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INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BOOK

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Introduction to Biomedical Engineering is a comprehensive survey text for biomedical engineering courses. It is the most widely. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition provides a historical perspective of the major developments in the. Enderle / Introduction to Biomedical Engineering 2nd ed. Final Proof 1: 21pm page v. This book is dedicated to our families. Enderle / Introduction to.

Overall, this remains an excellent textbook for BME students, and the progress in the field over the last 6 years is well reflected. Each chapter includes example problems with solutions and some 10—30 exercises.

The list of suggested additional reading material, which concludes each chapter, was updated to cover literature published since the first edition was released. Figures are of good quality and are informative. Particularly useful is the new appendix on Matlab and Simulink software tools, which are required for solving some of the problems and exercises in this book.

This not only contributes to the completeness, but also focuses the students on the computational abilities of these powerful software tools which are commonly used in BME work e.

My only reservation relates to the level of mathematics and basic engineering sciences e. Given that an introduction to BME course is offered in many undergraduate programs during the first year of studies, students may be frustrated by not having the necessary background. In my introduction to BME course at Tel Aviv University, Israel, which was based on the first edition, I had the impression that students do not take full advantage of what this book has to offer, simply because they did not yet study differential equations, numerical methods, statistics, solid and fluid mechanics, and electrical circuits.

With the collapse of the Roman Empire, the Church became the repository of knowledge, particularly of all scholarship that had drifted through the centuries into the Mediterranean. This body of information, including medical knowledge, was literally scattered through the monasteries and dispersed among the many orders of the Church. The teachings of the early Roman Catholic Church and the belief in divine mercy made inquiry into the causes of death unnecessary and even undesirable.

Members of the Church regarded curing patients by rational methods as sinful interference with the will of God. The employment of drugs signified a lack of faith by the doctor and patient, and scientific medicine fell into disrepute. Therefore, for almost a thousand years, medical research stagnated.

It was not until the Renaissance in the s that any significant progress in the science of medicine occurred. Hippocrates had once taught that illness was not a punishment sent by the gods but a phenomenon of nature. Now, under the Church and a new God, the older views of the supernatural origins of disease were renewed and promulgated.

Since disease implied demonic possession, monks and priests treated the sick through prayer, the laying on of hands, exorcism, penances, and exhibition of holy relics—practices officially sanctioned by the Church. Although deficient in medical knowledge, the Dark Ages were not entirely lacking in charity toward the sick poor. Christian physicians often treated the rich and poor alike, and the Church assumed responsibility for the sick.

Furthermore, the evolution of the modern hospital actually began with the advent of Christianity and is considered one of the major contributions of monastic medicine.

With the rise in A D of Constantine I, the first of the Roman emperors to embrace Christianity, all pagan temples of healing were closed, and hospitals were established in every cathedral city. The Church ran these hospitals, and the attending monks and nuns practiced the art of healing.

As the Christian ethic of faith, humanitarianism, and charity spread throughout Europe and then to the Middle East during the Crusades, so did its hospital system. Conditions in these early hospitals varied widely.

Although a few were well financed and well managed and treated their patients humanely, most were essentially custodial institutions to keep troublesome and infectious people away from the general public.

In these establishments, crowding, filth, and high mortality among both patients and attendants were commonplace. Thus, the hospital was viewed as an institution to be feared and shunned.

The study of human anatomy was advanced and the seeds for further studies were planted by the artists Michelangelo, Raphael, Durer, and, of course, the genius Leonardo da Vinci. They viewed the human body as it really was, not simply as a text passage from Galen. The painters of the Renaissance depicted people in sickness and pain, sketched in great detail, and in the process, demonstrated amazing insight into the workings of the heart, lungs, brain, and muscle structure.

They also attempted to portray the individual and to discover emotional as well as physical qualities.

In this stimulating era, physicians began to approach their patients and the pursuit of medical knowledge in similar fashion. New medical schools, similar to the most famous of such institutions at Salerno, Bologna, Montpelier, Padua, and Oxford, emerged. These medical training centers once again embraced the Hippocratic doctrine that the patient was human, disease was a natural process, and commonsense therapies were appropriate in assisting the body to conquer its disease.

