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MENS HEALTH 2015 PDF

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Physical activity, wellness Robert Petrella Project to engage male sports Western fans to get into shape and live University healthier lives. The selection of key informants was based on one or more of the following criteria: The letter of invitation and key informant questions were translated into French for participants from Quebec.

In three cases, the original key informants delegated other organizational members to respond. Interviews were not recorded for verbatim transcription and, instead, were designed to capture the main points and observations of each informant See Appendix B for key informant questions.

To ensure accuracy, a transcript of each interview was sent back to the key informant for verification; informants could revise or add missing comments. No direct quotes from key informants are used in the overview. But to a greater degree, much of the attention and service growth is focused on prostate cancer and erectile dysfunction. Instead, there is an urgent need for discussion and action in relation to the promotion of mental health e. No less evident is the consensus that despite such attention there is still a relatively small, fragmented patchwork of initiatives, programs and services focused on positive masculinity, help-seeking and openness, social connectedness and physical activity that is men specific in design and setting.

Some, but not all, spoke about a gender bias in policy and attitudes that can be harmful in their description of men and masculinity.

Such viewpoints are viewed as a barrier towards wider acceptance and action as many men will be resistant if the image of masculinity and need for personal or collection action is overly negative, imperiling both acceptance and help-seeking. Instead, the objective is instrumental and external. For example, anti-violence programs are typically downstream and represent a goal of safety for women and children rather than the better health of men.

There was no disagreement on the importance of safety for women and children, but some suggest the framing and intent is negative prevention rather than positive development and growth.

Similar comments were made regarding fathering programs; that such programs are valuable but again the emphasis can be on the other — children — rather than on men. Overall, most action is infrastructure is a small, funded through non-government sources. Further fragmented patchwork limiting the push is the competition for dollars in an of agencies and environment of fiscal restraint. That recognizing the emotional impact of a life changing event such as unemployment and reaching out to others for help and support is viewed as weakness.

Instead stoicism is the dominant characteristic of being a man, creating a powerful barrier of resistance to information, advice and reaching out; almost a tunnel of fatalism in which a real man toughs it out in solitude.

Some informants suggest that the memories and effects of such abuse are denied and personally struggled with over much of their life before maturity or later life change or crisis allows them to acknowledge a problem and trigger help seeking behaviour. Informants shared a consensus that men need to learn the language of emotion.

Current social norms and expectations make it difficult for men to express their feelings in intimate relationships or with other men. And yet such language of emotion and openness needs to be crafted to penetrate and find acceptance within diverse socio-economic and ethno-cultural groups as well as in relation to sexual orientation.

Reflecting research findings, informants point out that there is no one singular image of masculinity. In response to the service experience that many users are often in or approaching middle age before seeking help with emotional struggles and life challenges, there was full agreement that reaching out to boys in local high schools to promote a refreshed image of masculinity is essential.

The earlier such images of being a man can be introduced, discussed and accepted, the greater the potential for promoting a healthy positive image that both shifts attitudes and changes behaviour — from better decisions to stronger open social connectedness to increased willingness to seek help from friends or professionals. Others noted that perhaps the weakest link in a life course chain is men between the ages of 18 and 35 — that reaching this group is hindered by the lack of organized points of contact such as school for boys.

At the same time, many informants emphasized that we cannot forget older men. Overall, an evolving infrastructure should be created with a full life course approach. Such media images serve to reinforce the common public notions of what it is to be a man.

Far too common are images of incompetent fathers who are inept in parenting or household tasks. No less common are the images of music videos displaying blatant forms of misogyny or sports figures reinforcing notions of toughness and stoicism. There are no strong, positive media images of positive masculinity, and there is a need to be more creative in creating and implementing such messages. In the absence of such positive imaging, there are powerful social and economic forces that promote negative masculinity.

In other words, stereotyped images of men are being used for commercial advantage and profit. However, most participants also suggested that such a media campaign should only be viewed in the context of re-enforcing the local — action on the ground in the community. Isolation and stoicism is found even in more collectivist communities such as LGBT.

Not only does this masculine silence affect the likelihood of men reaching out to a friend or family member, it is further evident in the odds of them seeking professional health and social services. This male silence is reported across socio-economic, racial, ethno-cultural and sexual orientation boundaries of masculinity.

