PRACTICAL WEB 2.0 APPLICATIONS WITH PHP PDF
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This study aims to foster educational practices with technologies in the context of the classroom from the perspective of the PLE. The research, based on a qualitative approach, is organized into two phases. First, we propose a framework to assist teachers in the selection of web tools to foster educational practices based on PLE. Second, we present and analyze the results of a qualitative study, which involves the use of the proposed framework in educational practices conducted in the final years of elementary education in a private school in Brazil.
The web 2.
Through this perspective, web 2. We can also understand this as an evolution of the usage perspective, which shifts from a passive consumption of content to an active participation, involving possibilities of creation, distribution, and sharing content. The user active participation is possible through different web 2.
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Studies point out that the use of web 2. One group focuses on the study of technical issues, addressing the research on networked tools and services that students can use. A second group focuses on the PLE concept from an educational approach. In the present study, we understand that it is possible to take advantage of both approaches aiming to organize a proposal for assisting teachers to foster educational practices with technologies in the context of the classroom from the perspective of the PLE.
As the first research group, we understand the importance of providing a set of networked tools and services as a first step to the teachers in order to promote the use of web 2. It is important that teachers have the opportunity to find and explore different web tools.
However, the emphasis of this study is not on the tool, but in the relationship between the potential of the web 2. Thus, what exactly do we understand a PLE includes? These actions refer to the principles of producing, distributing, and sharing inherent to web 2.
From a reading perspective, the tools are characterized by sites, blogs, newsletters, video channels and others, and the information has different forms, such as text, audio and video.
The activities involve reading, reviewing texts among others, exercising the use of search engines, curiosity and initiative. From a producing perspective, the tools are the spaces where the student can document his process of reflection based on collected information; these tools are spaces to write, to reflect and to publish. Blogs, conceptual maps, and online presentations are examples.
Therefore, in a PLE the students integrate both the experiences in formal education and the new experiences with the use of web applications and services. This way the PLE potentializes the recording of the learning process and also the interaction and communication processes with different subjects and groups, as well as the access to different learning digital resources. Through this perspective, a PLE is composed by personal issues but also includes the social environment involving the interactions with other subjects.
The PLN includes the subject-subject interactions mediated by the PLE, and characterizes the social part of the learning environment. Williams, Karousou and Mackness distinguish between two modes of learning called prescriptive learning systems and emergent learning networks.
They are associated with two domains of application for learning: predictable domains and complex-adaptive domains. In predictable domains, the learning is based on a prescriptive mode. Prescriptive learning is based on a proposal usually used in formal education, where the content is duplicated and distributed, based in a one-to-many perspective in a fixed and predictable context.
On the other hand, a complex-adaptive domain is based in emergent learning networks and characterizes a learning process, which is typically collaborative. The latter feature facilitates linking to and organising content within the same blog and from external sites [ 13 ].
Posting a clinical photo from a digital camera directly to a blog after optimisation and adding of a blogger's comments can also be made at the touch of a button using, for example, a free Google product called Picasa [ 30 ].
Web Application Design and Implementation
Podcasts and m-Learning mobile learning "Podcasting's essence is about creating content audio or video — vodcasts for an audience that wants to listen when they want, where they want, and how they want [ 35 ].
Podcasts are already being used in medical school curricula [ 36 ]. Meng [ 37 ] describes many educational applications of podcasting and videocasting, including: - Recordings of lectures for those students unable to attend the lecture in person; - Audio recordings of textbook content by chapter allowing students to "read" or review texts while walking or driving to class can be significant aid for auditory learners — see ' Additional file 2 ' ; and - Downloadable libraries of high resolution heart and respiratory sounds for medical students.
Podcasts can be created from written text using text-to-speech synthesizer software, but better podcasts featuring real human voice and radio-style programmes are also available [ 38 ]. Health-related podcasts are also available for patients and the general public. The Arizona Heart Institute [ 45 ] and the Cleveland Clinic [ 46 ] offer video podcasts for healthcare professionals as well as for patients.
Discussion Underpinning pedagogy The notion of 'anytime, anyplace' learning has been difficult to achieve but, recently, the advent of cheaper, better supported mobile, personal technology is making mobile learning or m-Learning more achievable and more ubiquitous u-learning than ever before. Students are now more mobile than ever, and often find themselves multi-tasking, working in part-time jobs, or located some distance from a parent institution on professional practice placement.
A similar situation is faced by clinicians in remote and rural areas, who often lack training and proper academic support because of their geographic isolation from the large central hospitals and academic centres of excellence in the main cities. In such situations, students can feel pressurised, unsupported and socially isolated from tutors and peers [ 50 ], and may even become discouraged and drop out from the course [ 51 ]; professionally isolated clinicians may also lag behind in their CPD.
In this context, quality learner support is vital, and social presence [ 52 ] becomes a highly desirable feature to embed within the delivery of any learning product. Furthermore, previous studies into the impacts of e-Learning have highlighted a number of quality concerns [ 53 ] prompting calls for improved delivery to learners in terms of cost benefits and better learning outcomes [ 54 ].
Wheeler et al.
Although the potential impact of wiki, blog and podcast technologies on higher education in the UK and elsewhere is immense, it is perhaps the combined use of the three applications as 'mind tools' [ 55 ] that may yield the most powerful learning experiences.
According to Jonassen et al. Wikis in particular, and blogs to a lesser extent, enable such activities, and actively involve learners in their own construction of knowledge. The uses of such technologies to encourage learners' deeper engagement with learning materials, and the affordance of shared working spaces to improve collaboration between learners are desirable outcomes.
