HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT PDF
PDF | On Mar 14, , Radhika Kapur and others published Hospitality Management. PDF | On Jan 1, , Desere Kokt and others published Hospitality Management: A practical introduction. Professor Elena Cavagnaro – Stenden Hotel Management School, The . electronic copy of the manuscript, in pdf format, for reprint use.
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Study of Emotional Intelligence Levels in Hospitality Industry Professionals, Journal Lesson Plans/Unit Plan- adobe files/Lesson 1 Intro to H T Lesson Plan .pdf. Hospitality Management myavr.info O. Nathaniel Chukudi. Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 The Institute of Commercial Management (ICM) 1 3 ICM Articulation. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Contract catering: the skills required for the next millennium Mervyn D.J. Wilson Anna E. Murray.
A good hotelier is backed by a variety of experiences. What skills do todays recruits have that those ten years ago didnt? Hospitality today means much more than it did ten years ago. Due to technology, recruits know how to get information about companies and opportuni- ties blogs, message boards, etc. What are some of the current opportunities for graduates of hospitality management programs in the lodging sector?
The lodging sector offers much more today including Revenue Man- agement, Spa Operations, and Development. To what extent does your company employ the Internet in recruiting? There is no other way to apply for a Hyatt job other than online. We deploy our training program and all career opportunities on the Hyatt career site explorehyatt.
However, we do leverage job openings on other Internet sites, but we are selective. We prefer to post on a few large and some niche sites rather CH Research and networking through social media is now mainstream. Many have discovered that connecting early and beginning dialogue or relationships may connect them to their future employer early on.
Is there anything else that might be helpful for a hospitality manage- ment graduate to know before applying for a job with Hyatt? Before applying to Hyatt, we ask that a graduate be open to movement [relocation].
We are focused on growth and differentiating our brands. Our current processes allow our associates movement among all Hyatt entities, which proves beneficial to ones experiences. There is opportunity for experience across all sectors of the industry including: Park Hyatt, which provides discerning, affluent individual business and leisure guests with elegant and luxurious accommodations, highly attentive personal service in an intimate environment.
Andaz, a vibrant yet relaxed atmosphere geared toward todays individual business and leisure travelers, designed to reflect the unique cultural scene and spirit of the surrounding neigh- borhood.
Grand Hyatt, which features large-scale, distinctive hotels in major gateway cities and resort destina- tions providing sophisticated global business and leisure travelers with upscale accommodations. Hyatt Regency, which offers a full range of services and facilities tailored to serve the needs of conventions, business travelers, and resort vacationers conveniently located in urban, suburban, airport, convention, and resort destinations around the world.
Hyatt hotels are smaller-size properties conveniently located in secondary markets in the United States offering guests the opportunity to experience our signature service and hospitality even when traveling outside of major gateway markets. Hyatt Place is designed for the busy lifestyle of todays multitasking business traveler and features a selected range of services aimed at providing casual hospitality in a well-designed, high-tech, and contemporary environment located in urban, airport, and suburban areas.
Hyatt Summerfield Suites is an extended-stay, residential-style hotel that aims to provide individual travelers with the feel of a modern condominium located in urban, airport, and suburban locations. Hyatt Vacation Club provides members with vacation ownership opportunities in regionally inspired and designed residential-style properties with the quality of the Hyatt brand.
Hyatt Resorts is a collection of vacation properties across our Park Hyatt, Grand Hyatt, and Hyatt Regency brands representing attributes of the individual brand in the more personal context of a vacation environment and are characterized by relaxed, comfortable spaces reflective of the local culture. Knowledge of necessary skills gives managers credibility among their employees, facilitates com- munication, and equips them to deal confidently with skilled employees.
In fact, a good manager ought to be able to pitch in when employees get stuck. For example, your employer might have a full-time job for you upon gradu- ation. This is particularly likely if your employer happens to be a fairly large firm or if you want to remain close to the area of your schooling. You may choose to take a term or two off from school to pursue a particular interest or just to clarify your longer-term job goals.
This does have the advantage of giving you more than just a summer jobon your rsumbut be sure you dont let the work experience get in the way of acquiring the basic educational requirements for progress into management. Wherever and for however long you work, remember that through your employment, you may make contacts that will help you after graduation.
People with whom you have worked may be able to tell you of interesting opportunities or recommend you for a job. Global Hospitality Note 1. Clear goals formed now will direct your work experience plans and, to a lesser degree, the courses you take and the topics you emphasize within those courses.
If you have not yet decided on a specific goal, this question deserves prompt but careful consideration as you continue your education. You still have plenty of time. Furthermore, you will never know when or where a job opportunity may arise. For this reason alone, you should always keep your rsum up-to-date. The rest of this section offers a kind of dry-run postgraduation placement proce- dure.
From this distance, you can view the process objectively. When you come closer to graduation, you may find the subject a tense one: People worry about placement as graduation nears, even if theyre quite sure of finding a job. Some coun- tries do not have a large enough pool of trained managers.
Moreover, particularly in responsible positions, a good fit with the rest of the firms executive staff is importantand often easier for an American firm to achieve with someone from North America. The relevant operating experience may not be available to people living outside the United States and Canada.
Master’s Programme 'Experience Economy: Hospitality Management and Tourism'
Many factors are considered, however, including familiarity with other cultures and the ability to speak multiple languages. North American employees, however, are more expensive to hire for most companies than are local nationals because their salaries are usually supplemented by substantial expatriate benefits.
But cost is not the only reason for hiring people from the host country. Local people have an understanding of the culture of the employees in a particular country, to say nothing of fluency in the language. Local managers, moreover, do not arouse the resentment that is directed at a foreign manager. For many of the same reasons, foreign-owned firms operating in the United States seek U.
