Personal Growth Martin Luther Pdf


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One of the great rediscoveries of the Reformation—especially of Martin Luther— was that the Word of God comes to us in a form of a Book. In other words, Luther . “THE NINETY-FIVE THESES”. Martin Luther. - 1 -. “The Ninety Five Theses” — the common title to his. “Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences”. Martin Luther and the. Protestant Reformation. Paul A. Bishop. Introduction_____________________________________. The beginning and later growth of.

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Martin Luther's deep engagement with Scripture caused For Luther, God's two ways of dealing with humans—law and gospel—gave both content and shape. Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at. Martin Luther Biography. Summary of Martin Luther's Life. Martin Luther ( November 10, – February 18, ) was a German monk who.

At first he wished to see the Jewish people converted to Christianity. But, when they seemed uninterested in conversion, he called for the force-able removal of Jews from Germany. This strong anti-Semitic stance has colored his reputation as a reformer. However, by setting the seeds of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther had a huge influence on the development of Western Society.

We are beggars: He used his philosophical knowledge too for his theological teachings. They had both good and bad effects in the European World.

Works of Martin Luther Martin Luther had produced a lot of works in his lifetime in the forms of books, sermons, pamphlets and hymns etc. The following are some of the most famous works of Martin Luther which were meant to reform the Church. These works had its own effects in the society during and after the Reformation period.

Here is a modern translation of this thesis. Only God can give salvation - not a priest. Inwards penitence must be accompanied with a suitable change in lifestyle. Sin will always remain until we enter Heaven. The Pope must act according to canon law. Only God can forgive -the Pope can only reassure people that God will do this. A sinner must be humbled in front of his priest before God can forgive him.

Canon law applies only to the living not to the dead. However, the Holy Spirit will make exceptions to this when required to do so. The priest must not threaten those dying with the penalty of purgatory. In days gone by, church penalties were imposed before release from guilt to show true repentance. When you die all your debts to the church are wiped out and those debts are free from being judged. This fear is enough penalty. This fear is so bad that it is enough to cleanse the soul.

Souls in Purgatory need to find love - the more love the less their sin. A sinful soul does not have to be always sinful. It can be cleansed. There is no proof that a person is free from sin. Even the Pope - who can offer forgiveness - cannot totally forgive sins held within. An indulgence will not save a man. A dead soul cannot be saved by an indulgence. Only a very few sinners can be pardoned. These people would have to be perfect. Therefore most people are being deceived by indulgences.

When the Pope intervenes to save an individual, he does so by the will of God. It is nonsense to teach that a dead soul in Purgatory can be saved by money.

Money causes greed - only God can save souls. Do we know if the souls in Purgatory want to be saved? No-one is sure of the reality of his own penitence - no-one can be sure of receiving complete forgiveness. A man who truly buys an indulgence ie believes it is to be what it is is as rare as someone who truly repents all sin ie very rare. People who believe that indulgences will let them live in salvation will always be damned - along with those who teach it.

Do not believe those who say that a papal indulgence is a wonderful gift which allows salvation. Indulgences only offer Man something which has been agreed to by Man. We should not teach that those who aim to buy salvation do not need to be contrite. A man can be free of sin if he sincerely repents - an indulgence is not needed. Any Christian - dead or alive - can gain the benefit and love of Christ without an indulgence. The most educated theologians cannot preach about indulgences and real repentance at the same time.

A true repenter will be sorry for his sins and happily pay for them. Indulgences trivialise this issue. Christians should be taught that the buying of indulgences does not compare with being forgiven by Christ. This is because of loving others, love grows and you become a better person. A person buying an indulgence does not become a better person.

A person who passes by a beggar but buys an indulgence will gain the anger and disappointment of God. A Christian should buy what is necessary for life not waste money on an indulgence.

Christians should be taught that they do not need an indulgence. The Pope should have more desire for devout prayer than for ready money. Christians should be taught not to rely on an indulgence. They should never lose their fear of God through them. If a Pope knew how much people were being charged for an indulgence - he would prefer to demolish St. The Pope should give his own money to replace that which is taken from pardoners. It is vain to rely on an indulgence to forgive your sins.

Those who forbid the word of God to be preached and who preach pardons as a norm are enemies of both the Pope and Christ. It is blasphemy that the word of God is preached less than that of indulgences. The Pope should enforce that the gospel - a very great matter - must be celebrated more than indulgences.

The treasure of the church is not sufficiently known about among the followers of Christ. The treasure of the Church are temporal of this life. Relics are not the relics of Christ, although they may seem to be. They are, in fact, evil in concept.

Works of Martin Luther, with introductions and notes

Laurence misinterpreted this as the poor gave money to the church for relics and forgiveness. Salvation can be sought for through the church as it has been granted this by Christ. It is clear that the power of the church is adequate, by itself, for the forgiveness of sins. The main treasure of the church should be the Gospels and the grace of God. Indulgences make the most evil seem unjustly good. Therefore evil seems good without penance or forgiveness. The treasured items in the Gospels are the nets used by the workers.

