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PDF | Hortus Malabaricus is the oldest important printed book on Indian medicinal plants. The 1(st) of its 12 Malayalam and Konkani languages. respectively. value. Incidentally, Hortus Malabaricus is the first book in which Malayalam appears in print. Since the technology was not developed at that time, the written. Hortus Malabaricus (meaning "Garden of Malabar") is a comprehensive treatise that deals with The book has been translated into English and Malayalam by K. S. Manilal and . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.

Hortus Malabaricus Malayalam Pdf

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Key words: Hortus Malabaricus, Medicinal plants, Biological Patent Laws, IPR. The plants were described under their dialectical Malayalam names that were. Hortus Malabaricus is an online community platform serving an international book in Malayalam language about 'Hortus Malabaricus' - 'Hortus&ItyyAchuthan; . The following other wikis use this file: Usage on Liber:Hortus Malabaricus Volume · Pagina:Hortus Malabaricus Volume

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Images Additional images. About this book Language: Since his times, several of the place names too have undergone changes or modifications, some of them beyond recognition.

An intensive attempt was made by the author during the 20 years from to , to re-collect all the plants described in Hortus Malabaricus, from the localities from where Rheede originally reported them over three centuries ago.

It was found that several of his plants no longer occur in their original localities but have migrated to places far away. Such plants were collected from places nearest to Cochin or to their original localities, resulting in a re-collection of most of Rheede's plants.

File:Malayalam text in hortus malabaricus.png

The scientific identification of Rheede's plants were made to a considerable extent from this fresh collections. However, it has been found that several plants described in Hortus Malabaricus have disappeared altogether from the entire Malabar region, some having become extinct. To facilitate this, the Dutch botanists themselves attempted to bring out a Dutch translation of Bortus Malabaricus but only the first two volumes could be translated, which were together published in a single bound volume in The remaining 10 volumes have not been translated even into Dutch till now.

Many attempts were also made to translate the book into English by eminent scientists but none could complete even the first volume. In John Hill published a "London Edition" of Volume 1 of Bortus Malabaricus, which has been mistakenly thought to be an English translation by those who have not seen the book.

Hill's "London Edition" is merely a reprint ofthe original Latin book published from London, in which the botanical names of the plants as known in those days and as interpreted by Hill, are also added. Even in this case, the other 11 volumes remained unattended until the present English Edition was published Thus, Bartus Malabaricus may be seen to contain information on diverse topics of national and international importance.

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However, the greatest importance ofit today is with regard to the plant wealth ofMalabar and their medicinal uses. The traditional indigenous ethno-medical information contained in it was gathered from ancient palm leaf manuscripts belonging to hereditary physicians' families ofMalabar ofthe 17th century.

As none ofthose manuscripts existtodayand as. Bortus Malabaricus and World Botany About a century after its publication, Carl Linnaeus, father ofmodem Botany, accepted Bartus Malabaricus as an authoritative manual on the plants ofAsia and made extensive use of it when establishing his new binomial system of nomenclature of plants.

Since the dried specimens of plants sent to Europe by Rheede could not be located, Linnaeus, due to his pronounced faith in this book, used, instead, the descriptions and illustrations contained in it to erect types ofmany of species and genera ofAsian and other tropical plants.

In his Species Plantarum published in and Genera Plantarum , Linnaeus used about Indian plants for erecting new species and genera, most of which from Bartus Malabaricus. Bartus Malabaricus is, therefore, fundamental in the floristic and taxonomic investigations ofAsian and tropical plants. Establishment ofthe correct identity and nomenclature of the plants described in this book is, hence, of paramount importance to plant taxonomists the world over.

As this is a pre-Linnaean work, with no known type specimens, the exact scientific identity of most ofthe medicinal plants described in it, were not correctly known and has been a subject of debate.

Linnaeus and many others after him used the illustrations and descriptions in it as the types of many botanical taxa erected by them, in accordance to the system of binomial nomenclature of plants. However, a lot of confusion existed in this matter, as the descriptions in the book and illustrations though very beautiful are not ofmodern scientific nonns.

