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OTTOMAN EMPIRE PDF

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History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Bibliography: p. Includes Collapse of the First Ottoman Empire: Bayezit I (), and the. Interregnum. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND EUROPE The Ottoman Empire and Its Place in European History — HALİL İNALCIK KRONIK BOOKS: 8 KRONİK BOOKS History . Encyclopedia of the OTTOMAN empire. Gábor Ágoston. Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.. Bruce Masters. Wesleyan University, Connecticut.


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Bogdan Murgescu (The Ottoman Empire), Dr. Mirela Luminita Murgescu (Nations . Workbook 1 – The Ottoman Empire and Workbook 2 – Nations and States in. Ottoman Empire. AP World History v Readings in text: o Thursday o Friday o Monday o Take home exam: Due Wednesday. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire / Gábor Ágoston and Bruce Masters. edited Encyclo.

The essay follows with an evaluation of cultural exchanges between Europe and Ottoman society from the sixteenth centu- ry until the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Ottoman Empire is generally depicted and perceived as the adversary and antithesis of Europe and Europeanness in Western historiography because of certain historic reasons such as the Christian crusading tradition, public hostility due to long lasting warfare, cultural estrangement and perhaps because the Ottomans remained outside the Enlightenment process.

How- ever, there is much more to it than confrontation. Our research findings presented in this compilation point to the impact of the Ottoman Empire in shaping modern Europe, specifically as of the sixteenth century and socio-cultural exchanges between the two realms through five hundred years of encounter.

It expanded rapidly and during the period achieved status as a major imperial power, reaching as far as the Danube in the north and Euphrates in the east.

The first imperial exper- iment was brought to a sudden halt when the Ottomans, failing to use the strategic advantage gained by their defeat of a crusader army led by the Hungarian King Sigismund in at the bat- tle of Nigbolu Nicopolis , turned their military energies instead to the ill-timed annexation of Muslim emirates in Anatolia.

In the subsequent period between and , the empire was wrecked by inveterate civil war as rival claimants to the throne sought to rebuild patrimonial hegemony. During the period of civil war the scope of Ottoman sovereignty in Anatolia was se- verely restricted, and the centre of political power in the state shifted to the European province.

While the era of the civil war is usually considered to be confined 11 HALIL INALCIK to the period of , unstable political conditions persisted until threatening at times to restart the process of imperi- al disintegration.

After when the Ottomans succeeded in capturing Salonica from the Venetians, the state entered into a renewed period of imperial expansion in Europe and they defeat- ed a succession of crusader armies mobilized from the West. Following the capture of Constantinople in , the Ot- toman sovereign felt himself a legitimate successor to the Roman imperial tradition.

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Indeed, the claim of the Ottoman Empire to universal rule dates from the period after the fall of Constantinople. Within the short span of sixty-four years after the fall of Constantinople the Ottomans had added the Arab capitals of Damascus, Cairo, Mecca and Medina to their imperial patrimo- ny and were catapulted into a position as the premier Islamic power in the world.

The Ottoman Empire, The Ottoman state developed into a Western Asiatic empire whose lands in the Middle East and in the Balkan peninsula bridged the continents of Europe and Asia remaining intact for more than five centuries between and At the same time, the Ottoman Empire pursued close political, cultural and economic relations -especially during the sixteenth century- with its eastern neighbors in Iran, the Arab lands and India.

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the idea of a unified Europe on the basis of Christian ideology and a holy war against the Ottomans was either a myth or an effort to exploit public opinion in Europe in order to legitimize the policies of individual states.

During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a crusade was possible only when Venice and Hungary agreed and support- ed such an enterprise in view of their own political interests. In fact, the spread of Protestantism benefitted greatly from Ottoman pressure on the Habsburgs. In short, at the threshold of modern times, instead of the unity of Europe under the Pope and the emperor, Real- politik and a new political order, based on independent national monarchies, called for a system based on a balance of power and the Ottoman state became an important component of the new European state system.