A final point to consider is that many North American firms are using franchising as the vehicle for their overseas expansion. In this case, the franchisee is most often a local national whose local knowledge and contacts are invaluable to the franchisor. Not surprisingly, however, the franchisee is likely to prefer people from his or her own culture if that is possible. Although most positions in operations outside the United States are filled with people from those coun- tries, many American companies offer significant opportunities for overseas employment.
One of the first obstacles to immediate employment overseas is the immigration restrictions of other countries similar to the restrictions enforced in the United States. Employment of foreign nationals is usually permitted only if the employer is able to show that the prospective employee has special skills that are not otherwise avail- able in the country. It is not surprising, therefore, that many employees who do receive overseas assign- ments have been employed by the company for a few years and, thus, have significant operating experience.
Another major problem facing Americans who want to work overseas is a lack of language skills. In fact, many hospitality programs are now requiring students to study at least one foreign language as part of their curriculum and require a global learning experience, preferably in a nonEnglish-speaking country. The ability to adapt to a different culture is critically important, and probably the only way to get it is to have experience living abroad.
Summer or short-term work or study abroad not only gives students experience in living in another culture but also may offer them the opportunity to build up contacts that will help them in securing employment abroad upon graduation. Opportunities to study abroad are plentiful in summer programs offered by many hospitality programs.
Some institutions also maintain exchange programs with institu- tions in foreign countries. As a student seeking overseas work, you should begin with your own institutions placement office and international center.
The consulate or embassy of the country you seek to work in may be aware of Continues on next page CH Probably the best source of information is other students who have worked abroad.
Talk with students at your own institution or those you meet at regional or national restaurant or hotel shows. They know the ropes and can give practical advice on getting jobs and what to expect in the way of pay and working conditions. Whether you are interested in overseas work as a career or not, work, travel, and study abroad can all be unique educational expe- riences that broaden your understanding of other cultures, increase your sophistication, and enhance your rsum.
Dont underestimate a recommendation. Even if your summer employer doesnt have a career oppor- tunity for you, a favorable recommendation can give your career a big boost when you graduate. In addition, many employers may have contacts they will make available to youperhaps friends of theirs who can offer interesting opportunities.
The lesson here is that the record you make on the job now can help shape your career later. They all speak to the deci- sion that is known as the strategy of job placement. First, many students are inter- ested in such income issues as starting salary and the possibility of raises and bonuses.
Second, students are concerned with personal satisfaction. They wonder about opportunities for self-expression, creativity, initiative, and independence.
This applies particularly to students coming from culinary schools who want to be able to im- mediately apply what they have learned. Although few starting jobs offer a great deal of independence, some types of work e. Students also want to know about the number of hours theyll be investing in their work.
Many companies expect long hours, especially from junior management. Other sectors, especially on-site operations, make more modest demands but may offer more modest prospects for advancement. Third, many students, particularly in health care food service, want to achieve such professional goals as competence as a registered dietician or a dietetic technician. Professional goals in the commercial sector are clearly associated with developing a topflight reputation as an operator. These three sets of interests are obviously related; for example, most personal goals include the elements of income, satisfaction, high ethical standards, and professional CH The Strategy of Job Placement 23 status.
Although it may be too early to set definite goals, it is not too early to begin evaluating these elements. From the concerns weve just discussed, the following are five elements of the strategy of job placement for your consideration: The place to begin your analysis is with the issue of survival. How much will you require to meet your financial needs? If your income needs are modest, you may decide to forgo luxuries to take a lower-paying job that offers superior training.
Thus, you would make an investment in retained earningsthe knowledge you hope someday to trade for more income, security, and job satisfaction. Professional status. Whether your goal is professional certification e.
In this case, you may choose to accept a lower income but one on which you can live and in line with what such jobs pay in your region. Although you shouldnt be indifferent to income, youll want to focus principally on what the job can teach you. Evaluating an employer. Students who make snap judgments about a company and act aggressively during an interview often offend potential employers, who, after all, see the interview as an occasion to evaluate a graduating class.
Nevertheless, in a quiet way, you should learn about the companys commitment to its employees, often evident through its employee turnover rates and its focus on training.
For instance, you might want to explore whether it has a formal training program. If not, how does it translate its entry-level jobs into learning experiences? Inquiries directed to your acquaintances and the younger management people can help you determine how the company really scores in these areas.
Recent graduates from the same hospitality program as yours are good sources of information. Be- cause training beyond the entry-level basics requires responsibility and access to promotion, you will want to know about the opportunities for advancement.
Finally, you need to evaluate the companys operations. Are they quality operations? Can you be proud to work there? If the quality of the facility, the food, or the service is consistently poor, can you help improve things? Or will you be misled into learn- ing the wrong way to do things? A final note with regard to evaluating employers who may be independent operators: Sometimes it can be more difficult to research a small business. In this case, it might be worth asking around the local business community to find out what kind of reputation the prospective employer has.
Determining potential job satisfaction. Some students study hospitality management only to discover that their real love is food preparation. Such students may decide, late in their student careers, to seek a job that provides skill training in food prepa- ration. Other students may decide they need a high income immediately e. These students may decide to trade the skills CH Such a goal is highly personal but perfectly reasonable.
The key is to form a goal and keep moving toward it. The student who wants eventually to own an operation probably will have to postpone his or her goal while developing the management skills and reputation necessary to attract the needed financial backing. Accepting skilled jobs. Students sometimes accept skilled jobs rather than manage- ment jobs because that is all they can find. This happens quite often, especially during a period of recession.
