LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT PDF
𝗣𝗗𝗙 | The Line follower robot is a mobile machine that can detect and follow the line drawn on the floor. Generally, the path is predefined and can be either. PDF | Line Following is one of the most important aspects of robotics. A Line Following Robot is an autonomous robot which is able to follow. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | This paper presents the development of a line follower wheeled mobile robot. In this project, LM3S which is ARM cortex-3 based microcontroller is.
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Project: Line Following Robot. Due: 13th March Module Leaders: Dr Esther Perea, Dr Kristel Fobelets. Supervisor: Dr András György. For my final project, I decided to make a line-follower robot. to be able to follow a black line on the ground without getting off the line too much. LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT Cao Quoc Huy * University UPG din Ploiesti, nr 39 Bld Bucuresti, Ploiesti. e-mail: [email protected] Abstract Line follower.
This robot movement completely depends on the track. The robot can do any thing you set them to do. Like in factories all they have to do with making their products is make the robot.
A line follower robot is a robot which follows a certain path controlled by a feed back mechanism. A basic Line follower robot can consist of a base at the two ends of which the wheels are mounted.
A rectangular sheet of hard plastic can be used as the base. Further a rigid body like a cylinder can be added along with other shaped bodies inter connected with each other by joints, and each with its defined motion in particular direction.
The Line follower robot can be a wheeled mobile robot with a fixed base, a legged mobile robot with multiple rigid bodies interconnected by joints. The next step involves defining the Kinematics of the robot. Kinematic analysis of the robot involves the description of its motion with respect to a fixed coordinate system. It is concerned mainly with the movement of the robot and with motion of each body in case of a legged robot.
It generally involves the dynamics of the robot motion. The whole trajectory of the robot is set using the Kinematic analysis. This can be done using Workspace software. The control of the robot is the most important aspect of its working. Here the term control refers to the robot motion control, i. A basic line follower robot follows certain path and the motion of the robot along this path is controlled by controlling the rotation of wheels, which are placed on the shafts of the two motors.
So, the basic control is achieved by controlling the motors. The control circuitry involves the use of sensors to sense the path and the microcontroller or any other device to control the motor operation through the motor drivers, based on the sensor output.
It consists of an IR-LED and Photodiode arrangement for each motor which is controlled by the switching on and off of the transistor. This IR light is reflected in case of a white surface and the reflected IR light is incident on the photodiode. The resistance of the photodiode decreases, which leads to an increase in current through it and thus the voltage drop across it.
The photodiode is connected to the base of the transistor and as a result of increased voltage across the photodiode, the transistor starts conducting and thus the motor connected to the collector of the transistor gets enough supply to start rotating. In case of a black color on the path encountered by one of the sensor arrangement, the IR light is not reflected and the photodiode offers more resistance, causing the transistor to stop conduction and eventually the motor stops rotating.
Due to the size of these robots, the processing resources available are quite limit ed so simpler models and techniques, such as visual servoing, are used to reduce the p rocessing load. The r obot is programmed to respond in a particular way to an outside stimulus. The bump-a nd-go robot is a good example. This robot uses bumper sensors to detect obstacle.
Wh en the robot is turned on, it moves in a straight direction and when it hits an obstacle, t he crash triggers its bumper sensor. The robot gives a programming instruction that as ks the robot to back up, turn to the right direction and move forward.
This is its respon se to every bump.
In this way, the robot can change direction every time, it encounters an obstacle. A more elaborate version of the same idea is used by more advanced robots. Robotics create new sensor systems and algorithms to make robots more perceptive and smarter.
Today, robots are able to effectively navigate a variety of environments. Obstacle av oidance can be implemented as a reactive control law whereas path planning involves Some mobile robots also use various ultrasound sensors to see obstacles or infrared. T hese sensors work in a similar fashion to animal echolocation.
The robot sends out a b eam of infrared light or a sound signal. It then detects the reflection of the signal. The robot locates this distance to the obstacles depending on how long it takes the signal t o bounce back.
Some advanced robots also use stereo vision.
Line Follower Report
Two cameras provide robots with depth perception. Image recognition software then gives them the ability to locate, classify v arious objects.
Robots also use smell and sound sensors to gain knowledge about its s urroundings 2. In this project we are going to discuss about a robot w hich is capable of following a line without the help of any external source. The Embedded Line following robot uses two motors to control rear wheels and the si ngle front wheel is free. It has 3-infrared sensors on the bottom for detection of black t racking tape.
When the middle sensor detects the black color, this sensor output is giv en to the comparator LM The output of comparator compares this sensor output w ith a reference voltage and gives an output.
The output of comparator will be low whe n it receives an input from the sensor. We follow a simple logic to implement this project. As we know that black colour is c apable of absorbing the radiation and white colour or a bright colour reflects the radiat ion back. The robot uses these IR sensors to sen se the line and the arrangement is made such that sensors face the ground.
The output from the sensors is an analog signal which depends on the amount of light reflected ba ck and this analog signal is given to the comparator to produce 0s and 1s. Internally we have an OTP one time programmable processor which is used to contr ol the rotation of the wheels.
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The rotation of these wheels depends up on the response Let us assume that when a sensor is on the black line it reads 0 a nd when it is on the bright surface it reads 1.
Here we can get three different cases, they are: Straight direction 2. Right curve 3. Left curve 2. When a right curve is found on the line the responses will change i. We this data is achieved the c ontrol of the wheels is changed i. Then the same process repeats again. Then t he control of the wheel changes i. The same process continues for all the turns and the robot moves continuously until th e supply is remove.
