MICROSOFT SQL SERVER 2012 ADMINISTRATION PDF
Contents at a Glance. PART 1 DATABASE ADMINISTRATION. CHAPTER 1. SQL Server Editions and Engine Enhancements. 3. CHAPTER 2. The release of Microsoft SQL Server has introduced many new Finally, we will look at what the future holds for database administration, as well as. Microsoft SQL Server Security Cookbook Over 70 practical, focused recipes to bullet-proof your SQL Server database.
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PROFESSIONAL Microsoft® SQL Server® Administration DownloadfromWow!eBook PROFESSIONAL Microsoft®. Chapter 2. Installing, configuring, and upgrading. Microsoft SQL Server Chapter 3. Using SQL Server administration and development tools. Part II. DBA course for Microsoft SQL Server Coverage 16 chapters of database administration training Course files .sql,.pdf,.xml, exercises, and more).
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Learn how to share your curation rights How can I send a newsletter from my topic? Distributing your curated content through a newsletter is a great way to nurture and engage your email subscribers will developing your traffic and visibility. Volatile memory loses data when it loses power, whereas nonvolatile memory does not lose data when there is no power.
SSDs, however, have a few special considerations. First, the memory blocks within an SSD can be erased and rewritten a limited number of times.
Second, SSDs require a lot of free memory blocks to perform write operations. Finally, whereas SQL Server indexes residing on hard disks need frequent defragmentation, indexes residing on SSDs have no such requirement. Because all memory blocks on the SSD are only a few electrons away, all read access is pretty much the same speed whether the index pages are contiguous or not.
Each spindle can only do one activity at a time. But we very often ask spindles to do contradictory work in a database application, such as performing a long serial read at the same time other users are asking it to do a lot of small, randomized writes. Any time a spindle is asked to do contradictory work, it simply takes much longer to finish the requests. On the other hand, when we ask disks to perform complementary work and segregate the contrary work off to a separate set of disks, performance improves dramatically.
For example, a SQL Server database will always have at least two files: It is not uncommon to see very busy production databases with a lot of files, each on a different disk array. On the hardware side of the equation, DBAs might reconfigure a specific drive for instance, the F: They might increase the amount of read and write cache available on the hard disk controller s or SAN.
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The following section is topical in approach. Rather than describe all the administrative functions and capabilities of a certain screen, such as the Database Settings page in the SSMS Object Explorer, this section provides a top-down view of the most important considerations when designing the storage for an instance of SQL Server and how to achieve maximum performance, scalability, and reliability.
SQL Server storage is centered on databases, although a few settings are adjustable at the instance-level. So, great importance is placed on proper design and management of database files. Prescriptive guidance also tells important ways to optimize the use of filegroups in SQL Server Whenever a database is created on an instance of SQL Server , a minimum of two database files are required: By default, SQL Server will create a single database file and transaction log file on the same default destination disk.
Under this configuration, the data file is called the Primary data file and has the. The log file has a file extension of. These added data files are called Secondary files and typically use the.
When you have an instance of SQL Server that does not have a high performance requirement, a single disk probably provides adequate performance. The following sections address important proscriptive guidance concerning data files.
First, design tips and recommendations are provided for where on disk to place database files, as well as the optimal number of database files to use for a particular production database. At this stage of the design process, imagine that you have a user database that has only one data file and one log file.
So, if we can place the user data file s and log files onto separate disks, where is the best place to put them? Database files should reside only on RAID volumes to provide fault tolerance and availability while increasing performance. As mentioned earlier, SQL Server defaults to the creation of a single primary data file and a single primary log file when creating a new database.
Microsoft SQL Server Management and Administration, 2nd Edition The log file contains the information needed to make transactions and databases fully recoverable. Also, for this reason, adding additional files to a transaction log almost never improves performance.
Conversely, data files contain the tables along with the data they contain , indexes, views, constraints, stored procedures, and so on. The general rule for this technique is to create one data file for every two to four logical processors available on the server. If a server had two four-core CPUs, for a total of eight logical CPUs, an important user database might do well to have four data files. The newer and faster the CPU, the higher the ratio to use.
