MOTHER MAXIM GORKY PDF
Mother - Maxim Gorky yellow, square eyes. The mud plashed under their feet as if in mocking commiseration. Hoarse exclamations of sleepy. Project Gutenberg · 59, free ebooks · 35 by Maksim Gorky. Mother by Maksim Gorky. No cover available. Download; Bibrec. CLASSIC SOVIET NOVEL TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH, MAXIM GORKY.
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Maxim Gorky. 5. (3 Reviews). Mother by Maxim Gorky book is available for free download in a number of formats - including epub, pdf, azw, mobi and more. Mother. Maksim Gorky. This web edition published by [email protected] Last updated Wednesday, December 17, at To the best of our knowledge, . Mother- Maxim Gorky. Cover of Mother. Novel following the radicalisation of an uneducated young Russian woman, myavr.info, MB.
Hadap in Phadake and Mr.
Hadap also makes a statement that has its relevance even today. These words throw a true light on the good or bad relationship that existed between Art and life till today. Hadap adds that Art is a social process. The society gives birth to Art. It gets nourished and developed through social tendencies.
Since art arises out of larger social framework and since society itself is striven by class differentiation, art carries within it that differentiation and class conflict.
In the words of Christopher Caudwell, an insightful writer of great acumen, the life of Maksim Gorky is a live example of how a mutually enriching bond can evolve between life and literature. Dange 40; trans. Joshi writes about Gorky and his poetry, which is less known and discussed by the critics than the novels.
Writing itself means a song. I write poetry every day. In the preface Mr. Therefore, while reading this novel an Indian reader will certainly get a picture of current situation that exists here [in India]. Obviously, a worker-reader in India may feel this novel quite inspiring. Desai 4; trans. The preface makes it clear that the translation is literal and the reader has to be careful about a possible semantic loss. It mentions a common trend in translating novels from other languages into Marathi, especially the European ones.
But the given translation does not follow the existing trend in the target language culture. He did not feel it appropriate and necessary to overlay this excellent book with his own colour of imagination.
It is true that the Marathi readers may experience it unfamiliar to read the names of characters, specific customs in daily routine life etc. However, it is not possible that they find it less interesting.
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Now a days a sympathetic view and a curiosity resulting from a sense of affinity has been emerged in Hindustan for Russia, the people in Russia, the history of revolutionary movement in Russia and the recent developments in Russia. Therefore, I feel that the readers may prefer the present method of translation. The then contemporary reader was accustomed to adaptations of works from foreign languages, rather than their faithful translations.
But in that case the translator was ready to reject the established model and use a new approach. This reminds us of the circumstances identified by Even-Johar. The literary vacuum in Marathi for a work with a clear ideological stand made it possible for the translator to stick to his guns.
The translation was made by V. The second edition of the book was published soon, in While writing on the novel Hadap says that there is a great difference in the Russian fiction writing and the world literature.
Russian prose writing is realistic.
Mother by Maksim Gorky
Russian writers honestly depict life as it is in reality. Being as imaginative as anyone else, they base their writing on facts.
The translator changed the places and names of characters in the original text. Here the whole story takes an indianized look. The third version by V. Bhuskute came out in Marathi in It was published by Deshmukh ani Company, Pune. It should be spread in millions of copies and hands.
Bhuskute; my emphasis. The above highlighted words stress the colonial condition in India and the historical and social relevance of Gorky. The book has a long preface by the Marathi writer V. It is true that skillfulness is an important quality of writing. Yet it is an external quality.
It can simply bring pleasure to eyes. The greatness an artistic work acquires is not from its polish, but from its strength — the vibrant liveliness in each and every nerve of it! It quotes a well- known Marathi writer N.
Phadake on his views of the novel. Still he did acknowledge that Mother was part of the immortal literature. He does not know the difference between Creation and Construction! He seems to have accepted a notion beneficial to himself that the strength of construction is superior to the power of creation. Looseness in the composition, lack of charm in the presentation, a condemnation of current social system at many places and vehement efforts to promote socialism… who will deny these defects?
