MALCOLM GLADWELL PDF
Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. Malcolm Gladwell experts on Greek sculpture, and she was in Los Angeles visiting the Getty just before the. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Gladwell Malcolm. The tipping point: how little things can make a big difference / by Malcolm Gladwell. p. cm. extremely successful people, a story that focuses on intelligence and ambition. In Outliers Malcolm. Gladwell argues that the true story of success is very different.
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PDF | On Oct 1, , Robin M. Hogarth and others published Blink: the power of thinking without thinking, Malcolm Gladwell. New York: Little. Download full-text PDF. NIH Biomedical Computing Interest Group Book Club Review of. “Outliers: The Story of Success” by Malcolm Gladwell. Summary. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Gladwell, Malcolm. The tipping point: how little things can make a big difference / by Malcolm Gladwell.
Las had written the Foreword, and Malcolm Gladwell introduced and promoted the book at the event. What the Preacher Forgot to Tell Me is a semi-autobiographical meditation on the importance of creation theology—especially the human status as the image of God—as the basis for proclaiming the Gospel.
Diablo , to Ocho Rios on the north coast this was before the opening of the new highway from Kingston to Ocho Rios. From there we traveled eighteen miles into the rolling hills of the parish of St.
Ann, to Cranbrook estate, a farm with surrounding lands that had been converted to a botanical garden and ecological park by proprietors Ivan and Faith Linton both of whom were retired school teachers.
The book, Brown Face, Big Master, was originally published in by Inter-Varsity in England, and has been reprinted through other publishers a couple of times since Doctor Bird, ; Macmillian Caribbean, And this is thought to be able to account for the links between just about everyone in the world today.
The numbers had always been high between and , with more than , crimes a year and murders. In a turning point occurred, and crime reduced dramatically. In just five years, the total number of crimes has dropped by half and murders to one third. What caused this decline? Long-term trends such as reducing drug use, aging populations and improving the economy could explain a gradual decline, but not the effect that made crime plummet so fast.
For Gladwell , the sudden drop can be attributed to other factors. One of them was the cleaning of the graffiti in the subway system. Instead of using cops to stop violent crime, resources were allocated to remove graffiti from the subway and keep it always clean. If a train was vandalized, it was repainted the next day.
It took nearly 5 years to clear all the trains. The graffiti were a symbol of a city in collapse. When people saw reconstruction and reorganization, the battle against vandalism was won, and this impacted on the morale and safety of people using public transportation. Malcolm Gladwell appropriates this concept and points out that this distribution is quite common in the pattern of contamination of a virus.
Outliers PDF Summary : All you need to know about the book!
In many cases, the proportion is even more extreme: only a small percentage of those infected are responsible for most virus transmissions. A crew member of a Canadian airline was mapped by several studies as the focal point of the contamination.
By having sex with more than 2, people, this patient has greatly accelerated transmission and has been assigned up to 40 transmissions which have resulted in thousands of second level contaminations.
Similarly, in the case of social epidemics , we find that there is typically a small group of people who are responsible for speeding up the transmission rate. Social epidemics work the same way. They are guided by the efforts of a handful of exceptional people. In this case, they are not differentiated by their sexual appetite but by how sociable, connected, or influential they are among their companions.
Most of the time, these people have relationships in multiple different areas, and they serve as the nodes that interconnect several networks. Because they belong to diverse groups work, family, online communities, groups of activities these people end up having many, if weak, ties that transmit the epidemic among these diverse groups.
For Gladwell, for you to multiply your ideas and become a connector, having a vast network of contacts is much more important than having a small group of close contacts.
The greater the breadth of your network, the greater will be your ability to connect and spread ideas. An interesting fact to show how communicators work is the experience of psychologist Stanley Milgram, who sought to find out how many degrees of separation there are, that is, how many people who know each other exist on average separating one person from another they do not know.