It is generally held by many educators that students of all ages learn best when immersed within a culturally and socially rich environment in which scaffolding of learning can be achieved [ 56 ]. Further, where learners and peers are committed to achieving the same goals, they tend to regulate each other's performances [ 55 ], a positive outcome that can be facilitated through the use of shared, digital learning environments.
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The combination of wikis, blogs and podcasting technologies, then, has the potential to both liberate and tie learners together [ 55 ], creating dynamic learning communities. However, as research has already shown, technology is neutral until it delivers content [ 57 ] and will lose its effectiveness if it is not applied in a planned and systematic manner [ 58 ].
It will, therefore, be important to effectively demonstrate how tutors successfully deploy such technologies in live learning contexts, and how dynamic content can be developed, edited, reused, and negotiated within a virtual community of professional practice [ 59 ].
It may also be necessary to re-educate learners regarding their participation within such a dynamic learning environment, for as Jonassen and his colleagues suggest, old models of education have left their legacy. Many students have been so busy memorising what teachers tell them, they may need some support when they first attempt to communicate with others using collaborative technologies [ 55 ].
See also 'What's next?
A research and development agenda' below. Examples of the latter include MediaWiki Open Source — the same software package that runs Wikipedia [ 60 ] and Google Blogger free [ 61 ].
However, audio and video files can be large in size; users must have sufficient bandwidth to download them.
One of the most famous documented examples of Web vandalism occurred on Wikipedia in the biographical article about John Seigenthaler, Sr. The word 'blog' is a contraction of 'Web Log' — an online Web journal that can offer a resource rich multimedia environment. Podcasts are repositories of audio and video materials that can be "pushed" to subscribers, even without user intervention. These audio and video files can be downloaded to portable media players that can be taken anywhere, providing the potential for "anytime, anywhere" learning experiences mobile learning.
Discussion Wikis, blogs and podcasts are all relatively easy to use, which partly accounts for their proliferation. The fact that there are many free and Open Source versions of these tools may also be responsible for their explosive growth. Thus it would be relatively easy to implement any or all within a Health Professions' Educational Environment.
Paradoxically, some of their disadvantages also relate to their openness and ease of use.
With virtually anybody able to alter, edit or otherwise contribute to the collaborative Web pages, it can be problematic to gauge the reliability and accuracy of such resources. While arguably, the very process of collaboration leads to a Darwinian type 'survival of the fittest' content within a Web page, the veracity of these resources can be assured through careful monitoring, moderation, and operation of the collaborationware in a closed and secure digital environment.
Summary and conclusion If effectively deployed, wikis, blogs and podcasts could offer a way to enhance students', clinicians' and patients' learning experiences, and deepen levels of learners' engagement and collaboration within digital learning environments.
Therefore, research should be conducted to determine the best ways to integrate these tools into existing e-Learning programmes for students, health professionals and patients, taking into account the different, but also overlapping, needs of these three audience classes and the opportunities of virtual collaboration between them.
Of particular importance is research into novel integrative applications, to serve as the "glue" to bind the different forms of Web-based collaborationware synergistically in order to provide a coherent wholesome learning experience.
Background Introduction and aims of this paper Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the latest generation of Web-based collaborationware also known as Web 2. They offer many unique and powerful information sharing and collaboration features. They also afford users the added advantage of reducing the technical skill required to use these features, by allowing users to focus on the information and collaborative tasks themselves with few delivery obstacles [ 18 ].
Such technology is known as 'transparent technology' [ 19 ] in as much as the user is able to concentrate more on the learning task by 'seeing through' the technological environment they are immersed within.
This paper explores, with examples, some of the current uses of Web 2. We then touch on the pedagogy underpinning these tools see also ' Additional file 2 ' , and discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages.
Perhaps the best example of a wiki in action today is 'Wikipedia — The Free Encyclopedia' [ 21 ]. Wikis, and in particular Wikipedia, represent a promising principle that can significantly transform the Internet information age; they have greatly grown in popularity in recent months and years [ 17 ].
Special conferences have been and are being organized to discuss the interesting Web phenomenon of wikis. Wikis can be used as a source for obtaining information and knowledge, and also as a method of virtual collaboration, e. Medical and health-related wiki examples include the Flu Wiki, which is intended to help local public health communities prepare for, and perhaps cope, with a possible avian influenza pandemic [ 18 , 23 ], and Ganfyd, an online collaborative medical reference that is edited by medical professionals and invited non-medical experts [ 24 ].
Wiki features include easy editing, versioning capabilities, and article discussions see [ 25 - 27 ] and ' Additional file 1 ' for further details and screenshots. Blogs A related Web information sharing technology is the 'blog'. A blog WeBLOG is a Web site that contains dated entries in reverse chronological order most recent first about a particular topic [ 28 ]. Functioning as an online journal, blogs can be written by one person or a group of contributors.
Entries contain commentary and links to other Web sites, and images as well as a search facility may also be included. Because blogs engage people in knowledge sharing, reflection, and debate, they often attract a large and dedicated readership [ 29 ]. They can also engender the drawing together of small virtual groupings of individuals interested in co-constructing knowledge around a common topic within a community of practice.
Standard blog features include easy posting, archives of previous posts, and a standalone Web page for each post to the blog with a unique URL.Gale, E.
In education, a student or teacher can use a blog as a personal diary on which the con- tents are published in reverse chronological order. Instead of recording the most important parts of lec- tures on paper, students can use specialized tools such as SpringNote and Helipad as an effective substitute. Berlin Heidelberg: Educational Potentials of ePortfolio Systems: Students are now more mobile than ever, and often find themselves multi-tasking, working in part-time jobs, or located some distance from a parent institution on professional practice placement.
The Internet and Higher Education,11 2 , In such cases, students do not need to record all the details mentioned by the teacher during the lectures, but can rather refer back to the podcast any time they want. The Bubbl.
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