GANDHI AUTOBIOGRAPHY IN TELUGU PDF
The Gandhi Heritage Portal is a complete repository of authentic information Works STORY OF MY EXPERIMENTS WITH TRUTH (TELUGU). Gandhi Autobiography or The Story of Experiments with Truth PDF, सत्याचे Abridged Gandhi Autobiography: Download Complete Ebook free PDF. Copies It is not my purpose to attempt a real autobiography or story of my life. Gandhiji's Autobiography* and his Satyagraha in South Africa+, as.
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This is the autobiography of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, translated to Telugu, an Indian language. What I want to achieve- what I have been striving and. generations, from my grandfather, they have been Prime Ministers in several Kathiawad States. Uttamchand Gandhi, alias Ota Gandhi, my grandfather, must. The first edition of Danghiji's Autobiography was published in two volumes, Vol. . Uttamchand Gandhi, alias Ota Gandhi, my grandfather, must have been a.
To attain Independence for the country, Gandhi initiated several movements which helped him achieve his goals.
Non-Cooperation Movement Gandhi launched his weapons of "non-cooperation", "non-violence" and "peace" during his struggle against the British raj. The movement emerged as an outcry over the Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar. Gandhi induced the British government to grant Swaraj or self government under this movement. The movement was strengthened by his support to the Muslim campaign against Turkey's dismemberment post World War I.
It was formed with an ideology to defy the rules and laws of the British government. It was launched in the year and the main factor after its formation was the Simon Commission which included only the British members. It also resulted in the imprisonment of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
The movement at times is also considered for being non resistance. Mahatma Gandhi produced salt in Dandi without paying taxes to the British government. He was supported by millions of Indians in his campaign. The movement demanded immediate end to the British rule. The Congress party initiated the mass struggle on the lines of non-violence. Gandhi gave a slogan 'Do or Die' during this campaign and every Indian started dreaming of a free India after this movement.
Weapons during Freedom Struggle Mahatma Gandhi did not believe in violence. His first Satyagraha was in Champaran, Bihar in for the cause of peasants of Champaran. Satyagraha The overall process of non-violent actions was known as Satyagraha by Mahatma Gandhi. For him, Satyagraha was an outgrowth of nonviolence.
He used this term for the first time during his struggles in South Africa. He used it as a major tool in his struggle against British to gain Independence for India.
The first Satyagraha campaign was launched in Champaran in for the cause of the peasants. This first campaign was followed by this economic boycotts and fasts as the tools of Satyagraha. Non-Violence Non-violence is the principle of Gandhi's spirituality and his political philosophy.
He used non violence as a tool against the British rule during his struggle for Independence. He believed that violence is a weapon which could not resolve problems but on the other hand increase the problem itself. Non-violence was preached in different religions; Jains, Budhhists and Christanity.
Gandhi believed in truth, humanity and world peace and practicing non-violence was his biggest ideologies. He not only followed the path of non-violence, but also managed to gain Independence for the country. He had a vision to create a secular state where the religious beliefs, values and discourse are respected and practiced in all spheres of life.
He lay emphasizes on non-violence, prayers and celibacy.
It was his belief that salvation was the ultimate goal of life. The secular theories of Mahatma Gandhi put significance on the Indian national movement.
His secular beliefs were evident from the instances such as his support to the Muslims during the Khilafat movement. He made this choice as part of his philosophy of selflessness and self-restraint. Finally, he also formulated his own philosophy of political protest, called Satyagraha, which literally meant "truth-force" in Sanskrit.
In practice, this practice meant protesting injustice steadfastly, but in a non-violent manner. He put this theory into practice on September 8, , when, at a large gathering of the Indian community in Transvaal, he asked the whole community to take a vow of disobedience to the law, as the Transvaal government had started an effort to register every Indian child over the age of eight, which would make them an official part of the South African population.
Setting a personal example, Gandhi became the first Indian to appear before a magistrate for his refusal to register, and he was sentenced to two months in prison. He actually asked for a heavier sentence, a request, consistent with his philosophy of self-denial.
After his release, Gandhi continued his campaign and thousands of Indians burned their registration cards, crossing the Transvaal-Natal border without passes.
Many went to jail, including Gandhi, who went to jail again in Gandhi did not waiver when a South African General by the name of Jan Christiaan Smuts promised to eliminate the registration law, but broke his word.