The experience consisted of sending parcels of packages to random people asking them to forward the package to another person who might know the final recipient. If the recipient did not know the recipient, he would send the package again to another person who could possibly know how to deliver the final recipient again.
Most orders went through only six intermediaries, and the most curious fact is that half the orders delivered to the final recipient came from only three individuals. That is, even on a random list of people, these three individuals ended up concentrating deliveries.
Who Should Read “Outliers”? And Why?
Communicators can cross different ideological groups, demographics and different channels of communication. Spreading an idea through word of mouth means focusing on people who are connectors, as they are the only ones who can trigger social epidemics. Experts, although they do not have large networks, constantly pass on their knowledge to others by having a great influence on those in their network. Also, they are socially motivated to be useful and convey information to others.
If they are confident about a product or service, they recommend it to their friends and acquaintances — and their friends and acquaintances follow these recommendations and propagate them. To really convey an idea you need to develop empathy and the ability to connect with others. Simplify To Improve The Sticky Factor The content of the idea itself, its message, is also important in predicting its ability to spread.
It should be easy to remember, simple and thus easy to disseminate. To settle, a message has to be interesting. Normally, improving something — even a small detail — in the way the message is presented is what makes all the difference.
One of the examples cited by Gladwell is a tetanus vaccination campaign at a US university. In this case, research was done to see if a strong material, portraying the effects of tetanus with strong photos and text, was more efficient than lighter material. In the case, it was concluded, after testing, that the most alarming information left students more interested in preventing the disease.
In this case, this message had a low sticky factor and did not go forward. A simple item was added to the brochure: A map of the campus, with the location of the vaccination posts, which made the content more familiar and brought the vaccine to the student world. When the advice is practical and personal, it is easy to remember. Power Of Context Is Essential For An Epidemic Power of context means that we can change our attitudes depending on the context in which we are inserted at the moment.
There, many generations lived under the same roof, and all lived in harmony. Such a sense of community generated a great welfare in the population, and this contributed to health, even if its members did not cultivate healthy habits.
Would you believe if we said that your birth month impacts your chances of success? See an example: Children born in compete only with kids born in This rule may seem fair, but if you take into account the developmental differences that can occur between a child born in January and a child born in December, the difference can be dramatic.
Almost a year apart has a significant impact on the size, maturity, and skills learned. This development causes the older children to be chosen for the team, while the youngest ones of that year are on the bench.
Programs designed for gifted children were intended to develop their capabilities beyond the ordinary and ensure their success in an environment of children with greater potential. Young people who were born at the beginning of the academic year tend to have higher chances of being chosen for these programs. Also, older students of the same age tend to learn faster and are noticed more quickly by their teachers.
Your hometown, race, and social class also have a significant impact on your future. They are not decisive for success , but they generate great opportunities. In Jamaica, for example, in the 18th century, those born with lighter skin, children of white, affluent relationships with the local black population, were considered superior compared to the darker skin. This discrimination allowed many Jamaican mestizos to go to school and free themselves from slavery, while the black population remained slaves without no access to education.
This discrimination has impacted all class development in Jamaica, resulting in the concentration of income in the hands of the mestizos, to the detriment of the black population. When success comes easy for someone, it is very likely that this person has had a significant component of random luck. This fate is very different from creating your success when you evaluate the opportunities and choose which ones to pursue.
The more time you spend in school, the more success you will have. But does the time spent studying at school and studying time at home have different impacts?
Analyzing student academic results, Malcolm shows us the importance of at home studying. The more extracurricular hours of home study students have, the greater their chances of completing their colleges. If a student studies more than 12 hours a week at home, he has much higher chances and performs better than others.
Also, this creates discipline and helps students achieve more than average achievement. Another interesting fact is the holiday issue.
It is clear that students need to rest after a school year of many studies, but, on the other hand, studies show that the vacation period also impacts academic success. This difference is because students from the upper classes live different cultural experiences during the holidays, which help them acquire new knowledge and do better in the tests after the holidays.