Key informants echoed research findings that suggest that when men do seek help, it is often the result of the actions of a significant other such as a wife or partner. For many services that focus on issues of family violence, the key sources of referrals are from government and related agencies, often through a court order, rather than personal choice. No less influential on men getting help is the need to understand the language used by many men to express emotional distress or depression.

Yet it is equally important to remember that many men do reach out in their relationships and for professional help.

There are a large number health and social services that engage men for counselling and treatment as well as a significant number of men who are very physically active in sports or at the gym.

And when thinking about where men are, it is increasingly important to consider not only a physical setting but a digital place of gathering. As one informant suggested, go to where men digitally are — particularly those under the age of fifty.

For most, the key create, implement and challenge is how to take this idea or concept to the sustain strategies that reach ground and in action and, to scale these approaches to out and go where the size.

Men's Health September 2015 UK

That strategy must be multi-faceted, concentrations of men and recognizing personal variations as well as cultural sporting organizations differences. For not just a physical place, it others, churches might be the best point of contact. Not all men are in all places and what works for dependent on local context: For black men, the agencies and service clubs. For community organizations, research is valuable and necessary, but no less essential is getting these findings from paper to action on a sustainable basis: Service clubs.

The potential points of creating new connections for communication and support is vast; the existing patchwork of initiatives and services is small. Most informants feel there are many opportunities for getting it on the ground, but that such opportunities need to be expanded and, most critically, conditions for scaling up enhanced. Indeed, key informants told us about a repertoire of community-driven approaches, often using innovative methods.

The ideas of community organizations are rich; the financial capacity to implement is often impoverished. Overall, there are a number of grass root initiatives, centres and programs that are beginning to explore ways of engaging various settings where men are. Such initiatives are labour intensive and time consuming and the biggest challenge is securing the resources to expand and scale up local community driven efforts.

Many of the centres and programs are aligned with their local context, often reporting that a large proportion of their population is of Indigenous background in Western Canada and lower socio-economic backgrounds.

MALE MORTALITY

One example provided is Edmonton — a city with a large group of men working outside the city in Northern Alberta, many from other regions of Canada with few natural supports. Physical labour associated with strong images of traditional masculinity, as well as unique strains being placed on relationships as the men work long shifts away in remote locations. The strains of this employment context can be expressed through high rates of suicide which has resulted in local initiatives such as Twisted Mister in Fort McMurray although this initiative appears to have dissolved.

The Complex Relationship between Upstream and Downstream The value of upstream health promotion initiatives is the effort to influence and change the factors and conditions that create health harmful beliefs, attitudes and behaviours.

In other words, there is a complex relationship between promotion and treatment that if not addressed can result in a triggering of service demand that cannot be met by existing treatment capacity and most informants noted the lack of public sector capacity in treatment for men. Even with the promotion of a new masculine image of heightened social connectedness, communication and mutual help, there will be those for whom a new friend is not enough.

For example, many of those seeking professional clinical help for sexual abuse in their childhood are in their mid 40s and up. Men helping men in natural settings will be insufficient when the emotional issues and mental health challenges are of such significance. Social innovation is not necessarily the critical challenge; funding and sustainability might be the critical inhibitor of growth and expansion.

The relationship between health promotion and treatment demand is complex, non-linear and not easy to predict yet the relationship is real: Shifting the Mainstream Informants noted that the bulk of mainstream organizations and programs are focused on general population and, where there is a gender specific or other targeted population, these are more often reaching out to women, children or ethno-cultural groups.

One example was evolving the environment of day care centres. When one walks into most day care centres all or most of the posters are geared to women e. Some suggest this is not a welcoming environment for men and fosters the notion that men are less important as parents. While many day cares have undergone processes in the development of anti-oppression policies and training or cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, some participants felt such organizations have failed to craft and evolve men specific policies and sensitivities.

Key informants emphasized that the value of general Shifting the mainstream does not population programs and services offered by these denote turning such mainstream organizations are of critical importance, organizations into men-specific already offering for many men the opportunity for design, but rather, looking at, physical activity and social connections of varying types.

Such a gender specific approach creates a unique environment where girls and boys can take part in activities and learn about what they are going through without the added complexity of opposite-sex interactions.

The approach does not displace the existing wide array of programs for mixed gender leadership development etc. Another common reference to shifting the mainstream was in relation to two sectors: With regard to the former, there is a growing trend among schools for implementing anti-bullying and other types of social emotional learning. More often than not, such initiatives are mixed gender in focus.

