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METAPHORS FOR THE MUSICIAN PDF

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Metaphors for the Musician gives insights into almost every aspect of jazz musicianship, including scale/chord theory, practice strategies, composing techniques. Metaphors for the Musician [Randy Halberstadt] on myavr.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book is a gold mine of insights into almost every. Editorial Reviews. Review. Randy knows how to break things down so a student can actually Metaphors for the Musician - Kindle edition by Randy Halberstadt. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.


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Download Randy Halberstadt - Metaphors for the myavr.info This is one of the great jazz books of our times. I highly recommend this book not only to jazz pianists, but all jazz musicians who are looking for ways to expand. Metaphors For The Musician - This practical and enlightening book will help any jazz player or vocalist look at music with new eyes - music theory, but with.

Strictly spea k i n g , theory is sim ply a n after-the-fact d escription of the sou nds that you ca n l ea rn d i rectly by ear, so is it rea l l y of a ny use? I t p rese nts yo u with severa l pathways from wh ich to choose, not w i th i ronclad rules. I 've occasi ona l ly heard a you n g m usici a n express d istrust of theoretica l knowledge, fea ring that it w i l l d estroy the mystery a n d the m a g i c of m usic for h i m. N o o n e who has learned his theory feels this way.

Read what B i l l Eva ns had to say about this on page Questions " H ow d o chords fit together? You won't need a ny adva nced p i a n o ski l ls, j ust a knowledge of basic chords.

It w i l l m a ke the going easier if you ca n see a n d hea r the structu res on the piano as you go. The Planets Look at the d i a g ra m on the next page.

I t's the I chord in the key of C major, a nd it's surrou nded on a l l sides by p l a n ets the med i u m -sized d isks. These a re the seventh ch ords that fit with i n the C major sca le.

Th ese moons behave j ust l i ke rea l o n es: Notice that i n each case one moon is fa rther fro m its p l a n et than the othe r moons for exa m p le, II of I I , E m i 7 b5.

Notice that yo u ' l l n eed so me black notes i n every case. I n othe r words, n o n e of th ese chords fits with i n the C major sca le. Then play the fol lo w i n g chord prog ressions: There is a g ood expla nation fo r th is.

Th is is a tense i n te rva l that dema nds resol ution. Play the C -G tritone and resolve it to D-F. II 8 Now play the p rogressions i n Exe rcise Now play t h i s 0 m i nor bebop sca l e we' l l d iscuss its theoretica l struct u re soo n: The Eb7 d oesn 't h ence t h e "X"-more o n that later as w e l l. Confi rm th ese relationsh i ps on the p i a no.

I n a l l of these systems the d ista nt moons a re optio n a l. Now play th is p rog ressi on: There a re o n ly two nea rby moons: J ust as the VI I pla net is crossed out beca use it d oesn 't exist in a major key, so a lso the VI I moon of a major p l a net doesn 't exist. The C7 fits i n to the key of F major, but the Gb7 d oesn't hence the X. Notice that the I I of V is on t h e actu a l context, we m i g ht chord fu nctions as a VI , we hear hear it i n the key of G major.

I f the it in the key of C major. Beca use i t's a major chord , yo u sho u l d co nsider it to have the sa m e th ree-moon system as the IV a n d t h e V. Explore the IV, V, a n d I systems on the piano by p l ayi ng prog ressions si m i l a r to those i n Exercise Beg i n w i th the sun, CMa7. H e re's a sa m pl e exploration. E b1 VI AM? C1 Chapter 22 You m a y have noticed one d eviation fro m the ru l es i n my sa m p l e exp l o ration: This specifi c del ayed resolution is very co m m o n.

Analyzing a tune in a major key Now you ' re rea dy to a n a lyze the chord p rog ression to the tu n e " I S h o u l d Ca re" page 1 1 4. Write i n the Rom a n - n u mera l fu ncti ons fo r each chord and the co rrespo n d i n g key centers. Afterwards, refer to the a ppendix on page 3 1 4 to check you r a nswers. You sho u l d have o n ly th ree d ifficu lties: Fm i7 Bb7 does not a ppea r on the C major cosmic. I t may look l i ke a I I -V i n Eb, but it's actua l ly fu ncti o n i n g i n a different way refer to " N ew Pathways Home," page 1 3 5.

