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TEACHING FUNDAMENTAL GYMNASTICS SKILLS PDF

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Read Books Teaching Fundamental Gymnastics Skills [PDF, ePub, Mobi] by Debby Mitchell Complete Read Online "Click Visit button" to access full FREE. Unit Descriptor. This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to teach and develop fundamental motor, cognitive and social. and teaching of fundamental movement (FM) skills at Key. Stage 1 (Primary 1 to 3 ). . in dance, games and gymnastics activities at lower primary. These skills.


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of Fundamental Gymnastics, American Sum- physiology, anatomy, theory of teaching, gymnastics, .. dom, upon which the superstructure of activities, skills. Gymnastics Association and produced by Education and Youth. Limited, London. . At the advanced stage all basic skills are automatic and the gymnast. Primary Teachers Module. Developing the Skills. This module is an introduction to teaching basic gymnastics skills in a school setting. The skills are applicable.

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Teaching Fundamental Gymnastics Skills PDF Download

Contents Chapter 1 Gymnastics Basics: Backward roll on rings - This is the same movement as a backward roll but it is performed on rings. It can also be used in a combination such as backwards roll to Maltese. This is more commonly performed in Rhythmic Gymnastics , as it is faster and it also protects the hair. Sideways roll[ edit ] A sideways roll is also known as a log roll, barrel roll, or pencil roll. This can be started by lying down on the back or front with the body outstretched.

The gymnast then rolls onto their side and does a complete rotation of the body, remaining parallel to the performing surface. A sideways roll can also be performed when a gymnast over-rotates or loses their balance in a vertical, forward or sideways direction.

Stick-figure sequence and corresponding movement phases of the somersault as a dismount from the balance beam a and the cartwheel on the balance beam b. Second, the gymnast may not be able to maintain equilibrium during the double support phase and her body would tilt off the beam.

While the methodical progression of the somersault consisted of four distinct tasks, the methodical progression of the cartwheel consisted of three distinct tasks.

The methodical progressions were constructed so that the gymnasts could learn the criterion movement with no guidance at all see Table 1 and Table 2. This aspect was crucial to the design of our experiments allowing us to examine the isolated effect of guidance on the acqui- sition and transfer of the somersault and the cartwheel. The coach implemented manual guidance as support, assistance, or assurance with specific hand movements.

We decided not to manipulate guidance per se, but provided manual guid- ance on an optimal level for each gymnast, depending on her current mastery level of the task at hand. When supporting the gymnast, the coach applied forces on the gymnast that signifi- cantly influenced the mechanics of the movement. When assisting the gymnast, the forces applied by the coach were reduced influencing the mechanics of the movement in several phases, for instance the linear or angular momentum during the take-off phase of the somer- sault.

When the gymnast progressed in skill level guidance was mainly used to assure the skill, so that the hands of the coach were in slight contact with the gymnast to take appropriate action in case a movement error occurred.

Performance Rating. Three trials of each step of the progression and the transfer test without guidance were videotaped and rated by three independent national-level judges. Performance attempts were presented in distinct blocks referring to each step in the methodical progres- sion and the performance of the transfer condition and in a randomized order to ensure that the judges remained blind to the treatment conditions.

Because inter-observer reliability was close to or equal. Learning Task Guidance Procedure Lead-Up-Activity Step Example 1 Run-up and forward roll Palm of the first hand turned out from Forward roll on the onto a stack of the front under the upper arm; floor 4 gymnastics mats from a palm of the second hand is turned trampoline height: 80cm inwards and reaches from the top around the back side of the upper arm so-called crocodile grip; cp.

When the obstacle height: a trampoline height: 40cm gymnast rotates to a stand, both arms 40cm of the coach cross to secure the landing position so-called inverted sandwich grip; cp. At the end of each step in the method- ical progression and prior to performing in the transfer condition, all gymnasts answered two questions Cottyn et al.

The purpose of this self-evaluation was to gain insight into the different effects of treatment on the learners' self-efficacy and fear of injury Chase et al. We decided to use single item measurements for fear of injury and self-efficacy for two reasons. First, single item scales can be easily administered during the training process, either 9 TABLE II Tasks, guidance procedure and lead-up-activity examples for the methodical progression used in experiment 2 cartwheel.

Learning Task Guidance Procedure Lead-Up-Activity Step Example 1 Cartwheel over an obstacle Both hands reach around Scissors handstand height: 10cm the hips from behind on the floor 2 Cartwheel on an elevated gymnastics Both hands reach around Cartwheel on a bench height: 40cm, width: 20cm the hips from behind chalk line on the floor with safety mats below the bench 3 Cartwheel on the balance beam Both hands reach around Handstand with split height: 80cm, width: 10cm onto the hips from behind legs on the floor an elevated gymnastics bench height: 80cm, width, 20cm 4 Cartwheel on the balance beam Both hands reach around No lead-up-activity height: 1.

