Personal Growth Islamic History In Hindi Pdf


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Islamic History In Hindi Pdf

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For three years, Muhammad preached only to close friends and associates. Then, about , he began preaching in public.

As he slowly gained converts, the Meccan authorities came to consider him a dangerous nuisance. In , fearing for his safety, Muhammad fled to Medina a city some miles north of Mecca , where he had been offered a position of considerable political power. This flight, called the Hegira, was the turning point of the Prophet's life. In Mecca, he had had few followers. In Medina, he had many more, and he soon acquired an influence that made him a virtual dictator.

During the next few years, while Muhammad s following grew rapidly, a series of battles were fought between Medina and Mecca.

This was ended in with Muhammad's triumphant return to Mecca as conqueror. The remaining two and one-half years of his life witnessed the rapid conversion of the Arab tribes to the new religion. When Muhammad died, in , he was the effective ruler of all of southern Arabia.

Who Was Muhammad?

The Bedouin tribesmen of Arabia had a reputation as fierce warriors. But their number was small; and plagued by disunity and internecine warfare, they had been no match for the larger armies of the kingdoms in the settled agricultural areas to the north.

However, unified by Muhammad for the first time in history, and inspired by their fervent belief in the one true God, these small Arab armies now embarked upon one of the most astonishing series of conquests in human history. Numerically, the Arabs were no match for their opponents. On the field of battle, though, the inspired Arabs rapidly conquered all of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine.

By , Egypt had been wrested from the Byzantine Empire, while the Persian armies had been crushed at the key battles of Qadisiya in , and Nehavend in But even these enormous conquests-which were made under the leadership of Muhammad's close friends and immediate successors, Abu Bakr and 'Umar ibn al-Khattab -did not mark the end of the Arab advance.

By , the Arab armies had swept completely across North Africa to the Atlantic Ocean There they turned north and, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, overwhelmed the Visigothic kingdom in Spain.

For a while, it must have seemed that the Moslems would overwhelm all of Christian Europe. However, in , at the famous Battle of Tours, a Moslem army, which had advanced into the center of France, was at last defeated by the Franks. Nevertheless, in a scant century of fighting, these Bedouin tribesmen, inspired by the word of the Prophet, had carved out an empire stretching from the borders of India to the Atlantic Ocean-the largest empire that the world had yet seen.

And everywhere that the armies conquered, large-scale conversion to the new faith eventually followed. Now, not all of these conquests proved permanent. The Persians, though they have remained faithful to the religion of the Prophet, have since regained their independence from the Arabs. Ek Swayam-sidh Jeevan Vyewastha Islam: A proven Way of Life Keya Taqleed Laazim zarooree Hai? Is Taqleed compulsory?

Madhur Sandesh Beautiful Message of Islam Mera Jeevan aur Quran My life and Quran Parlok aur us ke Praman The After-life and its proofs Quran Majeed: Antim Eish Granth Quran: Final Message of God Keya Ghair Muslim ko Islam swikaar karna Farz hai?

Is it obligatory upon a non-Muslim to accept Islam? As late as the eighteenth century, for example, Jewish Bedouins roamed northwestern Arabia, and Christian Arabs were found in numerous settlements throughout Arabia.

The Early Centuries of Muslim History The period of the first caliphs and the subsequent era of the Umayyads was a time in which Muslims, Jews, and Christians negotiated the new power arrangements. The parameters of Dhimmi status were developed, and both head and land taxes were paid to the Muslim caliphs through representatives and not individually. For the Jews, the Resh Geluta or Exilarch was from the Rabbinic branch of Judaism, it became the dominant form, generally displacing other groups.

For the newly forming Islamic state, the loyalty of the Exilarch, and, by extension, the Jews, added legitimacy to Muslim claims to legitimate rule over its various non-Muslim populations. The interaction between Jews and Muslims thus produced profound effects on both Judaism and Islam.

Christians acted as physicians, architects, clerks, and advisors in the courts of the early caliphs. In the areas of commerce, world trade was dominated by trading associations made up of Muslims, Jews, and Christians from Islamic lands.

The twin attacks on the Islamic world in the Middle Ages by the Crusaders from the West and the Mongols from the East transformed Muslim attitudes toward the Dhimmi, and also the attitudes of the Jews and Christians in Islamic lands toward their relations with Muslim polity. In their vision of society, the influence of Christians, Jews, and non-Sunni Muslim groups was circumscribed and made more rigid, but it was not eliminated.

Some Christian communities, caught in the middle of the conflict during the Crusades, actively expressed their loyalty to Rome and Constantinople and looked to the Crusaders as protectors of their interests. The Iberian Jews were so numerous, well educated, and prosperous, that Iberian Jewish culture often supplanted that of the older Jewish communities, so that Sephardic became the general term for Jews living in Islamic lands.

हिन्दी Hindi Ahmadiyya Muslim Books

The trading and manufacturing skills and the capital of these immigrants to the Ottoman Empire provided much of the wealth for Ottoman expansion.

Young Christian males were conscripted by the Ottoman military, trained as soldiers, converted to Islam, and placed in high positions in Ottoman administration. The process sometimes produced resentment among Christians, but some families actively sought to have a member chosen because of the possibilities of favours and preferential treatment later when the candidate assumed official duties. In reality, it signified the decline of Muslim polities against the economic and technological rise of Western Europe.

All three empires were agrarian and relied on peasant labour for wealth, military strength, and products for worldwide trade.

In the Ottoman Empire, the British and French found Jews and Christians to be willing agents for their commercial activities, and the Ottomans, in turn, were pleased to employ the Dhimmi for these purposes as well.

Many Jews and Christians sought to secure the benefits of Western societies for themselves and their offspring by asking for and getting Western protection, passports, and, in some instances, citizenship. The Dhimmi often fell under the protection of the foreign powers.

The British were able to separate Egypt from the Ottoman Empire and establish a protectorate in , as they were able to put India under direct British rule in The French colonized Algeria in and Tunisia in The result was often a complete separation of Jews and Christians as groups from a relationship in law with Muslims. The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, resulting in the creation of a number of small nation-states, resulted in a further separation of non-Muslims from Muslims.

Education became Western, technological, and secular, further reducing religion to peripheral status. By the eve of World War II, most Islamic countries were prepared to overthrow colonialism and establish nation-states.

Nominal Christian states were formed in the Balkans, and the state of Israel was formed in the formerly British mandate territory of Palestine. The worsening conflicts in Palestine increased Jewish-Muslim conflict in the Arab states, where Jews were seen as both foreign and instruments of Western colonial designs.

Biography Newsletter

Rulers in predominantly Muslim countries no longer had a constituent Jewish population. While deploring the problems in Palestine, they separate the Arab-Israeli conflict from discussions about Jews and Christians. This, too, has proved to be an intellectual challenge.

Muslim, Jewish, and Christian communities have all suffered from conflicts pitting one group against another. As with any conflict, this period has produced considerable polemic.Listen to America. Islam Yah hai This is Islam: Taleem awr Tallum ki Fazilat o Takrim Category: New Printed. Science of Beliefs Bases and Branches Author: The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity, fasting and pilgrimage.

Minhaj-ul-Quran International in Cyber Space. Irfan-e-Bari Taala Author: Precautionary Measures against Heart Diseases Category: The Dictates of the Islamic Law Category:

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