But in Foma and Mother many a time he seems to have put his brush aside and taken a hammer instead. In fact, it was the social condition in Russia at that time, which was responsible for that. He was the first genius spokesman of the aspirations of workers and peasants.
His hand holds a banner with the letters Class Struggle on it. The inevitability of class struggle comes out through each page of this novel. Gorky and Gandhi were born in the same year. On the contrary, Gandhiji accepted it and implemented it honestly in his personal and public life.
The same helpless situation of peasants and workers that existed in the Russia of young Gorky is seen again today in the Hindustan of old Gandhi. Gandhi too is making constant efforts in his own way to eradicate cruel economic inequality which forces a human being to lead a more shameful and dreary life than the beasts. Those, who want to investigate his way of doing it impartially, may find the novel Mother quite useful. Though in Mother we see a depiction of workers in Russia, the sufferings of Dalit Hindi people are not different from them.
The minds of peasants and workers here are not different from those of their Russian brothers. All the ideas [of Gandhiji. Yet Hindustan can not forget that at this moment they are just ideas.
On the background of real world depicted by Gorky in Mother, these ideas are certainly utopian and unscientific. It is the man who has always betrayed man. Nature is not the real enemy of common man.
His strong enemy is the man, who gets nourished on his blood, builds his own freedom on his slavery, increases his own life span by his death, seems extra-ordinary to us due to his instruments like power and wealth and boasts of being his master. The struggle between these two different men has become inevitable today.
Nature of this war may change according to the country, time and circumstances. Khandekar 21 K. Its target reader was the common people. It also retains the original names of places and characters. It was a performance without artists Binpatri Prayog. With the help of sound and pictures, Mother was presented before spectators in the audio-visual form and was well received by various Marathi, as well as the English newspapers.
The script was published in book form in the same year. Book Stall, Mumbai published the sixth version of Mother in two parts in and , respectively.
Mother- Maxim Gorky
It came out as a one-volume book in In Feb. The same translation is available for the readers today. It opens with the preface by a Soviet literary critic Prof. Bursov, which narrates the literary journey of Gorky and the significance of his writings. The Marathi literary system discussed many aspects of the definition of Art and Creation. Thus firstly, the novel reached the masses as a literary representation of a new ideology, a new trend.
While connecting the readers to Russia, Russian people, and their history, the translation of the novel in Marathi related it to the contemporary situation in India. Secondly, the novel also contributed to Marathi culture by way of questioning the traditional image of Mother in Indian society. So far, the image of Mother painted in Marathi literature has been that of a deity, always coloured either with a kind of mythological feminine power or with sacred maternal strength.
However, in the twentieth century, as Partha Chatterjee argues, the image of Mother seems to loom large over the Indian struggle for freedom. She is not to be equated with the sacrosanct Hindu culture, or with the essence of a divine goddess to be put on the pedestal to be worshipped.
Marathi readers have been aware of the women participating in the struggle for freedom in India. But they did not have such a strong character of a revolutionary mother in Marathi novel before. Thirdly, the novel has also contributed to Marathi polysystem as a guide in the political education of the masses. Many words and phrases from the field of politics were introduced to Marathi literary system through this novel.
It is clearly reflected in the language of the target texts of different periods. The novel has featured in Marathi literary system at different phases of its development since Now after the disintegration of the Soviet state and in the new socio-political conditions in post-Soviet Russia there is a change in the place of Mother in Russian polysystem.
Gorky is no longer said to be a popular writer in Russia. It becomes essential to see if the role of Mother in Marathi polysystem has changed too. The collapse of the Soviet Union in and the setback of communist ideology in the Eastern Europe made a deep impact on the minds of intellectuals and literary figures in Maharashtra. This was followed by the new economic policies and a phase of globalization. There appeared an ideological vacuum, which affected the various progressive socio-political movements in Maharashtra.