Ever heard the Portuguese joke? But it is important to analyze statistics and researchers to understand where these stereotypes come from. In the United States, there is a consensus that the southern population is more aggressive while the northern is peaceful. Indeed, when analyzing the high rates of violence-related deaths in the southern United States, it is, in fact, a more dangerous place to live. The question that emerges, then, is this: Does the Southern stereotype of aggressiveness explain this higher rate of violent deaths?
In the state of Kentucky, located in the southern US in the 19th century, the settlers chose the mountains to live and build the first cities.
There, families engaged in fights and quarrels over seemingly small issues, such as discussions of food or private property. Men used guns to protect the honor of their families, and this created a culture where reputation and self-assertion were essential. These values prevailed over values such as peace and harmony. This violent culture has been passed on from generation to generation, and this makes the southern temperament less inclined to accept small jokes and offenses.
In the North, where there was no significant challenge of colonization and cities formed more quickly, people do not care so much about these values and tend to ignore small quibbles. To become a master in your field, you need to invest at least 10, hours of your life practicing. When an unstoppable person comes to success, people tend to think that they were born geniuses and were gifted with that characteristic innately.
Malcolm tries to deconstruct this argument. Using studies, Malcolm seeks to prove that the level of training that leads to mastery is around 10, hours.
This time is approximately 3 hours a day, over ten years. Even if you are talented and dedicated, you will need many years of practice to gain mastery in your area of expertise. You will also need an environment that allows you to practice consistently for hours on end until you reach 10, hours.
A study shows, for example, that young violinists, to develop their mastery, must first be able to pay for violin lessons and possess a decent quality instrument. Expert players, in addition to the support and motivation of their parents, have the time and space to practice dozens of hours a week. If you want to develop your mastery of something, you need to be prepared to sacrifice your social life, potential jobs, and entertainment, which means that many will never be able to reach 10, hours of practice.
Also, luck also has an impact on your ability to achieve mastery. Bill Gates, for example, was lucky enough to have access to computers early in his life, at a time the s when computers were scarce. He managed to achieve the famous 10, hours of programming, unlike thousands of other people who could have become great programmers and did not have access to a computer to practice. Imagine yourself as a skilled and hard-working young man at the time of the Great Depression in the United States.
In the greatest crisis ever experienced by the country, even the most talented professionals did not have access to jobs and resources and, therefore, this generation was profoundly impaired. In this generation, fewer people were born, and universities were offering free education for students because they had empty chairs.
David and Goliath: Summary & Review in PDF
Another outlier is Steve Jobs. Like Bill Gates, he was born in the s and had a chance to experience the explosion of personal computing in the s. In addition to the birth year, the economic context also matters.
Gates and Jobs had several lucky situations that allowed them to be protagonists in the personal computer revolution. Another interesting example: This coincidence of fate led them to enrich and profit dramatically from the economic turn of the late s when mergers of large corporations became an area of high demand and extremely profitable. You are much more prone to success when trying to find your place in an activity you love.
The more accomplished at work, the more people feel inspired to think creatively and develop their skills. Jobs that have a purpose tend to be more difficult and challenging but also bring a greater sense of satisfaction and opportunities for innovation. The success of purposeful work had a significant impact on the lives of Jewish immigrants in the United States.
As Mexican and Italian immigrants turned into domestic servants, farmers, and production lines for most of their lives, Jewish immigrants chose a different path. Jewish culture is extremely focused on the community and also in the trade.Like this summary? In the case, it was concluded, after testing, that the most alarming information left students more interested in preventing the disease.
You are much more prone to success when trying to find your place in an activity you love. Perhaps, talent is necessary, but it is not the crucial element.
But overall, David and Goliath has lots of great insight, some of which also very inspirational. This violent culture has been passed on from generation to generation, and this makes the southern temperament less inclined to accept small jokes and offenses. He managed to achieve the famous 10, hours of programming, unlike thousands of other people who could have become great programmers and did not have access to a computer to practice.
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