In the following centuries, Ottoman power often proved a necessary component of this new order. As for the Arab world, without the Ottomans the map of the Islamic world would have been drastically different today. By the end of the fifteenth century Spain had brought her reconquista into 1 H. Hazard and N.

Zakour, eds The Impact of the Crusades on Europe. Setton, If the Maghrib has remained Muslim, it was because of the Ottoman presence and struggle against the reconquista. Through the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, under Ottoman protection, the Arab lands began to receive In- dian goods and there was a full revival of the spice trade in the Middle East in the mid-sixteenth century. Syrian and Egyptian cities recovered their prosperity and expanded. It is important to note that, before the reorganization of , the positions of ushers and other lower employees had not been strictly differentiated in the sense that there had been ushers who were unable to read or write.

As for the places of origin, 18 of them were born in Istanbul, whereas most of the rest came from Anatolia. Four came from the Balkans, one from Crimea, and only one from the Arab lands. As we shall see in the following section, not all the workers mentioned the languages they spoke. Two workers, both of whom were sons of peasants, had been engaged in commerce before entering into state service 6, They might have been engaged in a kind of peddling or seasonal migration.

History of the Ottoman Empire

However, since the description in the registers was not a faithful copy of the original CV but a summary of the CV and the related documents, I will only use the records in the registers as supplementary sources.

In the analysis where the exact phrasing is not very important, I will also refer to the registers.

Abdi Efendi had already stated in The Galata court was asked whether he was literate and found that he was These examples show that there was sometimes ambiguity as to where to draw the boundary. First of all, it must be noted that the ability to read was not asked in the questionnaire. The original question asked what languages the respondent spoke and wrote.

However, many among the whole sample 39 out of 74 noted whether or not they were able to read. Apparently, the author of the questionnaire had not expected semi-literacy.

History of the Ottoman Empire

Nevertheless, the ability to read alone would be of help in the workplace. This might suggest that the ability to read was more essential for the ushers as they were required to read the names and addresses written on the documents to deliver the summons but not expected to draw up official correspondences Second, the language in question was Turkish, namely, Ottoman Turkish or Turkish written in the Arabic alphabet. Although Arabic was partially used in the legal documents, daily correspondences were all in Turkish.

The language that Mehmed Efendi 17 claimed to read and write was not specified in the record because it was apparently obvious to the readers. Consequently, it is assumed that when preparing the CV, the worker was instructed to state whether or not they could read and write Turkish. First of all, it can be generally assumed that the omission of information indicates that there was no positive record considered worthy of special mention.

Therefore, when one was silent about his written language, there is a fair possibility that he was unable to write very well.

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Second, the omission could have happened when the information was too usual and natural to be mentioned or when there was complementary information. As for the spoken language, when a worker declared his ability to write Turkish but did not specify whether he spoke Turkish, it is natural to consider that he could also speak Turkish. The essay follows with an evaluation of cultural exchanges between Europe and Ottoman society from the sixteenth centu- ry until the beginning of the nineteenth century.

The Ottoman Empire is generally depicted and perceived as the adversary and antithesis of Europe and Europeanness in Western historiography because of certain historic reasons such as the Christian crusading tradition, public hostility due to long lasting warfare, cultural estrangement and perhaps because the Ottomans remained outside the Enlightenment process. How- ever, there is much more to it than confrontation. Our research findings presented in this compilation point to the impact of the Ottoman Empire in shaping modern Europe, specifically as of the sixteenth century and socio-cultural exchanges between the two realms through five hundred years of encounter.

It expanded rapidly and during the period achieved status as a major imperial power, reaching as far as the Danube in the north and Euphrates in the east. The first imperial exper- iment was brought to a sudden halt when the Ottomans, failing to use the strategic advantage gained by their defeat of a crusader army led by the Hungarian King Sigismund in at the bat- tle of Nigbolu Nicopolis , turned their military energies instead to the ill-timed annexation of Muslim emirates in Anatolia.