Indulgences are used to net an income for the wealthy. It is wrong that merchants praise indulgences.

They are the furthest from the grace of God and the piety and love of the cross. Bishops are duty bound to sell indulgences and support them as part of their job. But Bishops are under a much greater obligation to prevent men preaching their own dreams. People who deny the pardons of the Apostles will be cursed. Blessed are they who think about being forgiven.

The Pope is angered at those who claim that pardons are meaningless. He will be even more angry with those who use indulgences to criticise holy love. It is wrong to think that papal pardons have the power to absolve all sin. You should feel guilt after being pardoned. A papal pardon cannot remove guilt. Not even St. Peter could remove guilt. Even so, St. Peter and the Pope possess great gifts of grace. It is blasphemy to say that the insignia of the cross is of equal value with the cross of Christ.

Bishops who authorise such preaching will have to answer for it. Indulgences bought for the dead should be re-paid by the Pope. Evil men must not buy their salvation when a poor man, who is a friend of God, cannot. Why are indulgences still bought from the church? The Pope should re-build St. Why does the Pope forgive those who serve against him? What good would be done to the church if the Pope was to forgive hundreds of people each day? Why are indulgences only issued when the Pope sees fit to issue them?

To suppress the above is to expose the church for what it is and to make true Christians unhappy. If the Pope had worked as he should and by example all the problems stated above would not have existed.

All those who say there is no problem must go. Problems must be tackled. Those in the church who claim there is no problem must go. Christians must follow Christ at all cost. Let Christians experience problems if they must - and overcome them - rather than live a false life based on present Catholic teaching. Schem Hamphoras is the Hebrew rabbinic name for the ineffable name of God, the Tetragrammaton.

He wrote the page text several months after publishing On the Jews and Their Lies. In Hamphoras he wrote: Luther saw that violent upheaval would alienate the princes, nobility and certain towns, and would likely be crushed by Catholic or Imperial opposition. Since the majority of towns wanted moderate reform, and many of the princes were committed to it, it was a 23 Vom Schem Hamphoras und vom Geschlecht Christi -Of the Unknowable Name and the Generations of Christ.

Luther would be chastised for this move, seen as ashill to the princes, and was even stoned in Orlamunde. Luther also discussed the Eucharistic views of John Wycliffe in this document.

On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church In this work Luther examines the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church in the light of his interpretation of the Holy Bible. With regard to the Eucharist, he advocates restoring the cup to the laity, dismisses the Catholic doctrine of Transubstantiation but affirms the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist, and rejects the teaching that the Mass is a sacrifice offered to God.

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With regard to baptism, he writes that it brings justification only if conjoined with saving faith in the recipient; however, it remains the foundation of salvation even for those who might later fall and be reclaimed. Only these three can be regarded as sacraments because of their divine institution and the divine promises of salvation connected with them; but strictly speaking, only Baptism and the Eucharist are sacraments, since only they have divinely instituted visible signs: The work is angry in tone, attacking the papacy.

The issue was whether human beings, after the Fall of Man, are free to choose good or evil. The debate between Luther and Erasmus is one of the earliest of the Reformation over the issue of free will and predestination. Luther concluded that unredeemed human beings are dominated by obstructions; Satan, as the prince of the mortal world, never lets go of what he considers his own unless he is overpowered by a stronger power, i.

When God redeems a person, he redeems the entire person, including the will, which then is liberated to serve God. Were it not so, Luther contended, God would not be omnipotent and omniscient, and would lack total sovereignty over creation, and Luther held that arguing otherwise was insulting to the glory of God. As such, Luther concluded that Erasmus was not actually a Christian.

Luther also further develops the concept of justification by faith. In the treatise, Luther stated that a Christian was a perfectly free lord of all, subjected to none. A Christian was a perfectly dutiful servant of all, subjected to all.

In his later period when he wrote this particular treatise, he denounced them and urged their persecution. In the treatise, he argues that Jewish synagogues and schools be set on fire, their prayer books destroyed, rabbis forbidden to preach, homes burned, and property and money confiscated. Teachings of Martin Luther 2. They believed and taught that Roman Catholicism was heretical and apostate.

The Reformers were not tolerant of Rome, for they sincerely believed that Rome was holding souls in bondage with no hope of salvation.

There can be no fellowship between grace- based salvation and law-based salvation, between faith-based salvation and works-based salvation, just as there can be no fellowship between light and darkness. Roman Catholicism is a legal religion, but Protestantism is evangelical Christianity. Catholicism is ruled by the principle of human authority, but Protestantism by the principle of freedom in Christ.