Su rprise! We've a l ready d i scussed how a m b i g uous this chord ca n be. The next chord 07 is a V of V. You ' l l fi nd that you ca n a n a lyze m a ny tu nes w i th th ese cos m i c cha rts, particu l a rly o n es that belong to the so-ca l led G reat America n So ng book.

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Oon't g et d iscou raged if there a re some tu nes that d o n 't behave as t h e cosmics p red ict that they sho u l d. Yo u ' l l fi n d a l m ost noth i n g but surprises i n the compositions of Wayne Shorter, H e rbie H a n cock, a n d oth e r more modern composers.

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M a ny o f th ese com positions ca n be viewed i n part as reactions a g a i nst the trad itiona l use of h a rmony, so i t sho u ld be no surp rise that a cos m i c a n a lysis of them wi l l revea l very l ittle. One more q u a l ifi cation: O n e of the most fu nda menta l problems that a ny a rtist i n a ny d isci pl i ne m ust confro n t is the confl ict between u n ity a n d va ri ety.

When a com poser writes a p i ece o f m usic, he wants it to be u n ified, but he a lso wants i t to be i n terest i n g. E A MI7!

Copyright renewed and Assigned to Ca h n Music Co. All Rig hts on behalf of Cahn Music Co. Ad m i n istered by WB Music Corp. All R i g h ts Reserved. Co m posers have reso lved t h i s problem in the sa m e way fro m befo re Bach's t i m e. The so l ution is to i n se rt chords that, w h i l e not in the key of C, w i l l lead back i n to the key of C to one of the chords that fit i nto C - i n other words, moons! Now the t u n e has more va riety but just as much u n i ty.

Since the sol ution is so elegant, com posers of a l m ost every style have used it with g reat reg ula rity. It shows u p i n classical, fol k, rock, cou ntry, and jazz.

Improvising Scales Now I want to be more specific about the sca l es themse lves. W h e n I say that t h e CMa7 chord is a I chord i n C major, i t means that yo u ca n i m p rovise usi ng the notes of the C major sca le.

The n try si n g i ng them without the p i a no. If you decide that it's a VI chord in C major, yo u ' l l i m p rovise w i th the notes of the C major bebop sca le.

The two sca l es have exactly the sa m e notes! Conse q u e ntly, t h e d i scussion o f whether the chord is a VI or a I becomes p u rely aca d e m i c. You m ust be wonderi ng what sca l es to use for the b l l chords; as you ca n see, they're a l l ma rked with "X"s. These chords a re not i n a key, strictly spea k i n g. Neverthel ess, there is a perfectly good sca l e to use for i m p rovisi n g. Then play i t over a n F7 a n d i m provise with it.

The Minor Cosmic Wa it a m i n ute, there's som et h i n g m issi ng: Now h e re's a new sca l e of my own concoction: A tune that is in the key of C m i nor may h ave so me chords with Ab's, so me with A's, so m e w i th Bb's a n d so m e with B's. Let's beg i n by looki ng at the norma l aspects of the cosm ic.

I m provise with the C m i nor bebop sca le. The moon system su rrou n d i n g the VI chord is j ust what we wou l d expect with a major p l a n et. Fi rst, notice that the VI I chord Bd i m 7 is not crossed out. I t's a major p l a net a n d it has exactly the three-moon system that we wou l d expect. You ' l l hear it as the I chord in the key of Eb major the relative major key of C m i nor.