Many feel that the education gap between boys and girls reflects critical aspects of masculinity and behaviour that is not adapting to a rapidly changing economy and society — a failure to adapt that is further reflected in patterns of low physical activity, poor mental health, lack of connection and support, and often in unhealthy behaviours.

For many, an even more critical access point to boys is the sports leagues and associations in which they participate.

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Whereas school is an environment of compulsory attendance and potential resistance, sports represents free choice — and often the most critical setting in which their concepts of masculinity are evolved. While most leagues have adopted coaching certification, much of the awareness building and training is focused on safety.

An interesting initiative in the U. The focus is on how coaches need to be talking about how to be men in a positive way. Joe Ehrman coached a football team where he would spend the first 45 minutes talking to the players about positive masculinity, before they were allowed to put the pads on and take the field.

Since then Ehrman has scaled up to a national program through public speaking and learning opportunities. The intent is to encourage sports leagues to view sports as a learning opportunity for boys and young men to re-think masculinity in more positive, healthy ways. While volunteerism is a strong positive, it can also lead to burn out for many individuals. The bulk of funding has come through private sources e.

The connection between fiscal sustainability, capacity and scale is clear and obvious. Otherwise, the risk is well as leaders. While catalytic investments are critical to creativity and innovation, there is a gap in the next step, sustainability, which risks losing such innovations as well as leaders.

Another concern identified by some key informants was the inability of include rent as part of the grant application — a critical issue for smaller organizations with limited physical space. Some of the challenges lie in the relative lack of public sector allocations for health promotion overall, but even within health promotion funding envelopes there appear to be few if any opportunities for men-specific programs or initiatives.

Men's Health September 2015 UK

As noted in earlier sections, the lack of regular public sector funding is less problematic in Quebec where —for emotional wellbeing — there are streams of men-specific funding through government funded health and social services organizations.

One relatively untapped source of funding is in the corporate sector, targeting companies that sell or serve large markets for men. Some suggest Movember could help by using its established national brand to help community groups get through the door of many organizations. For example, Movember might assist funded groups in an approach to potential major corporations or government ministries to gain support for sustainable funding.

No less important is recognition that stability is more than money. Another significant challenge is the shortage of leadership. In tandem with this leadership capacity issue is lack of connection between existing pockets of leadership, knowledge and capacity. A difficult challenge to resolve, however, activities such as conferences, workshops and other forms of education and communication to raise awareness and understanding among men would help to create more leaders.

Overall, there is a need to stimulate more growth of leaders through formal and regularized connections. Thinking Outside the Box: Entrepreneurship and creativity are not missing factors — although the distribution and capacity of these attributes remain a challenge. No less evident are varying uses of digital technology such as apps, on-line information, support and networking or even counseling and other interventions. As noted earlier, many if not most of the key informants spoke to their use of the internet and digital technology in a variety of ways.

For example, the posting of fathers and children photographs on a website leading to a physical event of a picnic or an e-novella.

Another initiative Hockey Fit established a partnership with a BC group for digital innovation in communicating and connecting men in relation to the one year pilot program. Questions that need to be explored and answered in the form of community action include: Research While many informants talked of the need to get research on the ground, there was still a large conversation on the lack of research on the best strategies and tactics to reach men.

Moreover, the emergence of various program models is still in the developmental stage; there is a paucity of research on programs providing firm productive guidance on what works and what works for whom. While there are learnings that can be drawn from other countries such as Australia and the UK, these learnings can, at times, be limited in practical implementation due to the different social context.

Indeed, there is need to consider regional variations within Canada in relation to social, linguistic and cultural context. In summary, there is a need to build research capacity and findings addressing: The existing infrastructure of programs and services providing treatment and counselling are vital to healthy communities and families.

Less recognized, either upstream or downstream, is men as victims of violence. Men assaulting men. Men being sexually abused. Similarly, while there is a provincial network in Ontario of programs for men who have suffered sexual abuse funded by the Ministry of Attorney General , there are far fewer similar public sector programs or services across the country.

While the downstream capacity for men as victims of violence and sexual abuse is relatively small, there are few, if any, upstream approaches to help men recognize and begin to deal with their experiences of abuse. The lack of such approaches leaves many men struggling across the life course in their ability to connect to others, form healthy relationships, live healthy life styles and find meaningful and productive work.