Younger students, too, are prone to suffer from this problem for a year or two, as are students who choose to live and work in small communities. The concept of retained earnings provides the key to riding out these periods. Learn as much as you can and dont abandon your goals. A final word is in order on goals, priorities, and opportunities. Hospitality students top-ten preferences for work upon graduation are summarized in Table 1.
Hotels have traditionally been the favored sector of the hospitality industry, with luxury opera- tions typically preferred over midmarket or midscale operations among this sample of students.
Interestingly, quick-service restaurants and on-site food service was not as common but generally equal in terms of starting salaries. There is an old saying, De gustibus non disputandem est In tastes, there is no disputing , and that certainly should apply to job preferences. Later in this text, we will point out that although work in on-site management is not any easier, its hours are more regular and its pace more predictable, often making for a better work-life balance.
In short, there are many excellent career opportunities in the food service industry in general, and it is even better in some specific segments. Luxury hotels, private clubs, and fine-dining restaurants are undoubtedly more glamorous than many other operationsor at least seem soand it does appear that they are attracting the greatest interest from graduates as applicants.
In the supply-demand equation, they have a plentiful supply of applicants, and yet they are relatively smaller sectors of hospitality employment. That is to say, they have less demand for employees than many other sectors. In economics, you may recall, a large supply met by a modest demand is generally expected to yield a lower price. Of course, there are no dollar signs on job satisfaction, and these are highly personal choices.
Still, the truth is that no job offers everything.
PDF’s Role in the Needs of the Hospitality Industry
You have to decide what your highest priorities are and then choose the opportunity that suits you best. If career advancement, achieving a substantial income, and gaining responsibilityor perhaps just having a manageable work lifeare priorities for you, you may want to consider at least interviewing with some of the companies that are on this list but that you had not previously considered.
We will examine some of the basic forces driving these changes in Chapter 2. The following brief summary points will alert you to some of the key trends discussed in the balance of this text. We can begin with trends closest to the industry and move outward to broader societal developments.
Also, no hospitality text can ignore the short- and long-term effects of September 11, Certainly, there have been significant effects, both short- and long-term, on the hospital- ity and tourism industries. These effects have ranged from the initial reaction during which many people in North America and elsewhere stopped traveling anywhere for any reason, to traveling sporadically, and finally to travel patterns reaching some level of normalcy. The airlines were perhaps the most affected industry of all.
This is discussed much further in Chapter The effects are sure to be felt for a long time to come, but travel, accommodation, and food service have all reached activity levels equal to those prior to September Discussions of the impact of that day will be found throughout the chapters that follow.
The text also discusses effects that other terrorist attacks have had such as in Madrid, London, and Bali as well as recent natural disasters in Asia. TABLE 1.
In lodging, although there are price point divisionsbudget, economy, midscale, upscale, and upper upscalethe most basic division is between limited-service and full-service properties.
In later chap- ters, we will discuss concerns associated with the possibility of overbuilding and future excess capacity in all but the luxury and extended-stay segments of lodging. In food service, simpler operations specializing in off-premise service to guests takeout, drive-through, and deliveryhave contributed greatly to the growth in restau- rant sales in recent years. Quick-service andthe latest new segmentfast casual, too, continue a healthy growth trend.
Table-service restaurant growth in the more economi- cal family restaurant segment has flattened, but within the table-service group a more service-intensive formatcasual restaurantshas shown healthy growth. Restaurants and hotels, then, are tailoring themselves to specialized markets, a prac- tice often referred to as target marketing.
Competition is likely to be even tougher in the years ahead. In food service, operators are adapting their operations by opening new restaurants and bringing them closer to the customer i. They are also creating smaller prototypes. Lodging capacity, as we have already noted, offers a highly competitive outlook for all but the luxury sector and even this is changing. The growth in competition makes tightly controlled operations especially The outlook for the hospitality industry includes the continued growth of the casual dining segment.
Courtesy of Mimis Caf. Competition also exists in the battle for customers in the conven- tion, resort, and tourist destinations. Competition is no longer just limited to domestic competition either. International competition has become a concern in many markets. We will consider those issues for restaurants in Chapter 6 and for hotels in Chapter The crucial differentiation becomes serviceusually in the form of personal service.
Understanding service and how to manage it is so vitally important that the last chapter of this book is devoted to it. In the world of today and tomorrow, service will be the difference between barely surviving or worse and achieving success. As Ellsworth Statler, founder of the groundbreaking Statler Hotels, noted long ago: Life is service; the one who progresses is the one who gives his fellow men a little morea little better service.
Service is becoming the differentiating factor in all segments of hospitality and tourism. Courtesy of Southwest Airlines. This trend probably originated with the baby boom generation and has continued with subsequent generations.
The baby boomers, arguably the best-educated generation in history, has become a generation of careful shoppers. With an intensely competitive industry vying to serve them, consumers are in a position to demand good value for their money. Any discussion of value should also include mention of time and how personal time is valued as it becomes more precious.
For this reason, consumers often strive to balance the price they are willing to pay with a trade-off such as time saved. For example, this helps to partially explain the increasing popularity of the fast-casual dining segment. Technology has already changed the way work is done in operations through increased automation and computerization. Even more fundamental, how- ever, are the changes in marketing and management made possible by technological advances.
Lodging marketing, already shaped by a global computerized reservation network, has been reinvented, so to speak, as the Internet continues to expand the communication capacity of operators, their competitors, and the guest.
