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From curriculum theory to cultural studies: the beginning of research into school subjects The history of school subjects is rather recent, having been started in the last four decades.
Robinsohn, Bildungsreform als Revision des Curriculums, Neuwied a. Rhein u. Berlin, Luchterhand, ; L. Stenhouse, A cultural approach to the sociology of the curriculum, Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, ; W. Nicholls, S. Goodson published in his first work on the subject2, followed by other important works in the following years which had a wide echo, particularly in the USA and UK, where curriculum studies were an already developed field3.
After having researched into the history of some school subjects in England, Goodson devoted attention to the history of teachers.
One has to study the school policy about school subjects, e. Yet the knowledge of this apparatus is not enough to define the curriculum, being just the skeleton that supports the entire school life.
To understand this fully, one has to examine its flesh, so to speak, viz to see if and how the central prescriptions were really applied by teachers and how teachers really taught. In fact, they often did not follow the superior prescriptions, which could be differently interpreted in different cultural and social contexts.
The effects of democratization in academic fields and secondary schools reflected on a new interest of teachers in their job and of students on learning. Stenhouse, An introduction to curriculum research and development, London, Heinemann, ; Id.
Goodson, School Subjects and Curriculum Change.
Goodson, S. J Ball edd. Goodson ed. Popkewitz ed.
La Biblioteca di BASE Cinque
Kent ed. Chervel, La Culture scolaire. Une approche historique, Paris, Belin, A school subject is not just the object as defined by ministerial laws or by any other code e. The content of the subject itself is therefore deeply influenced by other factors, such as text-books, the culture of teachers, the social and cultural conditions of pupils and their families, etc.
School actors are not merely executors, they are active interpreters of pedagogical theories and school policy. Chervel goes on contesting the idea of school as a mere transmitting agent, a place of conservatism, routine and lethargy and asserts that school subjects are the results of original and creative creations, depending on different factors, one of which being the age of pupils —teaching mathematics to university students, high schools or elementary school pupils, for instance, implies different grades of pedagogical capacities.
Besides, school has never had just the aim of instructing, of teaching contents, but also of educating, teaching moral, religious and social values — the teaching of classic languages, for instance, had in Modern Age a strong moral aim too. Chervel underlines, for example, that up to the majority of schools still retained the single-form, where pupils of different ages sat together and individual teaching was still to be used.
He also stresses the importance of teacher turnover and renewal for the update and renovation of the subject, as well as the importance of lifelong education for teachers. Chervel also points out how the history of school subjects is linked to the history of didactics and of the debate on teaching methods: normal, Socratic, intuitive, direct, lessons of things, gradual and so on.
But also evaluating systems and exams results are important sources. Chervel goes on putting a key question: how effective was the teaching?
How much did pupils actually learn?
The main source here is given by exercise-books and texts written by pupils, which, particularly for the Modern Age, were scarcely preserved and kept. Therefore it is not only linked to school policy and to the history of pedagogy, but to science, religion, economy, culture and education.
It is a specific product of school thinking and practice, a culture for the school, coming from the school itself. As already stated, studies about school culture flourished in France, particularly with works on the culture of colleges in the Modern Age.
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Chervel edd. Julia, La culture scolaire comme objet historique, in A. Depaepe, E. Johanningmeier edd.
Ruiz Berrio ed. Belhoste ed. See also: F. Subjects such as Latin, French language and grammar, as well as mathematics and sciences have been analyzed. The XVI-XVII centuries, with the long preparation of the Jesuit Ratio studiorum and its implementation and then crisis, with the writing of the Ratio of other Congregations, Piarists, Barnabists, Somascans, Lassalle, Oratorians were the period of the construction of school subjects in a modern meaning.
The inputs coming from Anglo-Saxon and French research were taken up in Spain by different researchers, so that Spain soon overcame the gap and produced an impressive mass of studies on the theme. The majority of these researches dealt with school-books, but other aspects, such as exercise books and teachers education were also investigated9. The opposite is nevertheless true: school culture is always related to school-books Again, the history of teaching and of school subjects is strongly related to the history of teachers as a professional group Since a group of university professors, secondary school and primary school teachers, named Fedicaria, worked critically in the field of teaching, up to , producing books on specific subjects and on the epistemology of the school culture.
See also J. Escolano Benito, J. The Spanish researchers are very active in the field and have produced relevant studies in the last 20 years Sources and methodology In order to study school subjects, one has to deal with different sources, as demonstrated above.
Then, one has to verify if those books were indeed used, or which books or notes were used. L'impossibile quadratura del cerchio?
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Artes Latinae , Bolchazy-Carducci, Wauconda Narrationes faciles de historia Romanorum , compiled by John P. Narrationes faciles de mythologia Romana Graecaque , compiled by John P. Greco Bardon et Gomez , L.: Lectiones Graecae, sive manuductio Hispanae juventutis in linguam Graecam , Madrid Part I.
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