During the Renaissance, fundamentals received closer examination and the age of measurement began. In , when Galileo visited Padua, Italy, he lectured on mathematics to a large audience of medical students.

His famous theories and inventions the thermoscope and the pendulum, in addition to the telescopic lens were expounded upon and demonstrated. Using these devices, one of his students, Sanctorius, made comparative studies of the human temperature and pulse.

Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Technology

This ability to measure the amount of blood moving through the arteries helped to determine the function of the heart. Galileo encouraged the use of experimentation and exact measurement as scientific tools that could provide physicians with an effective check against reckless speculation.

Quantification meant theories would be verified before being accepted. Individuals involved in medical research incorporated these new methods into their activities. Body temperature and pulse rate became measures that could be related to other symptoms to assist the physician in diagnosing specific illnesses or disease. Concurrently, the development of the microscope amplified human vision, and an unknown world came into focus.

Unfortunately, new scientific devices had little effect on the average physician, who continued to blood-let and to disperse noxious ointments.

Only in the universities did scientific groups band together to pool their instruments and their various talents. He assisted the doctors in their fight against malpractice and supported the establishment of the College of Physicians, the oldest purely medical institution in Europe.

When he suppressed the monastery system in the early sixteenth century, church hospitals were taken over by the cities in which they were located. Consequently, a network of private, nonprofit, voluntary hospitals came into being. Doctors and medical students replaced the nursing sisters and monk physicians. Consequently, the professional nursing class became almost nonexistent in these public institutions.

These conditions were to continue until Florence Nightingale appeared on the scene years later. Still another dramatic event occurred.

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It was impossible for the facilities to accommodate the needs of so many. Therefore, during the seventeenth century two of the major urban hospitals in London, St. Thomas, initiated a policy of admitting and attending to only those patients who could possibly be cured. The incurables were left to meet their destiny in other institutions such as asylums, prisons, or almshouses. Humanitarian and democratic movements occupied center stage primarily in France and the American colonies during the eighteenth century.

The notion of equal rights finally arose, and as urbanization spread, American society concerned itself with the welfare of many of its members. Ironically, as the hospital began to take up an active, curative role in medical care in the eighteenth century, the death rate among its patients did not decline but continued to be excessive. Essentially, the hospital remained a place to avoid. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that the first American colonists postponed or delayed building hospitals.

Introduction to Biomedical Engineering

For example, the first hospital in America, the Pennsylvania Hospital, was not built until , and the City of Boston took over two hundred years to erect its first hospital, the Massachusetts General, which opened its doors to the public in Not until the nineteenth century could hospitals claim to benefit any significant number of patients.

This era of progress was due primarily to the improved nursing practices fostered by Florence Nightingale on her return to England from the Crimean War Fig. She demonstrated that hospital deaths were caused more frequently by hospital conditions than by disease.

During the latter part of the nineteenth century she was at the height of her influence, and few new hospitals were built anywhere in the world without her advice.

During the first half of the nineteenth century Nightingale forced medical attention to focus once more on the care of the patient.

The art is that of nursing the sick. Please mark, not nursing sickness. In the s, for example, when the plans for the projected Johns Hopkins Hospital were reviewed, it was considered quite appropriate to allocate charity and 24 pay beds. Treatment Devices Part Three. BMET Work. A Gallery of Real Life Problems. Testers and Tools. Batteries, Radiation and more. Computers and Information Technology. Equipment Management. Medical Device Standards.Introduction to Engineering Design.

General Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology. Richard Shiavi. Physiological Modeling Hippocrates was not so much an innovative physician as a collector of all the remedies and techniques that existed up to that time. Basic Bioinstrumentation System 9. Biological considerations 6. This era of progress was due primarily to the improved nursing practices fostered by Florence Nightingale on her return to England from the Crimean War Fig.

Physiological Modeling.

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