Restaurants, too, are maintaining Web sites, many of which are interactive rather than simply informational. Even third-party companies, such as OpenTable www. With greatly improved com- munication and computerized financial and operational reporting, the hierarchy of organizations is collapsing, and a flatter, more integrated organizational structure is emerging. For example, they are being empowered to solve many of the guests service problems on the spot.
This is an outgrowth not only of improved communication but of a more educated generation of employees. Bright, well-educated people want to do their own problem solvingand generally are able to do so effectively. Whereas the white male has been the dominant force in the labor market, the majority of people entering the workforce for the foresee- able future will be women and minorities, such as African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians.
Managers will need a broad background and an openness to many kinds of people and cultures to prosper in the time ahead. As the perceived incidence of violence increases, people worry about their personal secu- rityand so we see a proliferation of private security forces in hotels and restaurants, marshals on airplanes and other public places, as well as high-tech security measures, such as keyless electronic locks in hotel rooms. Security has become a commodity that some people are willing to pay forand that hospitality establishments have a respon- sibility to provide.
In some places in the world such as Israel , security is everywhere, even in local supermarkets. One case of food poisoning can seriously injure a restaurants reputation. More than one can endanger an operations survival. The level of food safety demanded by consumers and regulatory agencies alike has escalated in light of recent cases of food poisoning.
That escalation will continue in the years ahead. The notion of going green is not a new one, but it is one that reflects corporate responsibility and smart business practices. Today, almost all hotels encourage guests to reuse towels, and most have already embraced low-cost changes such as using energy efficient lighting. Customers also like to know that they are supporting businesses that are concerned about the environment.
It makes sense from both a business perspective and a human perspective. Green buildings perform better, so they operate very efficiently and positively impact the triple bottom linesocially, environmen- tally, and economically.
Green buildings are healthier for employees and guestsmaking for happier employees and guests. Finally, its part of our responsibility to the environment to make our footprint as soft and small as possiblegreen buildings are a part of meeting that responsibility.
For the hotel industry, cost cutting can lead naturally to green solutions. Since its hard to raise room rates in economically challenging times, the best way to increase profit is to cut costs, but it must be done without harming the guest experience. Working with partners such as electric and water utilities is very important for hotels.
What makes Orchard Hotels different in this respect? She is passionate about clean environments, after the untimely cancer-related deaths of three family members, and has devoted herself to creating environmentally safe and sustainable hotels. Huang pursued a LEED certification for her hotels for several important reasons.
Studies prove that LEED-certified buildings have lower operating costs, higher employee productivity, and hap- pier, healthier occupants. Were extremely proud to lead the hospitality industry in our dedication to our environment and our guests and employees quality of life.
The Orchard Garden Hotel debuted Californias first guestroom key card energy control systemafter opening the guestroom door with the key card, the guest places the card in a discreet box in order to turn on the lights and other room systems. When exiting the room, the guest simply takes the key card, automatically turning off the entire room, with the exception of an outlet that guests can use to charge laptops, cell phones, and other battery-powered devices.
This system saves nearly 25 percent in energy consumption, having paid for itself in around two years. The Orchard Garden Hotel was built greeneco-friendly construction materials included using con- crete made from fly ash, a by-product of recycling coal, and wood certified by the Forest Stewardship Council as harvested in a sustainable manner.
One environmentally sustainable building practice used during construction diverts debris from landfill disposal by redirecting recyclable material back to the manufacturing process. We were taking the first steps to go green. Andyesthese green cleaning products, if used properly, would actually save us valuable dollars! So, we called a meeting with all housekeeping staff members and told them the good news. To our surprise, the message was greeted with distrust as most of the crew did not believe that green cleaning products would do the job.
My argument for a healthier work environment was met with very little enthusiasm as the predominantly Chinese housekeeping team was much more focused on getting CH Potential health benefits? Not much interest either. At that point, it would have been easy to simply issue a memo and force the team to comply. Realizing, however, that employees look at senior management for inspiration and not just direction , we decided to ask everyone to participate in an experiment assigning room attendants into two groupsone outfitted with traditional chemicals, and one equipped with green productsfor one week initially.
During that first week, much training was given to the green team as employees learned how to properly dilute, mix and match, and apply specific surface cleaners. Since the products were nontoxic, fear of mishandling evaporated quickly, but product performance remained a hotly debated point of contention.
After another week, the green group slowly began to see the benefits of using the product properly. Two more weeks went by all the while asking for daily feedback , and then we rotated groups.
Those employees having used the new product now had to revert to using chemicals, and the other team now couldnt wait to experience the green items that, in the interim, had generated lots of buzz among those who had been using them for the past month. The results were astonishing. Not only did our employees overwhelming select the green cleaning products, but the experiment created a tremendous boost of confidence among staff members in a very challenging business environment.
They had become part of the decision-making process! Now, seven years later, this story still inspires. Do customers make buying decisions based on a hotels decision to be environmentally sensitive? The typical factors still apply to buying decisionsprice, location, service, amenities, and so forth. But we find that our greenness makes more people pay attention to our small hotels and will tip them in our favor.
So travelers choose a hotel only because its green? Probably not. Will they choose a hotel also because its green? Much more likely! How many of you would prefer to stay in a green hotel over a convention property? Probably most or all of you, I would guess. Now, how many of you would stay at that green property if it didnt have Internet connectivity? Not many, I reckon. Does this mean Internet access is more important to you than the environment? You mention LEED certifiedwhat does that mean?
San Franciscos first hotel to earn this honor, the Orchard Garden was only the third hotel in the United States and fourth hotel in the world with this certification. San Franciscos first hotel to earn this honor, the Orchard Hotel is the second hotel in California. LEED-EB is the USGBCs system for operating high-performance buildings dedicated to whole-building cleaning and maintenance issues, recycling programs, exterior maintenance programs, and systems upgrades.