Catholicism leads to bondage, but Protestantism to the true gospel and spiritual freedom. What it is In the view of Martin Luther the Catholic Church is not bound to a particular place and a particular institution. According to him Roman Church is only a part of the universal Church. This true and universal Church is also present in Rome, but not only there and it is present even among the spiritualists. It is present where true Christians are present in the world and where the Church has its center clearly in Jesus Christ, where his words remain alive, his sacraments are celebrated, and the confession of Jesus Christ goes on.

To this foundation the Church is bound, everything else is free. According to him there are seven marks which help to identify it.

They are: Holy word of God, effective means of grace. Holy sacrament of baptism, regeneration. Holy sacrament of the altar. Office of keys exercised publicly, although not the office of Pope. Includes also private confession as a means of grace. It consecrates or calls ministers, or has offices, that is, to administer, Bishops, pastors, preachers, but not women.

Prayer, public praise, and thanksgiving to God, the liturgy. Holy possession of the sacred cross, suffering and carrying the cross as followers of Christ. Martin Luther believed that the Roman Church is giving too much importance to the good deeds of man for salvation. So he took the passage Romans 3: Unfortunately his rhetoric far outstripped his own practice and more radical reformers took the idea of Sola Scriptura to its logical conclusions.

Sola Christos or Christ Alone Sola Christos is saying that Christ alone is enough for the salvation of each believer, based on this theory there is no much importance given to Mother Mary and saints in Protestant Church. In his Lectures on the First Epistle of St. The merit we get from the good works or faith is secondary to grace from God.

All false concepts of grace would seek to eliminate at least one of these clauses, but the biblical Gospel stands firm. Unless Grace alone is understood in this manner, man will always have some room for boasting. The Reformers taught supernaturalism and the necessity of a new birth from God.

Through his works he urged the people to even slaughter Jews. He even went to the extreme of calling them Devils. He forgot the fact that Christ the Savior of the world whom he claimed that he was following was a real Jew. Even before he wrote his anti-Semitic pamphlet, he got Jews expelled from Saxony in , and in the s he drove them from many German towns; he tried unsuccessfully to get the elector to expel them from Brandenburg in For Luther, salvation depended on the belief that Jesus was the Son of God, a belief that adherents of Judaism do not share.

Graham Noble writes that… When they failed to convert, he turned on them. Nevertheless, it is clear that his writings were used extensively by the Nazis. Chaos Followed the Reformation Martin Luther tried to impose his ideas in the Church through his man made religion. Even though initially it was vibrant and good slowly he lost the control of the situation. It was visible that the leaders of his religion could not come to a conclusion in many of the discussions.

There were disagreements among them about many of the teachings of the Protestant Church like the presence of the real body and blood of Christ in Holy Eucharist.

As a result there was no unity in the Protestant Church. The freedom of people in the Church which was given by Martin Luther could only make problems in his Church. There were confusions about many of the teachings. His dream to make a Church outside the Roman Church was not that much successful. The clashes between the divisions of Protestant Church caused the failure of the Reformation which was brought by Martin Luther. The unity of western Christianity was shattered due to the Protestant Reformation.

The able leadership which the Roman Church had was not there for the Church of Luther. One of the main reasons for the failure for the Protestant Church was the freedom given to the believers to interpret the Holy Bible for themselves. It led to the division of the Protestant Church. Luther even went to the extreme level of criticizing some of the books in the Holy Bible. Soon after the Catholic Church judged Martin Luther as a Protestant, Europe became divided along confessional, as well as territorial, lines.

The religious turmoil of the period led to warfare within most states and between many. There was a peasant uprising inspired by the teachings of Martin Luther in — Luther first responded by condemning the rebellion but also faulting the princes for injustices.

It was he who gave initiation to translate the Holy Bible into local languages. His reforms were very much helpful for the Roman Church to rethink and reform itself. He would have been a saint if he reformed the Church as a member of it like Ignatius Loyola and Francis Assisi. But instead he went out of the Church and acted like a real heretic and even caused violence, knowingly or unknowingly. He was also not aware about the possible influence of printing press in that period. It was the development in the printing press which made the activities of Martin Luther such a way popular.

In one way we can come to a conclusion that Martin Luther was becoming a cause for the Reformation of the Roman Church which was necessary during that period. But he made the mistake of establishing a new Church.

He even went to the extreme level of criticizing some of the books in the Holy Bible. After going out of the Church he married an ex-nun. He did not think about the practical difficulty of leading such a great movement as a husband and father.

Today we can see various divisions of Protestant Church all over the world. In the next chapter we will see the influence of Reformation in the Catholic Church mainly the Counter Reformation. It has a great influence in the Church even in this twenty-first century.

Martin Luther with his Protestant Church became the main character in the sixteenth century Church and Europe. Following him and his Reformation, many others with their own group came into Europe and became serious challenges for the Catholic Church. Many from the clergy and laity followed them.