In the subsequent period between and , the empire was wrecked by inveterate civil war as rival claimants to the throne sought to rebuild patrimonial hegemony. During the period of civil war the scope of Ottoman sovereignty in Anatolia was se- verely restricted, and the centre of political power in the state shifted to the European province. After when the Ottomans succeeded in capturing Salonica from the Venetians, the state entered into a renewed period of imperial expansion in Europe and they defeat- ed a succession of crusader armies mobilized from the West.

The Ottoman sovereign derived his imperial authority from three separate sources of legitimacy: Following the capture of Constantinople in , the Ot- toman sovereign felt himself a legitimate successor to the Roman imperial tradition. Indeed, the claim of the Ottoman Empire to universal rule dates from the period after the fall of Constantinople.

Within the short span of sixty-four years after the fall of Constantinople the Ottomans had added the Arab capitals of Damascus, Cairo, Mecca and Medina to their imperial patrimo- ny and were catapulted into a position as the premier Islamic power in the world. The Ottoman Empire, The Ottoman state developed into a Western Asiatic empire whose lands in the Middle East and in the Balkan peninsula bridged the continents of Europe and Asia remaining intact for more than five centuries between and At the same time, the Ottoman Empire pursued close political, cultural and economic relations -especially during the sixteenth century- with its eastern neighbors in Iran, the Arab lands and India.

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the idea of a unified Europe on the basis of Christian ideology and a holy war against the Ottomans was either a myth or an effort to exploit public opinion in Europe in order to legitimize the policies of individual states. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a crusade was possible only when Venice and Hungary agreed and support- ed such an enterprise in view of their own political interests.

In fact, the spread of Protestantism benefitted greatly from Ottoman pressure on the Habsburgs. In short, at the threshold of modern times, instead of the unity of Europe under the Pope and the emperor, Real- politik and a new political order, based on independent national monarchies, called for a system based on a balance of power and the Ottoman state became an important component of the new European state system. In the following centuries, Ottoman power often proved a necessary component of this new order.

As for the Arab world, without the Ottomans the map of the Islamic world would have been drastically different today. By the end of the fifteenth century Spain had brought her reconquista into 1 H. Hazard and N. Zakour, eds The Impact of the Crusades on Europe. Setton, If the Maghrib has remained Muslim, it was because of the Ottoman presence and struggle against the reconquista.

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Through the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, under Ottoman protection, the Arab lands began to receive In- dian goods and there was a full revival of the spice trade in the Middle East in the mid-sixteenth century.

Syrian and Egyptian cities recovered their prosperity and expanded. Aleppo, in par- ticular, became the centre of the caravan roads from Hejaz, Bas- ra-Baghdad and Iran and soon was noted as the principal trade centre of the entire region. It is true, however, that the Arab lands had to share the re- verses and heavy financial burden of the Ottoman imperial pres- ence. The concentration of power and wealth in the Ottoman capital overshadowed such old Arab metropolises as Cairo, Bagh- dad and Damascus which once enjoyed universal significance in power and wealth.

The reasons for the Ottoman achievements can be summa- rized under several headings. The second factor in their success was their geo- graphical position which gave them the possibility of controlling the rich trade routes between the East Iran and India and the West the European states , and secured them financial and ma- terial plenty.

Finally, the centralized bureaucratic system of rule 3 J-L.Within the social and political system they were living in, Ottoman administrators could not have seen the desirability of the dynamics and principles of the capitalist and mercantile economies developing in Western Europe. The Ottoman Turks: The organization of the treasury and chancery were developed under the Ottoman Empire more than any other Islamic government and, until the 17th century, they were the leading organization among all their contemporaries.

The Empire faced continuous unrest in the years leading up to World War I , including the Ottoman countercoup of , the 31 March Incident and two further coups in and Ottaviano Bon, trans.

History Derailed: New Delhi: Within the short span of sixty-four years after the fall of Constantinople the Ottomans had added the Arab capitals of Damascus, Cairo, Mecca and Medina to their imperial patrimo- ny and were catapulted into a position as the premier Islamic power in the world.

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