Is this trend going to stay? In the near future it will be not be a trend, but a part of how business is done. Green is here to stay. What does this mean for future hotel managers? Get on board nowdont wait. Develop intimate understanding of green hospitality, and make it a part of the hotels everyday life.
With the falling of trade barriers such as that brought on by the North American Free Trade Agreement and the European Community, borders have become less important. The ease of financial transactions and information flow means that some of the largest U.
Holiday Inn, for example, is owned by a British company, and Motel 6 by a French firm. McDonalds is the largest restaurant chain in Europe and has restaurants in more countries than any other food service company in the world currently at and counting. Forecasters are expecting tremendous growth opportunities in both China and India, which are positioned to greatly influence global commerce in the coming years.
With all of the dynamism that the hospitality industry offers, an exciting future beckons as you begin this study of the industry and what makes it tick. A manager in the hospitality industry, therefore, must keep in mind these three objectives: We mentioned the many reasons for studying in a hospitality management or cu- linary management program, including past experiences working in the field, interests in the field, and ambitions in the field.
We also discussed the meaning of work and how to get the most from a job, includ- ing weighing both retained earnings and the job-benefit mix. We pointed out that in the hospitality industry, you can learn a lot from studying the physical plant and from how the front and the back of the house are managed. We then turned to ways to get a jobincluding always having a rsum ready and preparing for an interviewand how to gain the most from whatever job you do find. We also talked about what you should consider in regard to a more permanent job: We noted as well that supply and demand work in the hospital- ity job market as they do elsewhere, suggesting that what is most popular in terms of employment may not necessarily translate into the best opportunity.
Finally, we began our continuing discussion of the outlook for the hospitality indus- try, which we found to be bright but full of change and competition.
What kinds of institutions or establishments does the hospitality industry include besides hotels and restaurants? What is the role of a manager in the hospitality industry? Why did you choose to study in a hospitality management program? What alterna- tives were available to you? What are some of the reasons that people work? What does the concept of retained earnings mean as it relates to a career?
Describe the concept of the job-benefit mix.
Give examples from your experience or from that of your classmates. What are some things to observe in both the front of the house and the back of the house in the early stages of your career? What kinds of things can you learn from a part-time or summer job that are not strictly part of the job?
What are three principal concerns in regard to a job after graduation? What are the five elements of the strategy of job placement? Internet Exercises 1. Site name: This site provides a listing of Internet resources for writing rsums and cover letters. Surf the rsum and cover letter Web sites for information on writing rsums and cover letters. Write a simple rsum and cover letter for an entry-level hotel, restaurant, or tourism position for which you are interested and qualified.
Use only experience that you have already acquired. After writing the rsum and cover letter, describe the experiences you will need to acquire in the future to obtain an entry-level management position in the hospitality industry. This site is a launch pad for hospitality management career Web sites. The site provides links to generic hospitality Web sites such as Hcareers. Explore at least two of the Web sites listed.
Look through the job opportunities in your area of interest. What job opportunities are available for entry-level management positions recent graduates of a hospitality management program? Are there abundant job opportunities in a location where you would like to be after graduation? Explore the Career ServicesWeb site at the college or university you are cur- rently attending.
What types of services does your career services office offer to students rsum and cover letters, job search assistance, etc. Is there a person in your career services office who has been specifically designated to assist hospitality management students?
If so, what is the name of this person? If so, when are these job fairs typically held and do they include potential hospitality employers as exhibitors? Does your career services office maintain a database of current job opportuni- ties for students? If so,how do they make this information available to students? Study abroad or work abroad opportunitiesCIEE provides quality programs and services.
The site was created to link prospective travelers with organizations providing international opportunities. Search for worldwide internship opportunities by location, dates, and required skills.
Browse through all three Web sites and describe the countries that are repre- sented and the hospitality job opportunities available on each Web site. Choose an international internship Web site and select an internship that you might be interested in pursuing. Describe the benefits and drawbacks of pursu- ing an international internship.
Notes 1. Peter F. Work in America Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, , p. Drucker, Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices New York: If they get stuck too often, of course, management must find out why and correct the prob- lem. If a manager has to pitch in frequently, it can be a sign of an inefficient organization. In this chapter, we will look at two of the most basic of these forces. The first is the demand for hospitality services from consumers.
The second is the supply of those things required to provide service, such as land and its produce, food, and labor. We begin by considering demand; it is the most fundamental factor that gives rise to business activity.
We will then consider the supply of the factors of production used by hospitality service companies. Explain how the changing demographics of the North American population impact the demand for hospitality services, and give examples of demographics that affect both food service and lodging operations. Describe the current and expected future impact of baby boomers on the demand for hospitality services. Identify and describe the key supply factors that are important to hospitality organizations.
Give examples of the opportunities and challenges inherent in the North American populations increasing diversity. Explain how changes in the female workforce and alterations in family structure affect consumer behavior and the markets for hospitality services. Chapter CH Managers in any line of business must understand the external forces that are at work if they are going to be effective manag- ers. This is especially true of managers in the hospitality industry.
There are forces that impact hospitality businesses on a daily basis, or on some other cyclical basis, and there are singular events that have an immediate and ongoing effect. Some forces may invoke gradual changes; others may come suddenly. Such factors as demographic changes, fluctuating food costs, resource scarcity, and workforce diversity are ever present and are all important to understand as a manager. We have continued to discuss these topics in this as well as in previous editions of this book, because of their ongoing importance.