H e re, t h o u g h , the situation is more extreme. Chapter 22 All of the other od d i ti es on the C m i nor cosmic seem to have o n e so u rce: The most d isti nctive note in the key of C m i nor is Eb. There's som et h i n g about the E n a t u ra l that seems to t h reaten the i nteg rity of the basic key. Fra n kly, th is is j ust my o p i n ion re m e m ber-th is is jazz theory. Let's ta ke them one at a time a nd rem e m ber, play them on the p i a no: Play th is prog ressio n: Replace the A7 i n the p revious p rog ressi o n with C Ag a i n , i t d oesn't sou nd terri ble, but i t's too fa r out of the o rd i n a ry to wa rra nt i n clusion on the cosmic.

Play this p rog ressi o n: Does it sou nd terri ble? Now play the sa me prog ression a g a i n. Fo r that matter, you cou l d play a C bl ues sca l e over the e n t i re p rog ression. And a g a i n , C m i nor bebop works pretty well too. Why not? The 5th is fl atted to bend t h e chord i nto C m i nor. Play t h is p rog ression: That's about it. Pretty m essy, isn't it?

M usic is very mathematica l -except w h e n it isn 't. Now explore the enti re m i nor cos m i c chart as you d id the major cos m i c, p roceed i ng from the s u n th ro u g h d ista nt moons to closer moons to p l a n ets.

Analyzing a tune in a minor key Now a n a lyze "My Fu n ny Va lenti ne" o n page 1 2 2. N otice that t h e next chord i s a Bb7, w h ich is t h e V chord that sends you to the relative major key of Eb. Retroactive ly, we ca n now view the Fm i 7b5 as an a l tered I I chord in that key Fm i 7 b5 i nstead of Fm i 7. Check you r a n swers i n the a ppendix on page 3 1 6.

Back to the beginning H e re a re the fou r q u estions that beg a n this cha pte r: As for t h e last two? By way of exp lanation, here's a nother m eta p h o r: The site may be d iffe rent, b u t the esse n ti a l struct u re is the same. O n ce you u n d e rsta nd i ts structu re, yo u ca n easi ly re-create it in the sa me key or a ny othe r. The term "tra nsposi n g " is a m isnomer here, beca use it suggests that you a re movi ng the t u n e from o n e key to a n othe r.

Yo u d o n 't move the ho use, p l a n k-by- p l a n k, brick-by-bri ck, to a n other site. R i g hts for Extended Renewal Term in U. Chapter 23 Cop-out Scales Play t h is chord p rog ression: Of cou rse it's i n C major, l i ke t h e rest of the prog ression. Now p l ay t h is p rog ression: After a l l , the G m i 7 C7 was i n se rted sim ply to lead us to the same IV chord we had before. Or is i t in F major?

Were the two new chords so effective in lead i n g us to the FMa7 that we now hear it as the I chord? Try i m provising over the chord with the C major sca l e, m a ki n g sure to i n cl ud e t h e note B.

Now try usi n g the F major sca le, making su re to i nclude the note Bb idea l ly as a passing tone between A a nd C. Do you have a preference? Does either one sou nd bad? If you don't l i ke the Bb, does it sou nd as bad as it d i d over the FMa7 i n the fi rst chord prog ression? When I i m provise, I sim ply try to p l ay the sou n ds that I hear in my head. If it contradicts what I hear, I ' l l go with my ea r instead a nd later attem pt to fi ne-tu ne my theoretica l views so that they more accu rately describe what I hear.

To expla i n what I rea l ly hear over the FMa7 in exe rcise My other perso n a l i ty hears it as a I chord in F major and doesn't l i ke the sou n d of the note B natura l.

Both my persona l ities a re co ncerned o n ly with playi n g w h a t I h e a r, not with the need to i m p rovise with i n a recog n iza b l e sca le.

So here's what ha p pens: Does the note Bb sou n d terri ble to me? No, of cou rse not. But the sca l e that d escri bes the notes that I natura l ly hear is neither the C major sca le nor the F major sca le, precisely: Ca l l it the C "cop-out" sca le if you want.

But--a nd this is i m porta nt--it's not my m i nd that's cop p i n g out, it's my ea r. In the case of the FMa7 in exa m p l e There's even a name for such an eve n t: If the two sca l es u nder consi d eration d iffer o n ly by o n e or two notes, yo u r ear may very well g ravitate to the co m m o n to nes between those sca l es.