A lot of violence took place in the name of Reformation. The Counter Reformation was not actually a response of Church to the Protestant Reformation but it started much earlier. But only during the time of Protestant Reformation it became so active that the Church herself understood the significance of an effective Counter Reformation.

The Reformation was, to be sure, no isolated event, but a series of movements in several European countries that in varying ways departed from Catholicism. In response to Protestantism and to the problems it sought to address, the Catholic renewal or Counter-Reformation became a reality. As a result many religious orders both of men and women came into being in order to re-establish the lost spirit of Catholic Church. Many efforts were taken to bring back the flock of God to the right Spirit.

This chapter will be dealing with the effects of Protestant Reformation in the Catholic Church, mainly the measures taken by the Roman Catholic Church in order to face the Reformation. The whole Europe was under the shades of Protestant Reformation. John Calvin emerged as the second major founder of the Protestant Reformation. Besides Luther and Calvin, there were many other personalities of note, but the third crucial contribution to the Reformation came from England.

So many went out of the Church and joined any of the newly formed group. It included both clergy and laity. So the need for a Counter Reformation was becoming so relevant. But it proved that simple discussions or dialogues were not useful. About the Counter Reformation itself there were different opinions in the Church. From the start of the Reformation Catholics were divided between a policy of reconciliation and confrontation.

Several dialogues were held between the Lutherans and Catholics, most importantly at Worms and Ratisbon The Catholic representative, the humanist4Cardinal Contarini, like many others in the Church, agreed with the Reformers that abusive practices in the Church, including those in the Roman Curia, had to be ended.

Like the emperor, he also hoped for the theological conciliation. Christian humanism emphasizes the humanity of Jesus, his social teachings and his propensity to synthesize human spirituality and materialism. It regards humanist principles like universal human dignity and individual freedom and the primacy of human happiness as essential and principal components of, or at least compatible with, the teachings of Jesus.

Christian humanism can be seen as a philosophical union of Christian ethics and humanist principles. The term humanism was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century. Martyrs of Counter Reformation During the time of Counter Reformation one of the main challenges was that of persecution.

About Catholic priests were killed in the Netherlands during the religious conflicts, most of them by armies or by mob violence rather than through formal persecution, as also happened in France.

By far the largest group of Catholic martyrs was in England. Although almost every ruler executed religious rebels, persecution under Edward VI was minimal.

But Elizabeth I executed over three hundred—mainly priests, some laymen, mostly men and a few women. During her reign, religious rebels were usually hanged as traitors. The Elizabethan government imposed heavy fines on not only Catholics but also native English Protestants who did not attend Anglican services. The severity of the fine varied according to the political situation at the particular moment.

Papal support for the reforming impulse in the Church began with Paul III, who had led a scandalous life. By the time of his 5 Transubstantiation - The conversion of the substance of the Eucharistic elements into the body and blood of Christ at consecration, only the appearances of bread and wine still remaining.

The Roman Curia had for a long time been a place of notorious corruption, and Paul began the reform of canon law and papal finances, especially the abolition of the complicated network of exemptions from rules that had been the cause of so much corruption. There followed a vote approving overwhelmingly the five reform decrees that had been formulated in the previous weeks.

Next, the full text of the doctrinal decrees that the Council had approved over the last eighteen years was read out, followed by the initial paragraphs of the reform decrees. The Bishop then put two questions to the assembled fathers: To the first the fathers reiterated the affirmative response given the previous day.

Their similar response to the second question, with one dissenting vote, implied a clear recognition of papal authority and signified a notable victory for the papacy.

So the movement for reform and renewal within the Catholic Church reached a major milestone. But there were formidable issues: More than a quarter of a century after the beginning of Lutheranism, were the obstacles overcome sufficiently to enable Paul III to summon a Council at Trent.

The first session lasted less than two years, suspended because war broke out in Germany and disease struck the city of Trent. The second session did not meet until , under the guidance of Julius III, who had been one of the original papal legates at the Council. The final session of Trent, by far the most productive of the three, met from to under the guidance of Pius IV, who officially approved all the conciliar decrees. Before the Council of Trent there was more than 80 Bishops staying in Rome, absent from there sees and one French Cardinal at the same time held three archdioceses, five dioceses, and several religious house.

Trent not only required Episcopal residence but abolished pluralism and the granting of exemptions from the residency rule.

The Council required that those appointed Bishop already be in holy orders, thus have to eliminate the abuses. The Council also forbade favoritism. The Bishops of an ecclesiastical province were expected to meet in a provincial council once in every three years under the chairmanship of the Archbishop.

The Council strengthened the position of the Bishop within his diocese.

The Bishop now controlled who was to be ordained in his diocese, and he was granted greater supervision in pastoral matters such as preaching and the hearing of confessions.

Diocesan synods were to take place annually, and Bishops were to carry out regular visitations of their dioceses.