And then there are one-time events, such as the September 11 attacks that occurred in the United States. Following the attacks, it was often repeated that the industry most affected was the hospitality and tourism industry. Since that time the industry has also coped with recession, war, , terrorism attacks in Europe and Asia, natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina and the Asian tsunami , and severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS.
The H1N1 swine flu pandemic is yet another example; in Mexico, when the disease began to spread, gathering places, including restaurants, were closed to limit the diseases reach. Thus, managers must now be more aware than everindeed, it has been said that there may never be a return to normalcy. This chapter sheds light on some of the changes that continue to shape the industry and the ways in which managers behave and react to events.
We will begin with the effects of demand. We will look at customers from three different perspectives. First, we need to understand what the populations changing age patterns are; second, we will explore how they affect the demand for hospitality products. Finally, we will look at other patterns of change, such as the continued increase in the number of working women, the transformation of family structure, and changes in income and spending patterns. One way to better understand these changes is by looking at changes in demo- graphics.
Demographics is the study of objectively measurable characteristics of our population, such as age and income. As we review demographic data, however, it is im- portant to keep in mind the human face behind the numbers. To do that, we will want CH The material in this section is vital to understanding the most basic force driving the hospitality industrys development, which is demandthat is, customers.
This, in turn, is setting off an entire chain reaction of events and associated challenges. To understand the scope of the changing population, one Life events such as marriage, birth, and death affect demographic changes. Courtesy of Purestock. Baby boomer is the term applied to a person born between and To properly understand the boomer phenomenon, a little history is in order.
Beginning with the Great Depression, the birthrate fell dramatically and remained low throughout the s a baby bust in the U. Then came World War II, which also produced a low birthrate. After the war, however, servicemen came home and began to get married in very large numbers. Not surprisingly, between and , the number of births rose as well. The boom in births was far out of proportion to anything North America had experienced before. As one can imagine, the resulting baby boomers have, as a generation, had an unprecedented impact on all facets of North American life, ranging from economics to politics to social change.
As of , there were just under 81 million baby boomers ranging in age from 46 to 64, constituting more than one-fourth of the U. Although the number of native-born baby boomers was at its highest in at the end of the baby boom, immigration has increased the size of the boomer cohort by significantly more than deaths have decreased it since that time.
The year is significant because it is when the oldest of the baby boomers turn By the mids, most of the boomers parents had passed the age when people have children. Furthermore, just at that point, the smaller generation born during the Depression and war years reached the age of marryingand childbearing. Because there were fewer people in their childbearing years, fewer children were born. The result was the birth dearth generation, those born between and although some demographers include additional years.
Labeled Generation X or GenXers , this group ranged in age from 31 to 41 and numbered about 42 million in Note that despite all of the attention this group gets in the press, they are still far outnumbered by the baby boomers. This generation was born into a difficult period in the s and began to come of age as the growth of the s flattened into the recession of the early s.
The GenXers reveal the sensibilities of a generation shaped by economic uncertainty. Among other things, they have a reputation for being worldly wise, independent, pragmatic, and intel- ligent consumers. Furthermore, they tend to be technologically savvy, having grown up during the computer age which earlier generations, believe it or not, didnt.
Factors with a direct bearing on the hospitality industry are that they spend a large proportion of their income eating out, have a predisposition to the convenience of fast food, and look for value in their purchases. Finally, they, too, are becoming parents and passing along many of these same characteristics to their children. As we saw in our brief view of GenXers, food service makes a perfect case history for assessing the impact of generational change on the hospitality industry.
Then, starting in the late s, the boomers, as young people, began to have money to spend of their own. McDonalds, Burger King, and other quick-service operations suited their tastes and their pocketbooks. In the late s and early s, however, the boomers were becoming young adultsand Wendys, among others, developed more upscale fast-food operations to meet their moderately higher incomes and more sophisticated tastes.
Similarly, in the early s, as a significant number of boomers passed the age of 30, the gourmet hamburgerrestaurant appeared such as the Fuddruck- ers and the Red Robin chains , which accommodated boomers increasing incomes and aspirations. Industry Practice Note 2. The baby boomers have also had a significant impact on lodging. Kemmons Wilsons first Holiday Inn was built when the oldest boomers were six years old. As part of the relatively new restaurant classification known as fast-casual, Fuddruckers, and other companies within the segment, attempt to offer an alternative to quick service to the aging baby boomers.
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Fuddruckers, which was started in in San Antonio and now has stores across the United States, seems to be in the right place at the right time. The company represents many of the changes that are taking place in the restaurant industry and particularly in this growing segment. It offers a product that has the feel of a cross between quick service and casual, thus the fast-casual moniker. Fast-casual restaurants, as a group, are tending to put a lot of emphasis on food quality, in an effort to attract baby boomers and the like.
With an emphasis on food, there is also a spillover effect that helps to bring in other demographic groups. Fuddruckers prides itself on its food qualitythe freshness of its product, the toppings bar, big servings, and the ability to appeal to a variety of demographic groups in addition to baby boomers.
It is able to identify and target the different groups by a variety of methods. First, it has created three different types of restaurant facilities prototypes for use in three different types of locations freestanding, urban, and mall. Second, it has a new building prototype and design package that reduces the investment required to open a new Fuddruckers. Third, it offers a variety of foods and flavors for different palatesincluding items such as ostrich burgers for the more adventurous.
Fuddruckers feels that it has found the right mix in its strategy to target a range of customers through different menu offerings and locations. The company plans to continue to grow with the majority of its restaurants company owned and operated but also with many new territories available for franchisees. Later in the s, about the time boomers began to move into their middle years, all-suite properties began to multiply to meet a surging demand for more spacious accommodations.
