity generated by renewables.

Della Pelle will be looking at global energy demand for the next 25 years on the second day of the Tank Storage Asia conference in Singapore on September In this context, Asia is where the action is. In contrast, intra-region trade in diesel will gain prominence, with China increasing exports to other countries in Asia.

This change is underpinned by strong transport demand growth in China, India and Southeastern Asia. However, with those regions becoming surplus in petrol, the relationship will reverse as Asia gets increasingly short of the product. Intra-region petrol trade flows will also evolve. India largely trades its excess supply to the Middle East and US, with relatively few cargoes moving to Singapore.

North Asia petrol flows to the rest of Asia will reduce in the longer run. Historically, China has exported petrol to Singapore and Southeastern Asia. Due to a rapid growth in car ownership and a slower pace of refinery capacity additions, China will near a balanced position after Refinery closures in Japan and Taiwan will also contribute to lower petrol exports from North Asia to Singapore and the rest of Southeastern Asia.

This is based on a modest demand growth, amid sluggish refinery capacity build over the forecast period. Due to the start-up of large greenfield refineries, the Middle East will reverse its diesel trade position with Asia, from a large net importer in to a net exporter by We believe Northwest Europe, with its widening diesel deficit, is the only region with room to absorb additional volumes from Asia.

As there is rising competition from the Middle East, FSU and the US to place diesel cargoes into Europe, Asian exporters will also seek opportunities within the region. In recent years, diesel demand has slowed significantly as the country shifts from an investment-led to a consumption-led economy.

So Chinese diesel exports to Singapore will increase, for re-export to regional deficit markets like Australia and Indonesia. Land availability is a major concern for storage capacity growth in Singapore to keep pace with the growth in the future trade flows. If Singapore fails to act, this provides opportunity for new storage facilities in neighbouring Malaysia and Indonesia.

Higher land storage rates in Singapore and improving port infrastructure in the end-user market will encourage direct trade, potentially bypassing Singapore. Conversely, the increasingly intra-regional nature of diesel trade flows will favour direct trade routes.

It seemed there were few chances for private investors before the crude oil market became liberalised. Vopak has pioneered phase I of its crude oil tanks in Hainan Yangpu in south China and some majors such as Exxon Mobil and Saudi Aramco have integrated oil storage in their joint venture Fujian refining entities. However, global trading houses such as Vitol are showing increasing interests in renting crude storage bonded storage in China, and may also be regretting why they were so cautious to build tanks by themselves in Shandong or other coastal ports in China.

Effortless handling. Advanced safety features. Minimal leakage. And perhaps most impressive: Make your bottom-loading operation the BEST. Visit opw-es. By , million barrels of storage had been filled.

Over the next five years, nearly 1. This was expanded in to 1. Plans are underway to add a further , barrels per day of capacity by These top-rated services let you do just that. According to the International Energy Agency, the demand for energy across the world is projected to grow by 1.

There is precedent: This was one of the key requirements of the customer as the CNG arm is the only available interface to the shore based gas pipeline. A rupture in the Nor Peruano pipeline spilled oil into the Amazon river.

LYNETTE from Tennessee
I am fond of reading comics almost . Please check my other posts. I have always been a very creative person and find it relaxing to indulge in deaf basketball.