Parish priests for their part were also to reside in their parishes and preach regularly. Reform in Priestly Formation Trent recognized the low state of education of many of the parish clergy, most of whom in effect learned by the apprenticeship system. The Council therefore decreed that each diocese was to establish a seminary, where candidates for ordination could be properly formed intellectually and spiritually and carefully examined as to their worthiness, an institution that came to be adopted by Protestants as well.

Elaborate procedures were prescribed for dealing with this and other clerical irregularities. Answers for Protestants Trent answered to most of the questions and theological arguments which were raised by Protestants. The Council fathers and their theologians worked on this issue from late June until the formal, unanimous acceptance of the decree on 13 January Carefully crafted and preceded by at least four drafts and drawing heavily on scripture, it is often considered a theological masterpiece.

The decree was composed of not only thirty-three canons or anathemas condemning various positions but sixteen chapters setting forth a positive doctrine that explained the canons and was intended to serve as a basis for preaching.

While stressing the utter inability of the sinner to secure justification on his own and its complete benefit as a gift of God and attributing all initiative to God, it affirmed the need for cooperation on the part of the individual and so an active role for free will in the process.

Finally, the Council asserted that the justified individual must continue to perform good works which, precisely because of his union with Christ, merited an increase of grace and eternal reward, this merit itself is a gift. Answer for Justification The replay given to the theory of justification19 was that, Men stood condemned because of Original sin and were saved only by the sacrifice of Christ. Reaffirming the Seven Sacraments The Council also reaffirmed Catholic positions on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist and the sacrificial character of the mass.

Luther came to understand justification as entirely the work of God. For the validity of a marriage free consent of both parties was declared to be necessary, in the face of what the fathers felt to be undue social pressures. For a long time severe pastoral problems had emerged from the so-called secret marriages, that is, marriages that were concluded on the basis of the consent of the two parties alone, which indeed did constitute the essence of the sacrament of marriage, without any proper public recognition.

According to a Portuguese theologian in Trent, of the confessors in the diocese of Lisbon, ninety-four had had to deal with issues following from secret marriages. Much of the opposition argued that such a measure exceeded the authority of the Church. Answering to the Issue of Indulgence On the issue that had set off the Reformation, the Council reaffirmed the doctrine and practice of indulgences but decreed that their reception should not except for the cruzada in Spain be tied to any kind of monetary payment.

In response to another frequent complaint, it warned against the abuse of excommunication for small purposes, especially those having to do with money. Placing a book on the Index did not necessarily mean its complete condemnation but merely that it was deemed imprudent to read it. Even high-ranking priests, Bishops and Cardinals might have their writings banned at least temporarily, and many books were eventually removed from the list.

Issue of Papal Authority The Council did not address the role of the papacy and its relationship to the Bishops as a body. Papalists at the Council tried, successfully for the most part, to keep the issue off the agenda because they feared a rebirth of conciliarism.

The Council did result in a substantial increase in papal authority. They sought papal confirmation for the establishment of a new Roman congregation for the interpretation of the Council. As the Council came to an end it entrusted tasks to the Pope that enhance his prestige. The Council also promised the obedience to the Pope. The Effects of the Council of Trent Trent was a beginning, not an end, and for the next two centuries, reform-minded Popes and Bishops had to struggle against deep-rooted political and ecclesiastical interests to implement its decrees.

The spirit of the Catholic Reformation, forged at Trent was profoundly successful in giving the Church a character that would last for four hundred years. The Catholic Reformation was in fact a new distinctively modern chapter in the history of the Church.

It was a creative period that produced new conceptions of religious life, catechizing and evangelizing in ways never before attempted.

Inquisition after the Council of Trent At the top of the list of the papal congregations, as reorganized by Sixtus V stood the Inquisition. It had been created in by Paul III as a reorganization of the medieval Inquisition, to counter the Protestant threat, and it was joined in by the Congregation of the Index whose function was to oversee the publication and censorship of books.

Originally the Inquisition was foreseen as a network of courts that would proceed against heretics throughout Christendom. But Spain and Portugal already had functioning Inquisitions, and France and most other Catholic states were not about to allow it to operate in their territories.

Inquisition courts functioned most actively in Italy from about to The most reliable figures indicate that the Inquisition executed roughly victims between and , the most famous being Giordano Bruno who was burned at the stake on the Campo dei Fiori in Perhaps the most harmful effects of the Inquisition lay in fear and in a terrorization of intellectual life, but these are difficult to measure reliably.

In , after long hesitation, the Index of Pope Clement VIII prohibited translations of the Holy Bible into Italian, because of the frequent association of the vernacular scriptures with heresy, and so it followed the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition.

But this prohibition did not apply to the lands north of the Alps. Here we see some of them. Pope Paul IV Paul IV, who as a Cardinal had set up the Roman Inquisition and as Pope established the Index, enforced clerical good conduct by imprisoning or exiling those whom he considered corrupt and imposing extremely cruel and severe laws on Rome, where prostitution had been common. At first, he visibly favored nephews who showed themselves wholly unworthy, but eventually he turned against them.