Boomers on a short holiday make up a significant portion of the all-suite weekend occupancy, and much of the all-suite weekday trade is boomers on business. Moreover, it seems reasonable to assume that the growth of midscale limited-service properties is related, at least to some degree, to the boomers taste for informality and their desire for value.
In the mids, we saw the boomers themselves come into the family forma- tion age. The increase in the number of children born beginning in the late s has been referred to as the echo of the baby boom resulting in the echo boomers or Generation Y. As the huge generation of boomers entered their childbearing Teenagers and young adults tend to seek out inexpensive, no-frills food service.
The echo boom, however, was somewhat smaller because the boomers chose to have smaller families than their parents had had. Getting back to the baby boomers, this group will continue to be important not only because its members are numerous but because they are at a time in their lives when disposable income is likely at its highest. Also, older boomers outspend other demographic groups in several areas, including food away from home, transportation, and entertainment.
This is underscored by the elderlys dramatic healthcare increase between and , the time during which the population of people 85 and older increased by more than 33 percent. Significantly, the total amount of the food budget spent on food away from home rises as household income rises, as does the propensity to travel.
Households headed by people age 45 to 54 spend more total dollars on dining out than younger patrons. Even while the boomers occupy center stage, we have noted that another generation has begun to edge toward the limelight.
Generation Y, born between and , were age 17 to 35 in As of , this generation has overtaken the boomer generation in size. Similar generational trends will continue, as seen in Table 2. TABLE 2. Census Bureau. There will be a modest growth in the num- ber of children, supporting a continuing emphasis on services aimed at families with young children, such as special rates, accommodations, and services for families in lodging and child-friendly services such as playgrounds, games, and childrens menus in restaurants.
One food service chain that puts real emphasis on targeting children is Dennys. Its childrens menu won Restaurant Hospitality magazines award for childrens menus in the Family Restaurant category. Other companies that have received recognition for their childrens menus in recent years have been California Caf, Skip- jacks, Which Wich? The number of young adults expanded in the period up to , which is good news for the purveyors of inexpensive, no-frills food service such as QSRs, fast casual, and certain casual dining concepts.
There is mixed news when it comes to the teenage groupthe number of those between 10 and 14 decreased, while there was a signifi- cant increase in the to age group. The number of people age 30 to 49 in North America has declined in the last decade. This has implications for labor supply, which are discussed in a later section.
The baby boomers move into their retirement years the first boomers begin to turn 65 in will be a preview of the trend toward growing demand for services of all kinds for retirees, which will explode in the current decade. To summarize, the age composition of the U.
The changes that are taking place in North America, though, do not accurately reflect the changes that are taking place elsewhere in the world. Global Hospitality Note 2. A moments reflection suggests what the relationship of these factors to the hospital- ity industry might be.
One of the factors accounting for the success of ethnic restaurants, for instance, is Americas already great diversity. The number and scope of ethnic dining options has increased dramatically in recent years, especially in smaller markets. We can take this one step further and say that, in general, the population worldwide is aging and, more specifically, the population of the developed world is aging faster than the rest of the world.
Europe, for instance, is experiencing much the same effects as the United StatesGermany perhaps to the greatest extent. According to The Economist, by , almost one-half of the population in Germany will be over In Asia, Japan is also getting older. The aging of the Japanese population is exacerbated by the countrys strict immigration policies.
Japan has the oldest population in the world with a median age of just over Compare this to the median age of the United States, which is just over 35, and to Iraqs, which is American Demographics magazine reports that there are nearly million residents living in 20 Middle Eastern countries and that the demographic makeup of the region is changing drastically.
A number of factors, including lower infant mortality rates, immigration, and an increase in the size of families, have all contributed to the regions population growth rate being the highest anywhere. The region is experiencing a baby boom similar to what occurred in the United States in the s. The total population in the 20 Middle Eastern countries has almost quadrupled since The median ages in many of the countries, including Iraq, are much lower than most of the worlds.
These trends are expected to increase throughout the next two decades. In Saudi Arabia, the number of persons under 25 is expected to double between and Together, it is important to understand that demographic changes affect different parts of the world in different ways and at different rates. In addition to ethnic diversity, the composition of the workforce is also changing.
For instance, during the recent past, women have moved from being competitors of the restaurant business to being its customers.
A family with two working partners simply approaches life differently. For instance, such families usually find it easier to schedule shorter, more frequent vacations. Further, more children or fewer, for that matter means a difference in the kind of hospitality service concepts that will succeedand much the same can be said for more or less income. These issues are discussed further in the following sections. The first chapter describes the status quo of the tourism and travel industry.
In order to research this, he did two things: 1 conducted a written survey with a group of hoteliers; 2 held a think-tank session with consultants and senior operational managers from hotels. As a result of the digital revolution, the international development trends in tourism have opened the way for novel solutions like cloud-based booking sites or information and experience sharing via digital platforms.
Lines between industry segments will business trips. The explosion of Internet The negative affect of trends in the leisure industry. Members of LS:N Global gain exclusive access to the trends, markets and innovations that will define the future across eight industry sectors. Internationalization of brands and industry consolidation. These innovative hotel design trends will wow hospitality guests. This book is research-based and combines cutting-edge trends with a look into the future of hospitality marketing as an industry.
Similar to , bold and exotic flavors, snacking, and health and wellness are still in the forefront for consumer food preferences, but in an even more elevated way. For the hospitality and leisure 9 Trends That Will Shape the Hospitality Industry in 22 November As we inch closer to the new year, we take look at what lies on the horizon to help you plan for Highlights Hospitality marketing research published in top journals from to is reviewed and synthesized.