A brand-new server with two four-core CPUs might do best with just two data files. Also note that this technique offers improving performance with more data files, but it does plateau at either 4, 8, or in rare cases 16 data files.
Thus, a commodity server might show improving performance on user databases with two and four data files, but stops showing any improvement using more than four data files. Your mileage may vary, so be sure to test any changes in a nonproduction environment before implementing them.
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Suppose we have a new database application, called BossData, coming online that is a very important production application. It is the only production database on the server, and according to the guidance provided earlier, we have configured the disks and database files like this:. However, it occasionally slows down for no immediately evident reason. Why would that be? As it turns out, the size of multiple data files is also important.
So far, so good. In a situation where BossData needs a total of Gb of storage, it would be much better to have eight Gb data files than to have six 50Gb data files and two Gb data files. To see the latency of all of the data files, the log file, and the disks they reside on, use this query:.
But in practice, a latency that is twice as high as the recommendations is often acceptable to most users. In this situation, estimate the amount of space required not only for operating the database in the near future, but estimate its total storage needs well into the future.
Over-relying on the default autogrowth features causes two significant problems.
First, growing a data file causes database operations to slow down while the new space is allocated and can lead to data files with widely varying sizes for a single database. Second, constantly growing the data and log files typically leads to more logical fragmentation within the database and, in turn, performance degradation.
Most experienced DBAs will also set the autogrow settings sufficiently high to avoid frequent autogrowths.
For example, data file autogrow defaults to a meager 25Mb, which is certainly a very small amount of space for a busy OLTP database. It is recommended to set these autogrow values to a considerable percentage size of the file expected at the one-year mark.
Professional Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Administration
So, for a database with Gb data file and 25GB log file expected at the one-year mark, you might set the autogrowth values to 10Gb and 2. We still recommend leaving the Autogrowth option enabled. You certainly do not want to ever have a data file and especially a log file run out of space during regular daily use. However, our recommendation is that you do not rely on the Autogrowth option to ensure the data files and log files have enough open space.
Professional Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Administration
Preallocating the necessary space is a much better approach. Additionally, log files that have been subjected to many tiny, incremental autogrowths have been shown to underperform compared to log files with fewer, larger file growths. This chaining works seamlessly behind the scenes. You can alternately use the following Transact-SQL syntax to modify the Autogrowth settings for a database file based on a growth rate of 10Gb and an unlimited maximum file size:.
The prevailing best practice for autogrowth is to use an absolute number, such as Mb, rather than a percentage, because most DBAs prefer a very predictable growth rate on their data and transaction log files. Who is Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? Werewolf Erotica. Anytime SQL Server has to initialize a data or log file, it overwrites any residual data on the disk sectors that might be hanging around because of previously deleted files.
This process fills the files with zeros and occurs whenever SQL Server creates a database, adds files to a database, expands the size of an existing log or data file through autogrow or a manual growth process, or due to a database or filegroup restore.
But when the files are large, file initialization can take quite a long time. It is possible to avoid full file initialization on data files through a technique call instant file initialization. Instead of writing the entire file to zeros, SQL Server will overwrite any existing data as new data is written to the file when instant file initialization is enabled.
Instant file initialization does not work on log files, nor on databases where transparent data encryption is enabled. Passar bra ihop This is a Windows-level permission granted to members of the Windows Administrator group and to users with the Perform Volume Maintenance Task security policy.To invoke the Database Properties dialog box, perform the following steps:.
SQL Server is more than just a database. It covers IP fundamentals, remote access technologies, and more advanced content including Software Defined Networking. Panzerbjrn commented on Understanding PowerShell function parameter sets 10 hours, 8 minutes ago. First, when shrinking the database, SQL Server moves full pages at the end of data file s to the first open space it can find at the beginning of the file, allowing the end of the files to be truncated and the file to be shrunk.
It's just a question of habits and usages. The upcoming sections describe each page and setting in its entirety. Thus, a commodity server might show improving performance on user databases with two and four data files, but stops showing any improvement using more than four data files. Administrators experienced on other platforms will find insight from comparisons of key features between SQL Server and other platforms.
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