Pius was himself a nepotist, but some of his relatives proved to be exemplary, notably St. Charles Borromeo, whom Pius made Archbishop of Milan, a Cardinal, and papal secretary of state when the prelate was only twenty-one years old. Borromeo proved to be the model of a Counter-Reformation Bishop. Pope Pius V St. Pius V, the last Pope to be canonized for three centuries, was an ascetic Dominican who had been head of the Inquisition and who vigorously implemented the decrees of Trent, including publishing the Catechism, Missal, and Breviary authorized by the Council.

Pope Gregory XIII Although Gregory XIII had fathered a child, he was a diligent Pope, particularly in restructuring the papal court to eliminate offices that seemed to be mere excuses to collect fees, thereby reducing some of the taxes that had aroused wide hatred. Like Gregory, he had led a less than exemplary life, but once elected he proved to be a draconian moralist like Paul IV, enforcing order in the Papal States, vigorously prosecuting both heresy and civil crime, even imposing the death penalty for adultery.

Sixtus also continued the process of restructuring the Roman Curia, limiting membership in the College of Cardinals to seventy and transforming the Cardinals from semi- independent princes into agents of papal government.

Nuncios In the late sixteenth century, the Holy See formalized its system of papal nuncios,33 partly because a whole territory could be won back to the Church if the ruler himself were converted.

Two others were dispatched to Sweden, where they masked their identities from everyone. Borromeo The key to reform at the local level was a zealous Bishop. The number of such Bishops increased after the midpoint of the century. Borromeo was a good model, leading an ascetic life of prayer and penance, visiting plague victims, and ceaselessly striving to reform his clergy.

Zealous reformers could expect sometimes severe resistance. In the life of St. Borromeo once a group of unreformed Franciscans in Milan tried to have Borromeo assassinated as he presided at Vespers in his cathedral. Francis Borgia Witness to the success of reform was St. Francis Borgia, a Spanish duke who first brought the Jesuits into his territory and then joined them. Teresa of Avila St. Teresa of Avila joined a Carmelite convent whose nuns were mostly aristocrats who, by traditional Carmelite standards, led somewhat pampered lives.

But she underwent a conversion and as mother superior began reforming her convent, requiring the nuns once again to go without shoes; enforcing a strict discipline of prayer, poverty, and self- denial; abolishing the requirement that novices bring dowries with them; and refusing to recognize worldly rank within the convent.

Because of this, she was called upon to 33 Nuncios — Ambassadors. Philip Neri St. Philip Neri was a Roman priest who took delight in fun and jokes and often wore odd clothes.

While the Jesuits conducted highly structured retreats, the Oratorians practiced a less formal kind of spirituality, such as small groups that met to pray and discuss spiritual books. The response of the Catholic Church was both to justify religious life in principle and to encourage religious orders in a variety of ways, both the older orders and the new foundations. Here we will see some of the religious orders which contributed to the Reformation of the Church, during the time of Counter Reformation.

The Capuchins The Italian Observant Franciscan Matteo da Bascio gathered about him a small group with a view to reviving the primitive Franciscan spirit; they received initial papal approbation in and the approval of their Constitutions in They did street preaching and encouraged frequent confession and communion, but they rarely heard confessions lest they seem to intervene on the work of parish priests.

They won universal favour for their heroic, even reckless, devotion to helping those stricken by plague. Of all the new orders the Capuchins grew the fastest, especially after Their membership grew to 8, by and 27, by They did not go into teaching and did not produce many scholars, but they did produce popular religious writers, and they cultivated a common touch which made them extremely effective preachers in missions to rural parishes.

The Jesuits formed the forefront of the counteroffensive against Protestantism, carrying a militant and spiritually renewed Catholicism into education, the missions, pastoral activity, the arts and politics.

Educational Ignatius Loyola believed that the reforms through education for the uneducated and children could contribute a lot for the Counter Reformation. The emphasis on teaching 43 Capuche - the pointed cowl. The Jesuit University was a synthesis of social education, rhetoric and the classics taught under the educational techniques Ignatius himself had experienced at Paris. The Constitutions of the Jesuits stipulated that teachers should, in their courses, regularly touch upon matters valuable for forming good habits, evangelizing and promoting Christian living.

Spiritual The efforts taken by Ignatius Loyola in the Counter Reformation were mostly the reforms for his own newly founded congregation.

This changed their desire to live as modern day disciples in Jerusalem to being apostles wherever the need was greatest. They worked with the poorest, sick, those dying of plague, addicts, widows and orphans etc. The methods of the new religious order were grounded in the one to one engagement of the Spiritual Exercises.

Jesuits were speaking openly in the town squares as well as the churches from the heart in the spirit practically, touching and often transforming lives. Peter Canisius was sent to defend the Catholic faith against the reformers in Germany.