One Red LED is connected at output of in the sensor board when this led blinks then it means our sensor is working, then signal goes to microcontroller IC whi ch is programmed and gives the output to the motor driver IC which rotates the motor s as per the programming of microcontroller IC. The program code acts as the decision-maker embedded in the microcontroller i. We are using winAVR for programming and AVR Studio for simulating Simulation means debugging the code on software, one can virtually give the input and check the output for that code.
System Clock Using protious we will simulate the project and check if it works properly. So that we can perform the hardware implementation of the project. The PCB layout of line follower robot is given as: Due to whi ch the diagram on the glossy paper will stick to the board.
Drilling is the process in which small holes are made in the PCB for fixing the co mponents. The size of hole is about 0.
After the drilling process now fix all the components in the holes andthen to fix the co mponents permanently we shouldering process, in which a wire, made of tin and lead is heated by a shouldering machine so that it melts and components become stick to th e board permanently.
Th e sensors in this system are a type of infrared sensor that senses the line and gives the feedback to the microcontroller unit. The battery activates the circuit. The sensor transmitter transmits the frequency, which reflects from the surface. Sensor receiver receives the reflected frequency and gives it to the microcontroller.
The microcontroller processes it and gives the signal to motor driver IC. Motor driver IC rotates the motors as per the signal receive and then the wheels rotates. Microcontroller controls the other operations. Patients in overstretched hos pitals developing fatal complications which could have been cured. A lot of hospitals have stopped recruiting nurses and medical personnel since and From the past two years there is an increasing trend of recruiting more doctors than the nurses.
Figure 4. So there is a high need of supervisi on of the nurses or attendants towards the monitoring of patients rather than concentra ting on the supply of medicines, food etc.
This leads to the need for implementing oth er alternative for those activities. This is the situation where the Automated Guided V ehicle AGV can be implemented for the delivery of the material supply to patients. I n this paper we considered the use of a line follower robot for the above specified pro blem. Recommended Solution Automation is recommended in the material supply delivery system. The benefits of u sing the automation techniques in hospitals are as follows: The average nurse walks roughly 5 miles per shift of work.
Much of this travel time is not spent travelling from one patient to the next to apply hands-on, bedside care.
Unf ortunately, most of the walking is spent in the pursuit of hunting for and gathering me dical supplies, collecting and executing physician orders, and performing registration and discharge tasks.
These routine and mundane tasks can be performed by robots no w. Thanks to the robot solution, quality of care improves through efficiency. Nurses can now claim more time during their shift to spend on patient care. And nurses can get back to the high ly-skilled interpersonal clinical tasks that they have been trained for, and that patients The LD is designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to mA at voltages from 4.
All inputs are TTL compatible. Each output is a complete totem-pole drive circuit, with a Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo-Darlington source.
Line Follower Robots – Controlling, Working Principle and Applications
Drivers are enabled in pairs, with drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4 enabled by 3,4EN. When an enable input is high, the associated drivers are enabled, and their outputs are active and in phase with their inputs. When the enable input is low, those drivers are disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high-impedance state. With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H or bridge reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications.
The term photodiode can be broadly defined to include even solar batteries, but it usually refers to sensors used to detect the intensity of light IR Photo diodes are semiconductor devices responsive to high energy particles and photons. Photodiodes operate by absorption of charged particles and generate a flow of current in an external circuit, proportional to the incident power. This circuit works on the reflection criteria. When no IR light falls on the IR Photo diode the resistance of the diode falls in the range ohm Mega ohms or approximately infinity When any reflecting surface White surface comes near to IR LED and IR Photo diode pair the reflected light of IR LED falls on the photodiode which rapidly decreases the resistance of the Photodiode and photodiode starts conducting Features of photodiode Excellent linearity with respect to incident light Low noise Wide spectral response Mechanically rugged Compact and lightweight Long life Fig.
Photodiodes are used in consumer and the electronics devices receivers for such remote as compact controls disc players, smoke detectors, in VCRs and televisions. They are also widely used in various medical applications, such as detectors for computed tomography coupled with scintillators or instruments to analyse samples immunoassay. They are also used in pulse oximeters.
A direct current DC motor is a fairly simple electric motor that uses electricity and a magnetic field to produce torque, which turns the motor. At its most simple, a DC motor requires two magnets of opposite polarity and an electric coil, which acts as an electromagnet. The repellent and attractive electromagnetic forces of the magnets provide the torque that causes the DC motor to turn. The most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC sourceso they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense.
The brushed DC motor generates torque directly from DC power supplied to the motor by using internal commutation, stationary permanent magnets, and rotating electrical magnets.
It works on the principle of Lorentz force, which states that any current carrying conductor placed within an external magnetic field experiences a torque or force known as Lorentz force.
Advantages of a brushed DC motor include low initial cost, high reliability, and simple control of motor speed.
Disadvantages are high maintenance and low life-span for high intensity uses. Brushless DC motors use a rotating permanent magnet in the rotor, and stationary electrical magnets on the motor housing. A motor controller converts DC to AC. This design is simpler than that of brushed motors because it eliminates the complication of transferring power from outside the motor to the spinning rotor.
Advantages of brushless motors include long life span, little or no maintenance, and high efficiency.And nurses can get back to the high ly-skilled interpersonal clinical tasks that they have been trained for, and that patients It then detects the reflection of the signal. When an enable input is high, the associated drivers are enabled, and their outputs are active and in phase with their inputs. The modern structure, we can easily modify the possibility of functions and add some our new functions.
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Drilling is the process in which small holes are made in the PCB for fixing the co mponents.