Don't force a seve n- note sca l e over a chord in t h e n a m e of theoretica l neatness if you r ea r o n ly h e a rs five o r six.

N ever fo rget that i n jazz, th eory is a n after-th e-fact d isci p l i n e that w e use to d escribe m usic that sou n ds good t o us. Chapter 24 Most Consonant Scales Treat this whole chapter a s a practice box. Here's a nothe r way o f ch oosi n g sca l es t o use ove r chords. Yo u ' l l have at least o n e good sol ution fo r each chord that is not i n a key, a nd you ' l l have a lternative sou nds for each chord that is i n a key. Most consonant scales for minor 7ths Co nsi d e r the chord C m i 7.

Sta rt on a ny chord tone. Go up a w h o l e ste p W or to the n ext chord tone, wh ichever comes fi rst. Proceed from a ny non-chord to n e up to the next chord tone. H e re's how it l ooks: Yo u w o u l d have to consi der the context of the chord in the prog ression to m a ke that choice.

H e re we d i d n 't co nsider a context. The most consonant sca l e for a chord consists of the chord tones a n d the notes a whole step a bove the chord tones.

I t's a major sca l e bu i lt o n the 5th of the chord. Usi n g that re lationsh i p , it's easy to fi g u re out that the most conso n a n t sca l e for EbMa7 is Bb major.

W h e n you choose t h is sca l e for i m provisi n g , yo u ' re merely usi ng the chord ton es p l u s oth e r n otes that won't clash with the chord tones. In each case the actu a l shape of the chord itself, not the context of the chord i n the prog ression, determ i n es the sca le.

Most consonant scales for diminished 7ths Now l et's a p ply the sa me process to a d i m i n ished 7th ch ord. But in a sense there was no d i m i n ished sca l e u nti l t h is co nce pt created it. The blanket metaphor You m i g ht fi nd t h i s meta phor usefu l in u n d ersta nd i n g most conso n a n t sca l es.

D ra pe a bla n ket over you r tel evision set. Now d ra pe i t over a l a m p, a p i a no, a toaster, you rself, whatever. Now d ra pe the chord-tone-pl us-w hol e-step sca l e ove r a m i n o r 7th chord. It's j ust Chapter 24 one b l a n ket-the chord-tone-pl us-wh o le-ste p most consona nt sca le-but it cha nges i ts shape accord i n g to the chord u n d erneath.

Building most consonant scales for other chords The next page is a worksh eet. I 've s u p p l ied you w i th the ton es for each chord type. You should add the whole steps a n d try to i d entify the sca le.

After yo u 've fi n ished, check you r a n swers on the fo l lo w i n g page. But be aware that the m ost conso n a n t sca l e rep rese nts j ust one g ood sou nd over a chord , a n d often not the best.

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Neverthe l ess, look at the va l u e of what we've d o n e here. You now h ave sca l es to use ove r a l l the chords fo r wh ich the to n a l key syste m offers no clear sol utions. The major 7 5 chord I say "a l most" beca use there is o n e use fo r a m e l o d i c m i nor sca l e that is not strictly of the most conso n a n t sca le type. N everthel ess, th is sca le d oesn't work very we l l ove r the CMa7 5 chord.

The A d oesn 't so u n d good, despite the fact that i t's a whole step above a chord tone. A m elodic m i nor. N otice that I i nc l uded six d o m i n a n t chords on the worksheet. The C7 w i l l usu a l ly be played with so me combi nation of these a lterations: Even if you d o n 't actua l ly add these notes to you r voicing, the l i stener w i l l sti l l hear the chord as being colored by the sou n d of the F m i nor sca l e. These a l terations w i l l often be i ncluded i n the written n a m e of the chord e.

I f yo u build it fro m the root of the ch ord, it's ca l led an a l tered sca le. The i m porta nt t h i n g to rea l ize about th is chord , however, is t h a t you ca n exercise tre m e n dous freedo m i n you r choice of extensio ns. Si nce there is no key sca le, t h is is a classic case for the use of a most conso n a n t sca le.

