MBA MINI PROJECTS PDF
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Chole 1. Tushar Narayan CholeRoll no. R Division: This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.
Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes KSAs. The three model of training are: 1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model System Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements.
The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i. Design and provide training to meet identified needs.
This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.
Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.
Instructional System Development Model Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance.
Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. PLANNING — This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.
It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. EXECUTION — This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories.
This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.
The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. Transitional Model Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole.
The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.
Vision — focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line.
A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. Mission — explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community.
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The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values — is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment.
For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop.
This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc.
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These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.
This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees. OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes place at the work place in informal manner. These programs are carried out by identifying the employees who are having superior technical knowledge and can effectively use one-to-one interaction technique.
The procedure of formal on-the-job training program is: 1. The participant observes a more experienced, knowledgeable, and skilled trainer employee 2. The method, process, and techniques are well discussed before, during and after trainer has explained about performing the tasks 3. When the trainee is prepared, the trainee starts performing on the work place 4. The trainer provides continuing direction of work and feedback 5. According to a survey conducted by International Coach Federation ICF , more than 4, companies are using coach for their executives.
These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants. The needs can be identified through 60 degree performance reviews. Procedure of the Coaching The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the executive and coach. Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved 3. Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule 4. At the job, show the participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the performance and then provide feedback 5.
Repeat step 4 until performance improves For the people at middle-level management, coaching is more likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the organization are at times used for up-and- coming managers. Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on definite needs and improvement.
Mentoring Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee. The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching.
Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives.
Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training.
The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency. The executive is usually not simply going to another department.
In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out.
This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level.
It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things.
Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee.
This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view.
This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values.
This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values. Transactional Analysis Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of others.
In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person. This motivation-reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction. Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual.
An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego states: Child: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant, probing, anxious, etc.
Parent: It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her childhood from various sources such as, social, parents, friends, etc.
The characteristics of this ego are to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc. Verbal clues that a person is operating from its parent states are the use of words like, always, should, never, etc and non-verbal clues such as, raising eyebrows, pointing an accusing finger at somebody, etc.
Adult: It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision-making, etc.
A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts. All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to by the other person from any of these three states. Lectures It is one of the oldest methods of training.
This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic.
Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format. There are some variations in Lecture method.
The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which the trainee attempts to absorb.
In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form of printed text, such as books, notes, etc. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script, based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed.
A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games.
Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation. It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations. Some of the examples of this technique are: Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance.
The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. The trainer — Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. The trainees — A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles.
Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.
Training climate — A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.
Training strategies — Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules.
The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included. Training topics — After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.
Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining.
Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program: The trainer — The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.
Physical set-up — Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically.
Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.
Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training.
Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly. Power games: At times, the top management higher authoritative employee uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.
During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.
According to a survey, those companies that align their management development with tactical planning are more competitive than the companies who are not. Therefore, it is important to consider management development as an important part of organizational competitiveness.Sunny Joshua. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.
Project Details 6. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales.
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