IS 3177 PDF

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IS (): Code of Practice for Electric Overhead. Travelling Cranes and Gantry Cranes other than Steel Work. Cranes [MED Cranes, Lifting Chains. Is code of practice for eot & gantry cranes - except steel work. views. Share; Like; Download. IS Indian Standard. CODE OF PRACTICE FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD. TRAVELLING CRANES AND GANTRY CRANES. OTHER THAN STEEL.


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In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aneuploidies also tend to be deleterious Torres et al.

However, in some cases, these aneuploidies are conditionally beneficial, as they can enable yeast to tolerate specific loss-of-function mutations or environmental stresses Selmecki et al. An important question regarding such conditionally beneficial aneuploidies is, do their effects tend to arise due to changes in the copy numbers of one or multiple genes on the aneuploid chromosome s?

Several studies have attempted to address this question by identifying the specific genes underlying the conditionally beneficial effects of particular chromosomal duplications in budding yeast Pavelka et al. For example, Kaya et al.

Sărulești, Călărași

Two genes mediated the benefit of chromosome XI duplication: CCP1 , a hydrogen peroxide scavenger that acts in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, and UTH1 , a mitochondrial inner-membrane protein.

In another case, Liu et al. Furthermore, Chen et al. Lastly, Pavelka et al. These studies suggest that the conditional benefits of aneuploidization are typically mediated by changes in the copy numbers of a small number of genes that allow cells to cope with specific stresses.

We previously found that progeny produced by mating the laboratory strain BY BY , the vineyard isolate RMa RM , and the oak isolate YPS YPS show similar maximal hydrogen peroxide tolerances despite their genetic differences see Supplemental Material, Figure S1 in File S1 , suggesting the extent to which natural genetic variation can increase tolerance to this compound may be constrained Linder et al.

Specifically, we took the single most tolerant F2 segregant that we identified in each of the possible pairwise crosses of the three strains and used these three individuals as the progenitors in a screen for spontaneous mutations that enhance hydrogen peroxide resistance. We obtained 37 mutants that show increased hydrogen peroxide tolerance relative to their respective progenitors.

IS-3177-1977

Using whole genome sequencing, we identified spontaneous mutations that may cause increased hydrogen peroxide tolerance in these mutants. Duplication of chromosome IV was the most frequent mutation, and the only aneuploidy detected in the screen. Consistent with chromosome IV duplication being conditionally beneficial, we found that chromosome IV aneuploids grow worse than their progenitors in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, and that the benefit of chromosome IV disomy occurs on agar plates but not in liquid media.

Employing these techniques, we identified a single gene, the stress-inducible cytoplasmic thioredoxin peroxidase TSA2 , which accounts for the majority of the effect of chromosome IV duplication on hydrogen peroxide tolerance.

Our findings illustrate how aneuploidies can enable cells to surpass the levels of stress tolerance that are attainable through natural genetic variation and provide further support that the conditionally beneficial effects of aneuploidies tend to have a simple genetic basis. After this initial screen, all mutants were then phenotyped side-by-side with their respective progenitors across a broad range of hydrogen peroxide doses to confirm their increased tolerance.

Shyam L A L Sharma w w w. The dimensions of the main components have been determined for a load capacity of 50 ton crane having 8 rope falls. Various dimensions for cross sections of various shapes for crane have been found.

After the system was designed, the stress and deflection are calculated at critical points using ANSYS and optimized. Which cross section would be better keeping some parameters constant for all the case. Various dimensions and load per wire for wire ropes has been found. Using various formulae found the dimensions for pulley, Rope-drum. Also calculated the Power and ratings for the motor brakes used in the hoist mechanism. History Of Cranes The cranes have found many uses since the beginning of the history, and the history of cranes has come across since then.

The Greek were the first people to use cranes for doing the lifting jobs. After this many other peoples like the Roman, the Chinese etc used the cranes and made many changes to the existing design of that time.

Methodology Hoisting is the process of lifting something or some load from lower position to higher position with the help of some device or mechanism. The Electric Overhead Traveling Crane consists essentially of a girder, or girders, supported at each end on tracks capable of traveling on elevated fixed tracks, And a trolley, equipped with hoisting and other mechanism, capable of traversing from end to end of such girder or girders.

Such cranes vary in lifting capacity from about 2 tons to tons, and in span from 20 ft. The computer Aided Design facilitates gives alternative parameters and thus calculates the unknown parameter which speeds up the design process.

In the computerization the scope for providing cabins fixed to bridge is eliminated thus reducing the cost and and space. In the design using Visual Basic, the user will have to input, the Load to be lifted, the operating conditions as in nature of duty, service factors, hoisting speed and then the design of rope is done.

The Design of rope is on the basis of life criteria and can be checked for strength criteria and vice versa based upon the data available. The diameter of rope is calculated and the thus the diameter of sheave is calculated. During calculation of rope diameter the tackle efficiency, fall system depending on load, lay of rope and thus various parameters are analyzed for selecting the diameter of rope.

In the tackle assembly the moving sheave assembly and hook Assembly are calculated.

In case of Moving sheave assembly the diameter of moving sheaves and corresponding dimensions of sheave is calculated. Similarly the selection of bearings, dimensions of shackle plate and check plate are calculated. In case of hook assembly the bed diameter is decided based on load and then the corresponding dimensions are generated by empirical relations and thus all the dimensions are obtained.

Then failure analysis is carried at every part. Thrust bearing design is followed and the bearing selection is completed. Finally the cross-piece design is carried out taking into account the various design considerations. The hoisting mechanism is designed by selection of appropriate drive unit and rope drum. Your Message required. Laboratory Services Quality of testing is assured through regular Quality Assurance Testing programmes as well as participation in Inter laboratory Comparative and Proficiency Testing.

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Finally the cross-piece design is carried out taking into account the various design considerations. Choose a safe landing. Annex B gives a method for calculating the fatigue reference stress pfr which takes account from the factor a to g above and includes allowance giving a 90 percent probability of survival.

A testing where a load that is variable, is applied - Dynamic testing A testing that involves the cyclic loading and unloading for a particular time and for specified conditions and cycles - Cyclical testing.

The drive for the line shaft shall be mounted as close as practicable to the centre of the span. Results and Discussion Screen for spontaneous mutations that increase hydrogen peroxide tolerance A total of 24 independent cultures of each of the three haploid progenitor strains were examined after 2 d of outgrowth using selection on agar plates supplemented with hydrogen peroxide see Materials and Methods.

Travelling gear may be run light to check shaft and gear alignments. During calculation of rope diameter the tackle efficiency, fall system depending on load, lay of rope and thus various parameters are analyzed for selecting the diameter of rope.

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