CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION PDF
What are the causes of air Pollution. Pollutant. Description and main. UK sources. Potential effects on health/environment. Particulate Matter. (PM-PM10 and. PDF | Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (or smoke) or odour It creates smog and acid rain, causes cancer and respiratory. Air pollution is one such form that refers to the contamination of the air, irrespective of indoors or outside. Lets have a look at various causes, effects and .
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The causes of air pollution in Budapest, Sofia and Zagreb were analysed. •. The picture resulting from this study highlights the complexity of the pollution. pollutant that causes significant respiratory illness, including health-harmful PM air pollution – particularly from diesel vehicles, diesel engines, coal . ( ) - myavr.info pdf. 6. These days, many people are concerned about air pollution and whether it might affect their health the five main air pollutants that can cause immediate health.
Substances emitted into the atmosphere by human activity include: Carbon dioxide CO 2 — Because of its role as a greenhouse gas it has been described as "the leading pollutant"  and "the worst climate pollution".
Various Causes of Air pollution
Clean Air Act is deemed to regulate CO 2 emissions. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, and their combustion generates sulphur dioxide.
Nitrogen oxides NOx — Nitrogen oxides, particularly nitrogen dioxide , are expelled from high temperature combustion, and are also produced during thunderstorms by electric discharge. They can be seen as a brown haze dome above or a plume downwind of cities.
Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of several nitrogen oxides. One of the most prominent air pollutants, this reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor.
Carbon monoxide CO — CO is a colorless, odorless, toxic yet non-irritating gas. Vehicular exhaust contributes to the majority of carbon monoxide let into our atmosphere. It creates a smog type formation in the air that has been linked to many lung diseases and disruptions to the natural environment and animals.
In , more than half of the carbon monoxide emitted into our atmosphere was from vehicle traffic and burning one gallon of gas will often emit over 20 pounds of carbon monoxide into the air. Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases because of their role in creating ozone and prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere.
This effect varies depending on local air quality. The aromatic NMVOCs benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia with prolonged exposure. In contrast, aerosol refers to combined particles and gas.
Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols.
Averaged worldwide, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for approximately 10 percent of our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,  altered lung function and lung cancer. Particulates are related to respiratory infections and can be particularly harmful to those already suffering from conditions like asthma.
Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs — harmful to the ozone layer ; emitted from products are currently banned from use. These are gases which are released from air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol sprays, etc.
On release into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere. Here they come in contact with other gases and damage the ozone layer. This allows harmful ultraviolet rays to reach the earth's surface. This can lead to skin cancer, eye disease and can even cause damage to plants. Ammonia — emitted mainly by agricultural waste. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor.
Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals.
Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. In the atmosphere, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulphur to form secondary particles. Secondary pollutants include: Particulates created from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog.
Smog is a kind of air pollution. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulphur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.
Ozone O3 is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer.
Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities largely the combustion of fossil fuel , it is a pollutant and a constituent of smog.
Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Persistent organic pollutants POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment. Sources There are various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for releasing pollutants into the atmosphere.
These sources can be classified into two major categories. Anthropogenic man-made sources Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro , Georgia in preparation for spring planting.
Smoking of fish over an open fire in Ghana, These are mostly related to the burning of multiple types of fuel. Stationary sources include smoke stacks of fossil fuel power stations see for example environmental impact of the coal industry , manufacturing facilities factories and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices.
In developing and poor countries, traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants; traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste and dung. Controlled burn practices in agriculture and forest management. Pollution emitting from vehicles including trucks, jeeps, cars, trains, airplanes cause an immense amount of pollution.
We rely on them to fulfill our daily basic needs of transportation. But, their overuse is killing our environment as dangerous gases are polluting the environment. Carbon Monoxide caused by improper or incomplete combustion and generally emitted from vehicles is another major pollutant along with Nitrogen Oxides, that is produced from both natural and man-made processes. Ammonia is a very common byproduct from agriculture-related activities and is one of the most hazardous gases in the atmosphere.
Use of insecticides, pesticides, and fertilizers in agricultural activities has grown quite a lot.
Solutions to air pollution
They emit harmful chemicals into the air and can also cause water pollution. Manufacturing industries release a large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air thereby depleting the quality of air. Manufacturing industries can be found at every corner of the earth and there is no area that has not been affected by it. Petroleum refineries also release hydrocarbons and various other chemicals that pollute the air and also cause land pollution.
Mining is a process wherein minerals below the earth are extracted using large equipment. During the process dust and chemicals are released in the air causing massive air pollution.
This is one of the reasons which is responsible for the deteriorating health conditions of workers and nearby residents. Household cleaning products, painting supplies emit toxic chemicals in the air and cause air pollution.
Have you ever noticed that once you paint the walls of your house, it creates some sort of smell which makes it literally impossible for you to breathe? Suspended particulate matter popular by its acronym SPM, is another cause of pollution.
Referring to the particles afloat in the air, SPM is usually caused by dust, combustion, etc. The effects of air pollution are alarming. They are known to create several respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other threats to the body.
Several million are known to have died due to direct or indirect effects of Air pollution.
Children in areas exposed to air pollutants are said to commonly suffer from pneumonia and asthma. Another direct effect is the immediate alterations that the world is witnessing due to global warming.
Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. When it rains, the water droplets combine with these air pollutants, becomes acidic and then falls on the ground in the form of acid rain.
Acid rain can cause great damage to human, animals, and crops. The green colored algae that are present on lakes and ponds is due to the presence of this chemical only.
Causes Air pollution causes Air pollution is caused by the presence in the atmosphere of toxic substances, mainly produced by human activities, even though sometimes it can result from natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms and wildfires, also depleting the air quality. Anthropogenic air pollution sources are: 1. Combustion of fossil fuels, like coal and oil for electricity and road transport, producing air pollutants like nitrogen and sulfur dioxide 2.
Emissions from industries and factories, releasing large amount of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, chemicals and organic compounds into the air 3.
Agricultural activities, due to the use of pesticides, insecticides, and fertilizers that emit harmful chemicals 4. Waste production, mostly because of methane generation in landfills Photo by Kevin Lee on Unsplash Effects Air pollution effects It is impossible to describe the whole extent of potential and actual damage caused by all forms of air pollution.Companies that polluted less than their cap could trade or sell their remaining pollution allowance to other companies.
Radon Rn gas, a carcinogen , is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature. Secondary pollutants are the ones that are caused by the intermingling and reactions of primary pollutants. Do you know an innovative company developing efficient solutions?