The concept of The End of Ideology was put forward through the capitalist mass media.
About The Mother
The Little Magazine movement, the Dalit movement and the Feminist movement received a setback and became weak. All this was reflected in Marathi literature at the end of 20th century. However, the novel Mother in the translated form is still in print, it is purchased and read in Marathi world.
Also, it is worth remembering that Mother had a tremendous institutional support in Soviet Union. Now the novel is published by Lokvangmay Griha Pvt. The following statement by a well-known progressive poet Satish Kalsekar is highlighted in the advertisement of the novel Mother in Marathi, thus expressing its functional role in Marathi polysystem.
The struggle for its arrival, too, has not ended. It is possible that we need to fight for it incessantly; and will have to prepare ourselves for a long drawn struggle.
We all, and the next generations to come will have to read Mother again and again. Kalasekar It would be interesting to look at the translations of Russian literature as facts of the target system, i. Considering them through the lens of G. Toury, we see that it is the Marathi culture or a certain section of it, which has served as the initiator of the translation project.
The translators have worked in the interest of the recipient culture. So, the literary works are selected for translation on the account of the socio-political conditions of the time and the needs of the target culture. Ideology and the translators A. Lefevere is the ideological one. The poetological consideration refers to the dominant poetics in the target language culture. Together, these define the translation strategy and the solution of specific problems. Some such theoretical consideration is found in the position of translators of Russian literature into Marathi, in general, and those of Mother in particular.
No major mainstream Marathi creative writer has made an attempt to translate Russian literature. Most of the translators have taken up the translation activity through their ideological affinity towards socialism and Soviet Russia. To conclude, it is important to note that though Marathi polysystem created some room for Russian literature out of the specific political compulsion at a particular historical period, it has not confined its interest to political literature alone.
It has accepted the pre- Soviet, Soviet as well as dissident Russian literature. The Russian literature has served the primary function of building an interface in Russian and Marathi culture.
It has certainly enriched the target language and culture, introducing the Marathi readers to a new language system as well as a new outlook, new values and new trends in thought. Evolving from Sanskrit through Prakrit and Apabhransha, it is believed to be years old. The oldest document found in Marathi dates back to A. Marathi is written in the Devnagari script. It is spoken mainly by the Marathi or Maharashtrians living in the state of Maharashtra. It is also spoken in some other regions of India, in Mauritius and Israel.
Emigrant Maharashtrians worldwide, especially in the U. Spoken by 90 million speakers, 70 million native and 20 million second language speakers, it is considered to be the 4th most spoken language in India and that of 15th in the world. Today, standard Marathi is the official language of the State of Maharashtra.
The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running from approximately to the Anglo-Russian Convention in The Bolshevik Revolution of nullified existing treaties and a second phase of the Great Game began. Lenin written by S. Dange, and the journals The Socialist , The Worker , Revolution were published by the communists.
This came to be known as the Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy. The persons involved were tried and sentenced to lengthy terms in prison. Among the accused in Meerut Conspiracy case trial were Marathi, i. There was a strong tradition of oral literary culture, which had achieved its own richness. But there was no sustained tradition of prose writing, especially for educational and intellectual interaction.
Marathi was reconstructed through the translations on the models of English and Sanskrit. Translation became the chief point of the textual and cultural contact between the colonial rulers and the colonized natives.
Translation culture acquired a crucial position in the newly developed Marathi literary polysystem. Kamgar Mulansathi Goshta Why so? There are around novels translated during the period to and most of the translators are themselves major creative writers in Marathi.
Works cited Bursov, B. His grandmother reared him in the wretched and impoverished environment. After few years, his mother also died of tuberculosis. His grandfather forced Gorky to leave school and to do job. He underwent a variety of apprenticeships in shoemaking and an icon painting Afterwards, he worked as a petty thief and rag picker.