Theatines and Barnabites Two of the earliest new male orders in the sixteenth century were Theatines and Barnabites founded in and Barnabites took their name from the Church of St. Barnabas in Milan, which was the first Church staffed by the order. Both orders emphasized a strict way of life and the importance of work-especially education caring of parishes and missionary work.

Female Orders For women, the early modern period saw the foundation of several important new orders. Originally the lifestyle was somewhat similar to that of Beguines, but gradually the order was required by the papacy to become more institutional and convents replaced private houses for living. The education of girls became the main apostolate. Schools were established principally in catholic Europe, but in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries two were founded in North America, in Quebec and New Orleans.

Also focusing on female education was the institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, whose founder was Mary ward from England. It came to have an enormous influence upon the charitable work of the Catholic Church. In addition, both passionist and redemptorist congregations had associated orders of nun. Counter Reformation was not violent like Protestant Reformation.

When the Protestant Reformation brought lot of problems in the Christian world the Counter Reformation brought peaceful changes in Church. As we saw in this chapter the characters of Counter Reformation were sincerely submitted themselves first to be reformed. They were truly the followers of true Christianity and Christ. Simplicity was the main feature of the Counter Reformation.

The clergy was asked to leave all its luxuries and to be with the laity. The newly founded religious orders and reformed old orders too contributed a lot. Through spiritual Reformation and education they could influence the Counter Reformation. There came a lot of saintly figures to strengthen Church when it was almost to fall down.

And today the Church commemorates all of them with a lot of gratitude. The history of the Church also speaks about the up and downs of the Church. During the preparation of this thesis I found that study of history is philosophical for it causes our intellect to think in a better way.

The Church which has got a divine origin even had a period of downs but it was just because of the carelessness of the leaders of those times. They have been immensely fruitful and mutually enriching for both the Churches.

The history of this dialogue saw many phases and many dialogue reports that became for the two Churches milestones on the ongoing ecumenical journey towards unity. The masses of people are rising up. Survival demands that we grapple with them. Men, for years now, have been talking about war and peace. But now, no longer can they just talk about it.

It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it's nonviolence or nonexistence. That is where we are today. And also in the human rights revolution, if something isn't done, and done in a hurry, to bring the colored peoples of the world out of their long years of poverty, their long years of hurt and neglect, the whole world is doomed. Now, I'm just happy that God has allowed me to live in this period to see what is unfolding. And I'm happy that He's allowed me to be in Memphis.

I can remember -- I can remember when Negroes were just going around as Ralph has said, so often, scratching where they didn't itch, and laughing when they were not tickled. But that day is all over.

Book:Martin Luther

We mean business now, and we are determined to gain our rightful place in God's world. And that's all this whole thing is about. We aren't engaged in any negative protest and in any negative arguments with anybody. We are saying that we are determined to be men. We are determined to be people. We are saying -- We are saying that we are God's children. And that we are God's children, we don't have to live like we are forced to live. Now, what does all of this mean in this great period of history?

It means that we've got to stay together. We've got to stay together and maintain unity. You know, whenever Pharaoh wanted to prolong the period of slavery in Egypt, he had a favorite, favorite formula for doing it.

What was that? He kept the slaves fighting among themselves. But whenever the slaves get together, something happens in Pharaoh's court, and he cannot hold the slaves in slavery. When the slaves get together, that's the beginning of getting out of slavery. Now let us maintain unity.

Secondly, let us keep the issues where they are. The issue is injustice. The issue is the refusal of Memphis to be fair and honest in its dealings with its public servants, who happen to be sanitation workers.

Now, we've got to keep attention on that. That's always the problem with a little violence. You know what happened the other day, and the press dealt only with the window-breaking. I read the articles. They very seldom got around to mentioning the fact that one thousand, three hundred sanitation workers are on strike, and that Memphis is not being fair to them, and that Mayor Loeb is in dire need of a doctor.

They didn't get around to that. Now we're going to march again, and we've got to march again, in order to put the issue where it is supposed to be -- and force everybody to see that there are thirteen hundred of God's children here suffering, sometimes going hungry, going through dark and dreary nights wondering how this thing is going to come out.

That's the issue. And we've got to say to the nation: We know how it's coming out. For when people get caught up with that which is right and they are willing to sacrifice for it, there is no stopping point short of victory. We aren't going to let any mace stop us. We are masters in our nonviolent movement in disarming police forces; they don't know what to do. I've seen them so often. I remember in Birmingham, Alabama, when we were in that majestic struggle there, we would move out of the 16th Street Baptist Church day after day; by the hundreds we would move out.

And Bull Connor would tell them to send the dogs forth, and they did come; but we just went before the dogs singing, "Ain't gonna let nobody turn me around. He knew a kind of physics that somehow didn't relate to the transphysics that we knew about.