So it a ppea rs that yo u d o h ave to consider a d o m i n a nt 7th's fu n ction before you choose its most conso n a n t sca le. The shape sti l l d ete rm i n es the sca le, but yo u won't know the specific shape of the d o m i n a n t 7th u n t i l yo u co nsider its re lationsh i p to the othe r chords i n the prog ression. You ' l l notice that I used the p h rase "but no key" to d escri be a l l but the fi rst two C7 fu n ctions.

This means that even thou g h the C7 relates to the key of B major as a b l l chord , i t's not officia l ly in that key. Don't i m p rovise with a B major sca l e ove r the chord. Most consonant scales vs. H e re a re the chord chan ges to the tu ne "The Nearness of You. Listen a n d co mpare them. Certa i n ly I hear most conso n a n t sca les for chords that a re not i n a key. I ' l l so meti mes hear a Iyd i a n mode a major sca le on the 5th for a major 7th chord fu nction i n g as a I chord.

Chapter 25 New Pathways Home Cred it fo r the esse n t i a l ideas i n t h i s chapter belongs to the g reat m usici a n G a ry Peacock. I 've sim ply added a l ittle a ro u n d the edges. Traditional resolutions: The V- I chord p rog ression is by fa r the most com m o n exa m p l e of m usica l tension a n d re l ease. But d i d you ever wonder why it wo rks? Why exactly d oes V reso lve to I so convi nci n g ly?

The a nswer to t h is q u estion sta rts with these two i n te rva ls. I t resolves smoot h ly to the second i n te rva l C- E , wh ich is a major 3 rd. Al l of them reso lve smooth ly to a C chord. As t h is is the trito n e that is responsible for the reso l u tion, I ' l l ca l l it the "reso lvi ng tritone. I t's a nother trito n e! The G 7 and the Db7 a re a tritone away fro m each oth e r.

It d oesn 't matter whether you go up or down a tritone from G. I n the Db7 the resolving trito n e is co m p rised of the 7th B a n d the 3 rd F. Not o n ly d o these ch ords share the sa me reso lvi n g tritone, b u t in both cases that trito n e co nsists of the 3 rd and the 7th of the chord.

There is a s i g n ifi ca nt d ifference between G 7 a nd D b 7 , howeve r. The notes o f G 7 fit neatly i nto a C major sca le. The notes of a Db7 specifi c a l ly, t h e n on-trito n e notes-the root and the 5th d o n 't fit i nto the key of C major. Let's review what we've l ea rned so fa r a bo u t these two dom i n a nt 7ths: The V chord is i n the key, but the b l l chord i s not. Beca use both of these chords resolve to I , they ca n often be used i n tercha ngea bly.

I n other words, you ca n su bstitute a Db7 for a G 7 i n a chord p rog ressio n: You may a l ready be fa m i l ia r with t h i s wel l -trodden th eoreti ca l i n formation. So now I want to exa m i n e som e newer ways to reso lve to a I ch ord. Chapter 25 Newer resolutions: The B-F trito n e is wra pped tig htly a ro u n d those notes. In other words, the tritone contracts to the root a n d the 3 rd of the chord.

Co nseq uently the tritone wra p w i l l not be as tig ht. One of the notes w i l l resolve by a half step, but the other w i l l reso lve by a w h o l e ste p. Beca use it's a l ooser fit, there a re two d i ffere n t tritones that reso lve i n w a rd to the 3 rd a n d t h e 5th: Play these i n terva ls on the p i a n o so yo u ca n hear the reso l utio ns. Two dominant 7ths a trito n e away fro m each oth er will share t h e sa me tritone.

The D-Ab tritone is formed by the 3 rd and 7th of Bb7. I t's a lso the 7th a n d the 3 rd of E7, the tritone su bstitute fo r Bb7. The D -A tritone is fo rmed by the 3 rd a nd 7th of B7. It's also the 7th and 3 rd of F7, the tritone su bstitute for B7. Play these on the p i a no. N otice that t h e last th ree a re a tritone away from t h e fi rst t h ree.