There are several single item instruments available to assess specific components of anxiety, fear, self-confi- dence, and similar concepts which in general show good validity with multidimensional ques- tionnaires e. The authors found significant product-moment correlations between the CSAI-2 and the self- reports which ranged between. Second, the authors of such instruments claim that an education phase is necessary during which sport-specific examples are given to the athletes and the underlying concepts of the instrument are explained in terms of athlete friendly definitions e.

All the participating gymnasts regularly use training diaries which already contain the two questions that we used in our experiments. We therefore argue that the gymnasts in our experiments were familiar with this kind of assessment.

Roll (gymnastics)

In the first phase, gym- nasts arrived at the gymnasium and completed the informed consent form and the GCT. When all gymnasts had been tested, they were assigned to 10 either the experimental or the control group based on the above-mentioned paired ranking methodology. The second phase was the training period. It consisted of eight training sessions of 60 to 75 min per session carried out over a 4-week period two training sessions per week for the somersault Experiment 1 and six training sessions that were carried out in a 3-week period two training sessions per week for the cartwheel Experiment 2 , because the methodical progression in Experiment 2 consisted of three instead of four steps.

Each individual session began with a to min warm-up phase, including physical preparation exercises and lead-up activities. Then, a learn- ing phase of 40 to 45 min was conducted and the training session ended with a to min cool-down period.

During each training session the gymnasts were allowed 30 practice trials. While the control group obtained verbal feedback only, the experimen- tal group obtained similar verbal feedback together with manual guidance from the female expert coach. Verbal feedback was provided as knowledge of results KR on the relative correctness of the corresponding attempt, was standardized in wording and frequency for both groups and was given as a summary feedback after every third trial cp.

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At the end of each step of the methodical progression, the gymnasts had to perform the specific movement of the corresponding step three times without guidance. The performances were videotaped.

Prior to performing, the gymnasts completed the self-evaluation form. In the third phase of the experiment transfer test , the gymnasts had to perform the criterion move- ment eight times without guidance. The last three attempts were videotaped and again prior to performing the gymnasts completed the final self-evalua- tion form. In Experiment 1 somersault the gymnasts were asked to perform a somersault after a slight run-up from the balance beam height: 1.

In Experiment 2 cartwheel the gymnasts were asked to perform a cartwheel on the balance beam height: 1.

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Prior to testing the main hypothesis, moderating effects of age were assessed using multivariate methods. There were no statistically significant moderating influences from this factor on the dependent variables. A correlation analysis of the dependent variables in Experiment 1 indi- cated that there was no significant product—moment correlation between any pair of the dependent variables.

When the sphericity assumption was violated the Greenhouse-Geisser correction was used. Figure 2 a presents means and standard errors of the performance rating scores for the experimental and the control group. Self-Evaluation of Fear of Injury and Self-Efficacy Our second assumption was that fear of injury would decrease when manual guidance was provided.

The results showed a significant main effect of Learning Step, F 2. Our third assumption was that self-efficacy would increase after manual guidance. The results show a significant main effect of Learning Step, F 2. Figure 3 a presents means and standard errors of fear of injury and Fig- ure 4 a presents means and standard errors of self-efficacy ratings in both the control and the experimental group.

Figure 2-b presents means and standard errors of performance rating scores between the experimental and the control group. We also found a significant main effect of Learning Step, F 2. Figure 3-b presents the means and standard errors of self-evaluated fear of injury and Figure 4-b pre- sents the self-efficacy scores in both the control and the experimental group.

Discussion The purpose of the two experiments was to identify the effects of man- ual guidance on movement quality, self-evaluated fear of injury, and self-effi- cacy in two different gymnastics skills. In Experiment 1, a fast and dynamic gymnastics skill forward somersault as a dismount from the balance beam was defined as the criterion movement, whereas in Experiment 2, the crite- rion movement was a slow and controlled movement cartwheel on the bal- ance beam.

In Experiment 1, we found that guidance had a significant effect on movement quality in the acquisition phase and in the transfer test, as indi- cated by significant higher performance rating scores in the fourth step of both the methodical progression and the transfer test. The gymnasts of the experimental group maintained their performance level while the gymnasts of the control group declined in performance. Fear of injury increased slightly in both groups during the experiment but did not differ between the groups.