However, he went away from home, wandering around Russian empire, changing jobs to live until he became a journalist in the Caucasus in In , he joined the Sreda Wednesday , a literary Circle of a group of realist authors who discussed their on-going work in it. He soon became the leading literary person in the circle. In , he edited the Znanie anthologies, publishing the works of the members of the circle.
MOTHER - ENGLISH - MAXIM GORKY
His popularity of artistic achievements and accomplishments crossed the national boundaries in subsequent years. Gorky was deeply involved in Marxist politics, supporting the Bolsheviks to provide them editorial guidance in their party organ Iskra. After the Bolshevik Revolution, he contributed to save Russian heritage of art and culture from the wanton devastation, and he inspired and guided many young writers.
After leaving the Soviet Union in , he carried out his journalism abroad. In the last years of his life, the Russian people and writers revered him as the doyen of Soviet art and literature.
He saw his native town Nizhni Novgorod renamed in his honour. Many theatres, schools, institutions, universities and a main street in Moscow were renamed in his honour in the former Soviet Union. Gorky died of pneumonia in Moscow on June 18, He was buried in Red Square with full Soviet honours.
However, no any such proof was found in the KGB literary archives in the s. Gorky worked as writer, journalist, publisher, editor and political activist throughout his life, in every genre, novels, short story, play, essay, memoirs and autobiography.
His memoirs of literary friends, his letters and other documents are invaluable assets in the literary history of Russia.
His much critical acclaimed masterpieces are his reminiscences of his literary friends such as of Anton Chekhov, Leo Tolstoy, Korolenko, Karonin, Kotsubinsky and Leonid Andreyev. In addition, he wrote many essays, articles and reviews on different literary, social and political topics. Literature Review Gorky is one of the initiators and pioneers of Socialist proletarian literature.
He wanted to represent the bitterness of the socio-economic, cultural and political conditions of his times. Possessing revolutionary fervour, he wrote for the betterment of the proletarians and landless peasants. He set new social realism best suited for his revolutionary mission. It is one of the most important novels of the twentieth century which was written in in America, on the historical eve of the first Russian peasant-bourgeois Revolution of It depicts the emerging class-conscious revolutionary proletariat class in Russia.
It enjoyed enormous popularity and success and was considered as a model for the socialist proletarian fiction prior and after the Bolshevik Revolution of They are beaten not out for cruelty alone but because on them the men folk avenge their own sufferings—the anguish and humiliation of their degraded and oppressed lives.
She states that, although the structure of the novel is pedagogically calculated, starting with its division into two parts before radicalisation and after , each of which contains 29 chapters. She did not mention the modern and Post-modern theories of Marxist feminists as well as Marxist belonging to second and third wave feminisms to strengthen her argument in her article.
No researcher concentrates on the revolutionary role of women as embodied in the female figures of the novel from Marxist feminist perspective and the above-mentioned research on the subject seems scanty. Therefore, the on-going research is an attempt to fill the research gap and it will hopefully motivate the research scholars on the subject.
This is a qualitative study based upon textual and character analysis of females portrayed in the novel under investigation on the bedrock of Marxist feminist hermeneutics.
Marxist feminism is a theory of power and its unequal distribution. For the Marxists feminists every social formation is based on class-conflicts of interests between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat as well as gender discrimination between men and women.
They want to establish and defend equal socio-economic and political rights of women.It came out as a one-volume book in The development of the national liberation movement in India and the upsurge of the revolutionary struggle in Russia turned over new leaf in the Russian-Indian links. Mumbai: Parchure Puranik ani Mandali, In the words of Christopher Caudwell, an insightful writer of great acumen, the life of Maksim Gorky is a live example of how a mutually enriching bond can evolve between life and literature.
His mother, Anna, volunteering for the task of distributing political pamphlets, helped in her his revolutionary activity. The Outcasts and Other Stories.
Marathi was reconstructed through the translations on the models of English and Sanskrit. The expansion of imperial Russia threatened to destroy the so-called jewel in the crown of the British Empire, that is, India. The Zoot suit as rebellion.