This i nfo rmation has profo u n d i m pl i cations for substitution. Applications of this theory Here a re fou r ways i n w h i ch you ca n use t h is new substitution theory: As a com pose r: As a re-ha rmon izer: Th is i s a particu l a rly exciting a p p l ication of the theory.

S i m ply put, it i nvolves i m provisi n g ove r o n e chord p rog ression as if i t were a noth e r to ach ieve a more outside, i n teresti ng sou n d. The l i ne matches the chord. Now play it with a G 7 i nstead. The confl icti n g sou n ds converge in the next measu re, creating tension a n d re l ease.

Do the sa m e fo r the second exa m ple. Play the fi rst l i n e with a B7, then with a G7. The note F is s u p posed ly forbidden over a G7, but it works fi ne as part of a B7 o u t l i n e. As an a n a lyzer: Tim Pettingale. The Jazz Theory Book. Mark Levine. Martin Taylor Beyond Chord Melody: First Chord Progressions for Guitar: Learn the most important chord sequences for songwriting and playing guitar Guitar Chord Progressions.

Simon Pratt. Improvise for Real: The complete method for all instruments. David Reed. Editorial Reviews Review Randy knows how to break things down so a student can actually understand it. I recommend this book to anyone who is serious about music. It helped solidify and codify many things I 'knew' but had never been able to articulate.

I highly recommend Metaphors for the Musician. Product details File Size: Sher Music; 1 edition January 12, Publication Date: January 12, Sold by: English ASIN: Enabled X-Ray: Not Enabled. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention jazz piano mark levine keyboard player piano book book even theory practice chord playing randy musicians players teacher aspiring guitar halberstadt pianist teaching tips.

Review: Jazz Metaphors For The Musician by Randy Halberstadt

Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Spiral-bound Verified Purchase. I can't seem to put this book down. Even if it's theory you are already familiar with, he really helps you to see it from a different perspective whilst helping you to get a clearer understanding.

Excellent stuff. I've bought many books to help me on the road to improvisational proficiency but this one along with Jazz Improv by Jimmy Amadie have stood out to me because: Randy's book is excellent. His writing style is very accessible and his explanations are clear hooray for metaphors! Most important, his exercises and tips really work -- they're great.

Several pianists - including my private teacher - have recommended "Metaphors for the Musician" and I am grateful for the advice. Thank you to them and a very special "thank you" to Randy! Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. This book is meant to be studied. And practiced. It's not intended to be read and put on the shelf. You're supposed to read parts, practice what you've read, etc. It's focused on keyboard players, but other instrumentalists can also benefit from it. A mixture of art and science in the world of jazz.

Sometimes I wonder where it's going, then I read on and find out.

Written and compiled by a jazz master who can express himself in many ways Sure there is theory, but he presents it in a practical manner. His discussion of practicing slow will really convince you of it, and his method for applying slow practice is tremendous. In fact, as I think about it almost every subject from scale [ As with anything else, a book is not a magic amulet to make your playing better but this will really help you move forward if you have plateaued Great teaching and resource book.

A must have if you are serious about playing jazz at a higher level. Halberstadt has certainly "earned his wings" as he found his passion in jazz piano.I wish I had had your book then! It's j ust Chapter 24 one b l a n ket-the chord-tone-pl us-wh o le-ste p most consona nt sca le-but it cha nges i ts shape accord i n g to the chord u n d erneath.

His arrangement, not the individual player, determines the style of the ensemble. I m provise with the C m i nor bebop sca le. A similar tendency toward specialization of function, formal organizational structure, written systems and procedures, and a planned communication mechanism is found in larger manufacturing organizations. Here, t h e n , a re the p rog ressions, sca l es, a nd sa m p l e i m p rovisations.

Every so often they dip into the water and disappear, but they are still moving, then they reappear further on.

ELINA from Florida
I do enjoy ultimately. Feel free to read my other posts. I enjoy skeet shooting.