In other provinces, there is little activity. Overall, the inventory scan and feedback obtained from key informants leads to one well substantiated conclusion: Indeed, there was not a single informant that disagreed with the notion of enhancing social connectedness and fostering positive masculinity as key priority strategies. Essential assets, but the identified need is not grant funding, but rather, on-going public sector funding.

This strategic direction was expressed by almost all key informants. The effectiveness of such initiatives would be strengthened by community groups that understand their geographic area e.

Adopt a health equity lens to identify and address the greatest need: Yet, hidden within the positive health gains of the Canadian population are significant gaps driven by socio-economic, cultural, ethnic and racial factors.

While improving the health of all Canadian men should be the goal, the highest potential rate of social return on investment are strategies that target sub-groups of men known to face higher health risks, exhibit worse health behaviour and experience worse health outcomes.

Unlike other jurisdictions such as Australia or the U. In terms of men-specific programs focused on health promotion and positive masculinity, there are little more than a handful of organizations or initiatives and all these are quite small and local with somewhat limited scalability potential. Future investments would be well served by adopting a system building perspective with an emphasis on concrete actions of economic and community development.

In the absence of such a network, new forms of investment run the risk of being a continuation of small local actions and simply add small threads to the existing patchwork or simply disappear over time.

In essence, each individual or group had to move along a relatively isolated learning and development curve, replicating steps or actions that might have already taken place in another area of the country. To some degree, such replication is necessary in order to adapt action to the local context, and yet many of the steps, emergent models or approaches and evidence based practices could be adopted from existing organizations and initiatives.

Both parents should be encouraged to actively participate in caring of their children. Supporting fathers to participate in the care of their children and teach healthy behaviours can be beneficial to the wellbeing of both the father and the child.

The percentage of single parent families in Australia is gradually increasing, and, similarly, the number of male single parents is on the rise. Mental Health There is a significant comorbidity between mental and physical health outcomes.

Approximately half of all Australian men will experience a mental illness over their lifetime, yet only a small portion will seek professional help.

Men comprise over 75 per cent of all suicides in Australia, and intentional self-harm remains the leading cause of death for men under 54 years of age. Boys are often socialised to avoid showing vulnerability, which can increase stigma associated with seeking help for mental illness.

Mental health problems are particularly pronounced in young men, who access mental health services at a significantly lower rate than they experience mental ill-health. Compared to young women, young men experience higher rates of psychotic and alcohol and other drug disorders, but generally lower rates of mood disorders and anxiety.

Treatment services need to adapt to treat the increasing number of young men needing treatment for these disorders. Cancer screening, treatment and funding One in three Australian men will be diagnosed with cancer before their 75th birthday.

For all cancers, males have a lower five-year survival rate than women. Screening processes for cancers such as prostate or bowel cancer are often seen as invasive and therefore unappealing. More needs to be done to raise awareness about the range of screening options available to patients, including less invasive tests.

Specific populations Different populations of Australian men experience different health outcomes. These regional, socio-economic, racial, ethnic, and cultural differences can compound health disparities.

Indigenous men, men from culturally and linguistically diverse CALD backgrounds, and men who live in regional and remote parts of Australia experience additional adverse health outcomes due to a combination of their vocation, lifestyle, physical and emotional isolation, and access to health services. These barriers contribute to a higher mortality rate than their counterparts, and lower levels of health literacy.

Men in these areas require novel interventions to address these barriers to health. References [1] Better Heath Channel. Emotion review : journal of the International Society for Research on Emotion. Injuries and violence: the facts Life Expectancy and Deaths. Overweight and obesity.

A systematic review of the factors associated with delays in medical and psychological help-seeking among men. Sons of the West. Sign up for news. Order man manuals. Join our online community. Press Office. In the UK, one man in five dies before he reaches Together, we can change that.

Read the Manifesto. Add your support.Compared to young women, young men experience higher rates of psychotic and alcohol and other drug disorders, but generally lower rates of mood disorders and anxiety. Educational programmes in schools and male—targeted health information can be used to encourage and support boys and men to take better care of their own health.

But it is. Screening processes for cancers such as prostate or bowel cancer are often seen as invasive and therefore unappealing. Lower male premature mortality and morbidity rates would reduce the burden on women and families who depend on men's incomes.

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