And that was the fact that there was a certain kind of fire that no water could put out. And we went before the fire hoses; we had known water. If we were Baptist or some other denominations, we had been immersed. If we were Methodist, and some others, we had been sprinkled, but we knew water. That couldn't stop us. And we just went on before the dogs and we would look at them; and we'd go on before the water hoses and we would look at it, and we'd just go on singing "Over my head I see freedom in the air.

And they would throw us in, and old Bull would say, "Take 'em off," and they did; and we would just go in the paddy wagon singing, "We Shall Overcome. And there was a power there which Bull Connor couldn't adjust to; and so we ended up transforming Bull into a steer, and we won our struggle in Birmingham.

Now we've got to go on in Memphis just like that. I call upon you to be with us when we go out Monday. Now about injunctions: We have an injunction and we're going into court tomorrow morning to fight this illegal, unconstitutional injunction. All we say to America is, "Be true to what you said on paper. Maybe I could understand the denial of certain basic First Amendment privileges, because they hadn't committed themselves to that over there. But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly.

Somewhere I read of the freedom of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right. And so just as I say, we aren't going to let dogs or water hoses turn us around, we aren't going to let any injunction turn us around. We are going on. We need all of you. And you know what's beautiful to me is to see all of these ministers of the Gospel. It's a marvelous picture. Who is it that is supposed to articulate the longings and aspirations of the people more than the preacher?

Somehow the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones. And whenever injustice is around he tell it. Somehow the preacher must be an Amos, and saith, "When God speaks who can but prophesy?

Reverend Ralph Jackson, Billy Kiles; I could just go right on down the list, but time will not permit. But I want to thank all of them. And I want you to thank them, because so often, preachers aren't concerned about anything but themselves. And I'm always happy to see a relevant ministry. It's all right to talk about "long white robes over yonder," in all of its symbolism.

But ultimately people want some suits and dresses and shoes to wear down here! It's all right to talk about "streets flowing with milk and honey," but God has commanded us to be concerned about the slums down here, and his children who can't eat three square meals a day. It's all right to talk about the new Jerusalem, but one day, God's preacher must talk about the new New York, the new Atlanta, the new Philadelphia, the new Los Angeles, the new Memphis, Tennessee. This is what we have to do.

Now the other thing we'll have to do is this: Always anchor our external direct action with the power of economic withdrawal.

Now, we are poor people. Individually, we are poor when you compare us with white society in America. We are poor.

Never stop and forget that collectively -- that means all of us together -- collectively we are richer than all the nations in the world, with the exception of nine. Did you ever think about that? We have an annual income of more than thirty billion dollars a year, which is more than all of the exports of the United States, and more than the national budget of Canada.

Did you know that?

That's power right there, if we know how to pool it. We don't have to argue with anybody. We don't have to curse and go around acting bad with our words. We don't need any bricks and bottles. We don't need any Molotov cocktails. We just need to go around to these stores, and to these massive industries in our country, and say, "God sent us by here, to say to you that you're not treating his children right.

And we've come by here to ask you to make the first item on your agenda fair treatment, where God's children are concerned. Now, if you are not prepared to do that, we do have an agenda that we must follow.

And our agenda calls for withdrawing economic support from you. Go by and tell them not to buy Sealtest milk. Tell them not to buy -- what is the other bread? And what is the other bread company, Jesse? Tell them not to buy Hart's bread. As Jesse Jackson has said, up to now, only the garbage men have been feeling pain; now we must kind of redistribute the pain.

We are choosing these companies because they haven't been fair in their hiring policies; and we are choosing them because they can begin the process of saying they are going to support the needs and the rights of these men who are on strike. And then they can move on town -- downtown and tell Mayor Loeb to do what is right. But not only that, we've got to strengthen black institutions. I call upon you to take your money out of the banks downtown and deposit your money in Tri-State Bank.

We want a "bank-in" movement in Memphis. Go by the savings and loan association. I'm not asking you something that we don't do ourselves at SCLC. Judge Hooks and others will tell you that we have an account here in the savings and loan association from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. We are telling you to follow what we are doing. Put your money there. You have six or seven black insurance companies here in the city of Memphis. Take out your insurance there.

We want to have an "insurance-in. We begin the process of building a greater economic base. And at the same time, we are putting pressure where it really hurts. I ask you to follow through here. Now, let me say as I move to my conclusion that we've got to give ourselves to this struggle until the end. Nothing would be more tragic than to stop at this point in Memphis. We've got to see it through.Mark Dever. If I had sneezed, I wouldn't have been around here in , when we decided to take a ride for freedom and ended segregation in inter-state travel.

The Constitutions of the Jesuits stipulated that teachers should, in their courses, regularly touch upon matters valuable for forming good habits, evangelizing and promoting Christian living. He also opposed, as too greedy, the collection for the new St. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest. Its accomplishment was the reason for the coming of the Son to the world in the form of flesh.

ERVIN from Connecticut
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