We discuss some fundamental challenges that need to be overcome to institute a lasting future-proof solution for the hospitality industry. Read part 1 of the latest hotel technology trends for in the hospitality industry and how it can help you improve revenue for your brand. The future trends section follows with a discussion on Chapter Industry implications, recommendations for stakeholders as well as directions for further scholarly research are discussed.
In this lesson, we will learn how this industry has grown and what the predictions say about the future. These will be unveiled independently every month. Because it is a myriad of different services, it has a wider aspect and scope to enhance and improve its operations.
Will Globalisation fragment or consolidate the hospitality industry? With so much happening inside the industry, what major business trends should food and beverage companies focus on for ?
Changing consumer preferences. The future of wellness is a whole new chapter—a new cross-pollination—between East and West, ancient and modern.
New research study, Drivers of Change in Hospitality, explores the changes we can expect as guest insight, technology optimization and the ability to hyper-personalize take effect. We will discuss some trends in the industry and the technology that is driving Hotels, restaurants, and flights make up the bulk of the hospitality industry. Two of the trends focus on entrepreneurs looking to start new companies, examining the growth of the ecosystem developing around accommodation-sharing and Extract of sample "Current and Future Trends in a Sector of the Hospitality Industry" Download file to see previous pages As time changes, even the hospitality industry has changed a lot for the better.
The stats are overwhelming. Contact centre Trends, Opportunities, Strategies Telesperience Page 3 Introduction by Nice Systems Customer service organizations have always been in a continuous struggle to respond to the ever-changing landscape of customer expectations. As we mentioned in our hospitality trends article, we expect to be a year where existing platforms of all types will start to mature.
Brexit and the future of the hospitality industry Robin Rossmann, managing director of STR, a benchmarking specialist that tracks data for more than 65 per cent of available hotel rooms in the UK and over seven million around the world, analyses the current state of the hospitality industry in the midst of political tension, security concerns The purpose of this section of the paper is to examine and evaluate the literature on key trends in the food and beverage sector of the Hospitality industry along with their impact on consumer choice and spending.
Four scenarios assess what might lie over the horizon. The food and hospitality industry is in for another big year with even more business growth expected and many more people turning their focus to food as it maintains it's position as a 'value-add' for many retail precincts, developments and hubs both in Australia and around the world.
We also touch upon the shaping the structure of the global tourism industry today and in the future. As per the Latest Hotel Industry Trends, technology is going to be the key to achieve a competitive edge.
Significant trends and directions for future research are discussed. According to Da Browska household sizes are smaller, healthy options are more important and safe food is a priority.
In this article, we discuss how these trends could affect the future of jewelry and what jewelry companies should do to prepare. Members are also entitled to a range of benefits and services, including Hotel Industry in this Digital World — What will the Future Bring? Food and beverage is moving increasingly from imitation to innovation. Most of the London hotels deals will be formulated keeping this niche market in mind.
Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable the hospitality. The Future Trends and Change to Watch in highlights emerging consumer behaviors with trend predictions from the Innovation Group. Of course, there are regional differences—destinations fall in and out of fashion, prices rise In an ever-changing hospitality industry, it is important to keep up with the trends.
What are Future Trends of the Hospitality Industry? In the past we have looked at such topics that have included the importance of mission statements, setting up your organization, ways to wow your customers, and ways to make your property unique. It details the key trends observed and discusses the challenges facing the sector, as well as considering its future prospects.
The publication is one of the oldest and most highly regarded forecast reports for the real estate and land use industry. Existing hotels will experience a significant increase in value through For the report, survey respondents were asked what they believe will be the next big new trend that will shape the spa industry over the next year.
What If? Imagining the Future of the Travel Industry From the political and economic environment to technology, demographics, and consumer behaviors, an array of trends are triggering a transformation. The hospitality industry is the fastest growing of industries. The hotel industry is going through a period of unparalleled, irreversible changes and will look very different in In the hotel industry, they often detail how quickly advancements are progressing and what new technology might take over, or how people are adapting the way they travel.
Hotels, restaurants, and flights make up the bulk of the hospitality industry. The actual amount spent on the trends in the industry is very less. Of course, there are regional differences—destinations fall in and out of fashion, prices rise To help in that pursuit, Oracle Hospitality commissioned Hotel , a major industry report surveying consumers and operators about emerging technologies destined to reshape our business.
It examines. In the following essay, the researcher will be concentrating on the negative affects which arise when following the trend in the hospitality industry, in particular online bookings versus the gold old travel agency.
The future of HRM in the hospitality industry will need to take into account the various trends but will also be influenced by local circumstances.
Obtaining hotel financing will be a challenge for the next 2 to 4 years. Recently, these search terms have declined in popularity on the general Web, but gained more momentum among businesses and consumers. Successful hotels and restaurants As you can see, we here at Hotel News Now are downright terrible when it comes to predicting the future of an industry as dynamic as the hotel sector.Research and networking through social media is now mainstream.
A lot of managers have failed as a result of their ignorance when it comes to hotel managers. Talking about future hospitality trends and paths to success is very much a trend in itself.
Professional status. The predominance of low managers in contrast to unit managers pay depicted in this survey also means that placed a low priority on operative and managers may not be fully committed to production tasks. A moments reflection suggests what the relationship of these factors to the hospital- ity industry might be.
One such group, the Womens Foodservice Forum WFF , was created in to promote leadership development and career advancement of executive women for the benefit of the food service industry.
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