JAPANESE THE SPOKEN LANGUAGE PART 1 PDF
Part 1. Eleanor Harz Jorden. View Inside Price: $ Buy This first book of Japanese: The Spoken Language initiates a course in modern Lesson 1 (PDF) . Part of. Japanese: The Spoken Language. Multimedia Collection. Mari Noda. Yale University Press SECTION 1: WELCOME TO JAPANESE: THE SPOKEN. Japanese, the spoken language, part 1 by Eleanor Harz Jorden; 1 edition; First published in ; Subjects: English, Japanese language.
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View Test Prep - myavr.info from JAPN at University of Maryland. Japanese: The Spoken Language PART 2 Kleanoi I lar/.Jorden with Mari Noda / Japanese: The . "As most readers will already know, Eleanor Jorden has spent a distinguished career campaigning to make language teaching a respected academic profession. Study Japanese: The Spoken Language (Part 1) discussion and chapter questions and find Japanese: The Spoken Language (Part 1) study guide questions.
Click here. Looking for Japanese textbooks? Click here Download PDFs clicking on the image or blue text. Best if reviewed as much as possible.
These rules need to be drilled into your head. Here, you will find tons of page Japanese PDF lessons and cheat sheets covering all topics. Top Japanese Verbs List. Okay kids, this is a big lesson.
You get the verbs, the translations, the romaji and sample sentences. This is a crazy lesson. Honestly, you only need… like 4 phrases to know how to thank. But here, you get TONS of examples and variations for many situations. Learn Hiragana Part 1. This will teach you the Japanese Alphabet called Hiragana in under 1 hour. This is just the first part. Be sure to grab the second part below. Learn Hiragana Part 2. Part 2 of the Hiragana in Under 1 Hour guide. Learn to Write Hiragana — Printable Worksheets.
This is a PDF printable worksheet for you to print and practice Hiragana.
Made by our friends at pdf-language-lessons. Feel free to use this in conjunction with the lessons above. Learn Katakana Part 1. Katakana is a Japanese alphabet, reads like Hiragana, except the characters are different. Learn Katakana Part 2. Examples of some Japanese sentences are shown in 2 , which are based on written Japanese. As in 2-c-e , on the other hand, when the so-called topic marker wa attaches to the noun, ga and o are erased from the topic noun.
This study investigates Standard Japanese spoken in Tokyo and surrounding areas as a representative of the East- ern dialect and Kansai Japanese spoken mainly in Osaka and Kyoto as a representative of the Western dialect. Tables 1 and 2 summarize the main differences between Standard and Kansai Japanese. Table 1 summarizes morpho-syntactic and lexical dif- ferences, and Table 2 summarizes phonological differences between the two dialects.
Although these two dialects are similar, they are not similar enough to be confused for each other. The differences are especially clear from pitch accents and sentence final particles, both of which are crucial elements in spoken Japanese. Therefore, the following grammatical judgments and the differences between them are subtle but substantial. The judgments of sentences in Standard Japanese are from Yoshihiko Asao, and the judg- ments of those in Kansai Japanese are from the author. There is a potential confusion between Standard Japanese, a spoken language, and written Japanese.
There is a typological tendency that more frequent linguistic items are zero-coded, i. Bybee provides an explanation for this correlation between item frequency and zero-coding: grammaticalization of overt markers occurs because of the use of extra words to divert the hearer from the most frequent interpretation. In this paper, I use the terms zero-coded vs.
However, I keep the term markedness itself in the title of the paper to alert potential readers to the subject under examination. The zero-coding that I am most interested in is that of nouns. There is a typological tendency for definite or animate objects to be overtly coded, while indefinite or inanimate objects tend to be zero-coded.
P I distinguish between three types of arguments in a clause: A, S, and P. A stands for the most agent-like argument of a transitive clause; S stands for the single argument of an intransitive clause; and P stands for the most patient-like argument of a transitive clause Dixon, When necessary, I further divide S into agent S and patient S; the former stands for S with intention and the latter S without intention.
Focus I distinguish two types of information structure properties in a clause: Topic and Focus see Lambrecht, , inter alia. Topic refers to an element s which the participants are talking about.
It is given informa- tion, i. For the purpose of the current study, Topic refers to a noun which is coded by, or can be potentially coded by, the topic particle wa. Although not all Topics are nouns, this definition is sufficient for this study because I am only interested in nominal codings.
As we will see later, it is often difficult to attach any markers to zero-coded nouns. In that case, clear contexts will be provided which ensure that the reader can tell the noun is Topic rather than Focus.
On the other hand, Focus refers to an element s which the hearer does not expect to hear before the sentence is uttered. Typically this element is the answer to a question. The examples in this paper will often be presented by question-answer pairs to make the context clear.
Japanese, The Spoken Language: Part 1
Parallel to how not all Topics are nouns, not all Foci are nouns, either. However, in our study, the definition of Focus will be limited to nouns, for the same reason that the definition of Topic was limited to nouns. It is unused information in terms of Prince and not brand new information because, as we will see, I only refer to Topics by these terms and Topics are always shared by the speaker and the hearer, so that they cannot be brand new. By Con- trastive, I mean there is a limited background set of possible referents.
Contrasted nouns are chosen from this set and evoke exhaustive read- ings Kuno, : i. I do not distinguish between these concepts. Manzai is a popular style of stand-up comedy typically performed by two people. I chose this corpus because manzai is popular in both dialects.
Currently there are 15 sessions of manzais in Standard Japanese, and 15 sessions in Kansai Japanese. Each session consists of minutes of spo- ken material.
