PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION BOOK
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Patterns and Techniques: Medicine & Health Science Books @ myavr.info Handbook of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Basic Concepts and Techniques: Medicine & Health Science Books @ myavr.info . Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Patterns and Techniques [Margaret Knott Story time just got better with Prime Book Box, a subscription that delivers .
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About Dorothy E.
ISBN 13: 9780061414411
Dorothy E. Books by Dorothy E. Preparation: readies the patient for action 2. Action: tells the patient to start the action 3.
Correction: tells the patient how to correct and modify the action. Visual control For example, when a patient looks at his or her arm or leg while exercising it, a stronger contraction is achieved. Using vision helps the patient control and correct his or her position and motion. Moving the eyes will influence both the head and body motion.
For example, when patients looks in the direction they want to move, the head follows the eye motion. The head motion in turn will facilitate larger and stronger trunk motion.
Eye contact between patient and therapist provides another avenue of communication and helps to ensure cooperative interaction. For elderly patients the visual input can be of more importance than the verbal input Gentile, Lee.
The feedback and —forward system can promote a much stronger muscle activity Schmidt and Lee 13 2. Traction also acts as a stretch stimulus by elongating the muscles. Apply the traction force gradually until the desired result is achieved. The traction is maintained throughout the movement and combined with appropriate resistance.
Therapeutic Goals Approximation is used to: 5 Promote stabilization 5 Facilitate weight-bearing and the contraction of antigravity muscles 5 Facilitate upright reactions 5 Resist some component of motion. Therapeutic Goals Traction is used to: 5 Facilitate motion, especially pulling and antigravity motions.
Traction of the affected part is helpful when treating patients with joint pain. The muscle contractions following the approximation are thought to be due to stimulation of joint receptors Knott and Voss ; Voss et al. Another possible reason for the increased muscular response is to counteract the disturbance of position or posture caused by the approximation.
Given gradually and gently, approximation may aid in the treatment of painful and unstable joints.
ISBN 13: 9780061414411
The approximation force is always maintained, whether the approximation is done quickly or slowly. The therapist maintains the force and gives resistance to the resulting muscular response.
When the therapist feels that the active muscle contraction decreases the approximation is repeated and resistance given. While traction usually facilitates motion and approximation facilitates isometric or stabilizing activity, the therapist should use the one which is most effective.
For example, using PNF activities in an upright position and combining them with approximation together with concentric and eccentric muscle activity may be the most effective treatment. Using arm activities against gravity can be combined with approximation instead of traction when this promotes a better function. Sometimes a stretch activity is contraindicated when the muscles, tendons, bones, or joint are injured.
PNF in practice: an illustrated guide
Stretch stimulus. Therapeutic Goals 5 Facilitate muscle contractions. Stretch stimulus is used during normal activities as a preparatory motion to facilitate the muscle contractions. The stimulus facilitates the elongated muscle, synergistic muscles at the same joint, and other associated synergistic muscles Loofbourrow and Gellhorn Greater facilitation comes from lengthening all the synergistic muscles of a limb or the trunk.
For example, elongation of the anterior tibial muscle facilitates that muscle and also facilitates the hip flexor-adductor-external rotator muscle group. If just the hip flexor-adductor-external rotator muscle group is elongated, the hip muscles and the anterior tibial muscle share the increased facilitation.
If all the muscles of the hip and ankle are lengthened simultaneously, the excitability in those limb muscles increases further and spreads to the synergistic trunk flexor muscles. The strength of the muscular contraction produced by the stretch is affected by the intent of the subject, and therefore, by prior instruction. Monkeys show changes in their motor cortex and stronger responses when they are instructed to resist the stretch.
The same increase in response has been shown to happen in humans when they are told to resist a muscle stretch Hammond ; Evarts and Tannji ; Chan Normal movement requires a smooth sequence of activity, and coordinated movement requires precise timing of that sequence. Functional movement requires continuous, coordinated motion until the task is accomplished.
The reflex has two parts.
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The second part, called the functional stretch response, has a longer latency but produces a more powerful and functional contraction Conrad and Meyer-Lohmann ; Chan To be effective as a [ Definition Normal timing of most coordinated and efficient motions is from distal to proximal. The evolution of control and coordination during development proceeds from cranial to caudal and from proximal to distal Jacobs In infancy the arm determines where the hand goes, but after the grasp matures the hand directs the course of the arm movements Halvorson The small motions that adults use to maintain standing balance proceed from distal ankle to proximal hip and trunk Nashner Therapeutic Goals 5 Facilitate muscle contractions.
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