The techniques of botanical description were only beginning to develop in 17 th century.

Rheede's fern in hortus malabaricus

Botany itself was not an independent branch of science then in Europe but was only a part of Medical education.

Morphology of various parts of the flowers was not properly understood and their functions mostly unknown. Therefore, the tenns and expressions used by Rheede and his collaborators to write the Latin descriptions of the plants in general and the flowers in particular in Hortus Malabaricus, do not always carry the technical meanings attributed to those very same tenns and expressions by botanists today.

The 17th century dialectical Malayalam names of the taxa which alone are given in this pre-Linnaean book , which could have given clues in some cases, have not been able to be interpreted correctly by others, mostly scientists not familiar with the intricacies of the language, who were looking for solutions oftaxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

The entire text being in antiquated Latin, the valuable infonnation contained in it is not readily available to many modern investigators and users either. Present relevance of the 17 1JJ century Botany book The present relevance of the book today for us, however, is mainly two-fold.

First: the spiralling cost ofthe modern allopathic medicines are taking them beyond the reach ofour common and middle-class people. It is estimated that in the next five years the cost ofallopathic medicines will be 10 times more than what it is today, compelling the common people to fall back to their ancient traditional medical systems.

Hortus Malabaricus provides the most authentic document ofour ancient, indigenous knowledge ofmedicinal plants and their uses, by helping to distinguish proven, locally available medicinal plants, to help our native people, giving the much needed solace to them. Secondly: the data presented in the book can be effectively used to prevent patenting of about valuable Indian medicinal plants, by any foreign or Indian company, thus saving billions of Rupees for the country and providing an example of how the Intellectual Property Rights of the ethnic people in the third world countries can be protected and harnessed for their own benefit.

Indigenous medical knowledge for self reliance in health care For the drug to be really effective, indeed the correct medicinal plant should be selected.. Apart from recognizing the correct medicinal plants recommended in Hortus Malabaricus by the traditional physicians, to effectively treat the concerned illnesses, establishing the correct botanical identity ofthem acceptable under the rules ofthe International Code ofBotanical Nomenclature, is also absolutely essential for all matters concerning the Biological Patent Laws and Intellectual Property Rights.

Despite the unique importance ofthe book, the correct scientific taxonomic identity of many of the plants of Malabar, as well as the medicinal properties of them, their methods of use, etc. An English Edition, recently published , contains a true, word by word translation ofall the 12 volumes of Hortus Malabaricus from the original old Latin into English.

The original style ofthe language is followed and no attempt is made to modify or modernize the language, to International Seminar on "Multidisciplinary Approaches in Angiosperm Systematics" facilitate other researchers to take up their own studies. In addition to the English translation, the correct scientific botanical nomenclature and identity ofall plants, acceptable under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ICBN , are given, along with their important synonyms and basionyms with author citations.

The process ofidentification was based not only on the descriptions and illustrations given in the original book, but also studying fresh collections ofthe plants made personally by the present author during the past few decades, from the localities in Malabar from where Rheede originally collected them years ago. Correct interpretation ofthe old dialectical Malayalam plant names also proved to be ofconsiderable help to arrive at conclusions about their identity in several instances.

Medicinal properties ofthe concerned plants, as originally certified by the ancient local traditional Malabar physicians, who supplied all such information contained in it are translated and interpreted in this English Edition. Commentaries on the Malayalam nomenclature, that in many cases are found to allude to the medicinal uses ofthe concerned plants, are given.

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Hortus Malabaricus and the Biocultural Diversity of India

All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License ; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy. Public domain Public domain false false.This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

Local vernacular plant names are not recognized in international courts, where scientific names acceptable under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ICBN alone are accepted for all purposes, including matters concerning Biological Patent Laws.

Under people's pressure, Indian Government had to legally challenge this at the US courts. ISBN Manlilal for his encouragement to initiate this work. Hortus Malabaricus: An account of heritage plants of Malabar. Copyright Office before January 1, To collect source materials to pave the way for a comprehensive and accurate history of Kerala and its culture. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published or registered with the U.

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