The sessions where comedians talk about everyday topics in everyday language were carefully chosen. Most of the speak- ers are from the region where Standard Japanese is spoken. Contrastively Topicalized NPs are always overtly coded in Standard Japanese, while the distribution follows a split- intransitivity pattern in Kansai Japanese, as shown in Tables 5 and 6. The choice of zero vs. On the basis of the distribution of overt case particles ga vs.
However, the choice be- tween zero vs. This study further proposes another feature independent of those shown in 4 : Contrastive vs. Although some researchers e. I will start with Focus A coding, which is the leftmost column in the tables. A cat is chasing a mouse. A cat is walking! A child is playing. A purse is on the road! A sign has fallen and it is lying. A child has fallen and he is lying.
Japanese, The Spoken Language
It is impos- sible for now to decide whether Unergativity is a factor independent of Animacy because basically all instances of agent S are Animate. In Kansai Japanese, on the other hand, whether the noun is Animate or Inanimate, Non-Contrastive Focus is zero coded, regardless of whether the noun is agent or patient. As in A , zero-coding is preferred over ga in the Non-Contrastive Focus context. A cat is walking over there. Examples are shown in 14 and Stress is necessary if there is no o in narrow focus context.
An example is shown below in As in the last section, I will start with Topic A in the leftmost column of the tables. In 20 , for example, where speaker A assumes that the referent, i. Yesterday, B asked A whether A had seen the cat or not.
Today, A saw the cat in the morning and wants to tell B about the cat immediately after A sees B. Where was he? In 21 , for example, where the referent, i. B is coming home and A is there. In Kansai Japanese, on the other hand, when the speaker assumes that the referent in question is Activated, zero-coding is preferred over wa unlike the preference in Standard Japanese. In both dialects, there are alternative markers such as nara and a cop- ula followed by tara or kedo.
On the other hand, kedo is a kind of subor- dinate marker that shows a contrast between the subordinate clause and the main clause.
In the example below, wa is more acceptable than that it would be in In 25 and 26 , which are similar to 20 , only zero-coding is acceptable and wa is not acceptable. In 27 , where the referent, i. This parallels Contrastive A coding in Standard Japanese.
In the Contrastive Topic environment, there is a difference in accept- ability depending on whether S is a patient or an agent.
Part 1, Supplement: Japanese Typescript
Contrastive agent S can be coded either by the zero particle or wa, while Contrastive patient S is always coded by wa and cannot be zero-coded. Are the cat and dog sleeping? A wants to tell B this fact when A sees B in school. When B comes back and opens the freezer, A wants to relate the fact to B.
This also parallels A and S coding in Kan- sai Japanese. An example parallel to 36 is shown in It is optional when the noun is Non-Contrastive patient S, while in other cases, it is obligatory. Languages with split intransitivity correspond to the second row of Table 9. In general, lan- guages with split intransitivity code S differently depending on whether it is an agent or a patient; agent S is coded in the same way as A in the transitive clause, while patient S is coded in the same way as P.
Glosses are modified. In Avar, for example, S and P are zero-coded, while A is coded by the ergative marker. On the other hand, I claim that the tendency of zero-coding in the Focus environment in Japanese re- flects the fact that the most frequent focus is P or a patient-like noun.
Japanese, The Spoken Language
See also Du Bois I argue that Japanese especially Kansai Japanese is an example of such a latent pressure towards ergativity. Table 10 and Figure 1 show the distribution of zero vs.
Kansai Japanese in our manzai corpus. It is predicted that there are more overtly coded Ps in SJ than in KJ from the contrast between the P columns in Tables 7 and 8, although there is no significant difference. This lack of difference seems to be because Contrastive Focus is rare in natural conversation.
The second most frequent element is S and it is more frequently overtly coded than P in both dialects. The least frequent element is A, most examples of which are overtly coded. This is predicted by Tables 7 and 8. There is no significant differ- ence between zero vs. Speaker A be- lieves that speaker B does not like penne, but A hears that B wanted to eat penne. B, in response, tries to resolve this misunderstanding and tells 23 Natsuko Nakagawa Table Zero vs.
The particle ga cannot be stressed in 41 , while the particles can usually be stressed in the Contrastive En- vironment.
The speaker compares buyng a computer with other options, and claims that buying a computer costs more money. Buy- ing a comupter is interpreted as focus and is coded by ga, while money is S. Non-Activated NPs are zero-coded.
Also, it optionally codes Contrastive A and agent S, i. Non-Contrastive nouns are zero-coded. This is an example of markedness phenomena in the sense that atyp- ical Topic is overtly coded. According to the list of correlational features in 4 , repeated here as 44 for convenience, typical Topic is Definite, An- imate, and Agent.
Kansai Japanese from our manzai corpus.
As shown in this table and this figure, A is more frequently zero-coded than overtly 26 Natsuko Nakagawa Table Zero vs. However, the numbers are too small to decide whether or not this is a stable pattern.
P also seems to be more frequently zero-coded, rather than overtly coded, which is predicted from Tables 11 and Since Topic Ps are rare as stated in DuBois , larger corpora are necessary for further investigation. Verb-adjacent O bject b. Defocused NP c. Minor discourse boundary d. No newsworthiness e. Wh-word O f.It's unfortunate because it really is a good program that goes hand in hand with the exercises in the book. Kageyama, T.
Honestly, you only need… like 4 phrases to know how to thank. It's not any worse than any other romanization system. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A scientific approach to conversational informatics: Description, analysis, and modeling of human conver- sation. Definite and animate direct objects: a natural class.
Mathesius, V. Give me your feedback. This choice has some support in Japanese scholarship, though traditionally these words are referred to as "na-adjectives" or "adjectival nouns".
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