Self-efficacy scores decreased slightly in both groups during the experiment, however, again, did not differ between the groups. In Experiment 2, we found that guidance had no effect on movement quality in the acquisition phase or in the transfer test since neither the differ- ences in performance rating scores in the steps of the methodical progression nor those in the transfer test were significant.

Fear of injury increased in both groups during the acquisition phase and differed between the groups in the transfer test. Self-efficacy scores decreased in the control group during the experiment and differed between the groups in the second and third step of the methodical progression as well as in the transfer test.

How to Teach Gymnastics Skills in PE

This is contrary to the findings of both Armstrong and Tsutsui and Imanaka who state that guidance shows no advantage in motor learning as compared to physical practice.

These conflicting findings might be explained at least in part by the different types of experimental task. Armstrong used a slow elbow movement, and Tsutsui and Imanaka a two dimensional positioning task which can both easily be learned without guidance, whereas we had gymnasts perform a fast, dynamic movement accompanied by a potential risk of injury. Learning the right movement pattern is crucial to be able to achieve high movement quality in a transfer test for a complex gymnastics skill.

From the specificity of learning hypothesis, manual guidance provides the gymnast with the movement pat- tern and task-specific sensory information early in practice that he or she will then encounter later in the learning process. This pattern serves as a refer- ence value that can be used as a comparison to correct errors during early acquisition cp.

It is possible that the guidance procedure used simply constrained the optimal number of degrees of freedom necessary for learners, and this in turn led to a better per- formance in transfer. Wulf and Toole , who detected advantages of guidance as well, provided similar explanations for their results. Our findings, that guidance is effective for rather fast and dynamic com- plex motor skills, are also in line with the results of McAuley In that experiment an aided modeling group learning a dive forward roll onto the beam scored higher on the performance measure compared to both an unaided and a control group.

Furthermore, we detected significant changes in self-evaluated fear of injury and self-efficacy with progressing learning steps. However, our assumptions that fear of injury would decrease and self- efficacy would increase to a greater extent in the experimental group were not verified, and thus we were unable to replicate the results of McAuley in Experiment 1. This could be due to the selected methodical pro- gression, since the task had to be structured such that the gymnasts could learn the criterion movement with no guidance at all, and there was no greater risk of injury in one or other condition.

Based on the results of Experiment 2, it can be concluded that manual guidance does not influence performance in different learning steps during 17 acquisition or transfer when learning a cartwheel on the balance beam. These results are confirmed through previous findings reported by Armstrong as well as by Tsutsui and Imanaka Manual guidance does not have an additional effect on performance compared to physical training when learning the cartwheel.

The gymnast does not have to cope with instability during the movement because this instability is mainly overcome by the assist- ing hands of the coach, even if the applied forces are reduced to a minimum. It is not clear if the applied guidance technique constrained the correct degrees of freedom for learning the cartwheel because the coach used one of three different guidance techniques support, assistance, or assurance accord- ing to the current skill level of the gymnast.

This cannot be answered on the basis of our data since we did not manipulate the applied guidance technique ensuring instead that guidance was always provided at an optimal level. The applied technique in our experiment is the most common one used in gym- nastics, and it is difficult to guide the cartwheel in another functional way.

It is possible That the cartwheel on the beam was not a basic and easy skill but a difficult and anx- iety-increasing skill for the gymnasts who took part in our experiment, even if the gymnasts were provided with manual guidance and rationally knew that potential risks, like for instance slipping off the beam, were minimized by the coach.

Nevertheless, the gymnasts of the experimental group showed lower fear of injury scores in the transfer test.

Furthermore, we found that self-efficacy differed between the two groups and was dependent on the learning step as indicated by a significant interac- tion effect between these two factors. From a psychological point of view, an argument supporting the effect and use of manual guidance could be the enhancement of self-efficacy and the control of anxiety McAuley, Gymnasts perceive performance information as well as physical and mental preparation including guidance procedures as important sources of self-efficacy Chase et al.

When providing manual guidance the new skill can be learned in a controlled and systematic manner, and the learner is able to focus on the crucial parts of the movements 18 without fear of injury. Another possible explanation is that the cartwheel was per- formed on the balance beam, which could be interpreted as a more anxiety- provoking element in comparison with the somersault, which was performed as a dismount from the balance beam.Product Description.

International Sport Coaching Journal.

In Experiment 2 cartwheel the gymnasts were asked to perform a cartwheel on the balance beam height: 1. Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation.

Interactive effects of cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal upon golfers. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Three trials of each step of the progression and the transfer test without guidance were videotaped and rated by three independent national-level judges.

Gymnasts from both clubs were at the same technical level due to the same education program in both clubs.

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