Gandhi went all the way to London in and gathered enough support among the British to convince Smuts to eliminate the law in Yet, the Transvaal Prime Minister continued to regard Indians as second-class citizens while the Cape Colony government passed another discriminatory law making all non-Christian marriages illegal, which meant that all Indian children would be considered born out of wedlock.
In addition, the government in Natal continued to impose crippling poll tax for entering Natal only upon Indians. In response to these strikingly unjust rules, Gandhi organized a large-scale satyagraha, which involved women crossing the Natal-Transvaal border illegally.
When they were arrested, five thousand Indian coal miners also went on strike and Gandhi himself led them across the Natalese border, where they expected arrest. Although Smuts and Gandhi did not agree on many points, they had respect for each other. In , Smuts relented due to the sheer number of Indians involved in protest and negotiated a settlement which provided for the legality of Indian marriages and abolished the poll tax.
Further, the import of indentured laborers from India was to be phased out by In July , Gandhi sailed for Britain, now admired as "Mahatma," and known throughout the world for the success of satyagraha.
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Mahatma in the Midst of World Turmoil Gandhi was in England when World War I started and he immediately began organizing a medical corps similar to the force he had led in the Boer War, but he also faced health problems that caused him to return to India, where he met the applauding crowds with enthusiasm once again. Indians continued to refer to him as "Mahatma" or "Great Soul," an appellation reserved only for the holiest men of Hinduism.
While Gandhi accepted the love and admiration of the crowds, he also insisted that all souls were equal and did not accept the implication of religious sacredness that his new name carried. In order to retreat into a life of humility and restraint, as his personal principles mandated, he decided to withdraw from public life for a while spending his first year in India focusing on his personal quest for purity and healing.
He also lived in a communal space with untouchables, a choice which many of his financial supporters resented, because they believed that the very presence of untouchables defiled higher-caste Indians.
Gandhi even considered moving to a district in Ahmedabad inhabited entirely by the untouchables when a generous Muslim merchant donated enough money to keep up his current living space for another year. By that time, Gandhi's communal life with the untouchables had become more acceptable. Although Gandhi had withdrawn from public life, he briefly met with the British Governor of Bombay and future Viceroy of India , Lord Willington, whom Gandhi promised to consult before he launched any political campaigns.
Gandhi also felt the impact of another event, the passing of G. Gokhale, who had become his supporter and political mentor. He stayed away from the political trend of Indian nationalism, which many of the members of the Indian National Congress embraced.
Instead, he stayed busy resettling his family and the inhabitants of the Phoenix Settlement in South Africa, as well as the Tolstoy Settlement he had founded near Johannesburg. For this purpose, on May 25, , he created a new settlement, which came to be known as the Satyagraha ashram derive from Sanskrit word "Satya" means "truth" near the town of Ahmedabad and close to his place of birth in the western Indian province of Gujarati.
All the inhabitants of the ashram, which included one family of untouchables, swore to poverty and chastity. After a while, Gandhi became influenced by the idea of Indian independence from the British, but he dreaded the possibility that a westernized Indian elite would replace the British government.
He developed a strong conviction that Indian independence should take place as a large-scale sociopolitical reform, which would remove the old plagues of extreme poverty and caste restrictions.
In fact, he believed that Indians could not become worthy of self-government unless they all shared a concern for the poor. As Gandhi resumed his public life in India in , he delivered a speech at the opening of the new Hindu University in the city of Benares, where he discussed his understanding of independence and reform.
AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY OR The story of my experiments with truth
He also provided specific examples of the abhorrent living conditions of the lower classes that he had observed during his travels around India and focused specifically on sanitation. Although the Indians of the higher-castes did not readily embrace the ideas in the speech, Gandhi had now returned to public life and he felt ready to convert these ideas to actions.
Facing the possibility of arrest, just like he always did in South Africa, Gandhi first spoke for the rights of impoverished indigo-cultivators in the Champaran district. His efforts eventually led to the appointment of a government commission to investigate abuses by the indigo planters. He also interefered whenever he saw violence. When a group of Ahmedabad mill workers went on strike and became violent, he resolved to fast until they returned to peace.
Though some political commentators condemned Gandhi's behavior as a form of blackmail, the fast only lasted three days before the workers and their employers negotiated an agreement.
Through this situation, Gandhi discovered the fast as one of his most effective weapons in late years and set a precedent for later action as part of satyagraha. As the First World War continued, Gandhi also became involved in recruiting men for the British Army, an involvement which his followers had a difficult time accepting, after listening to his passionate speeches about resisting injustice in a non-violent manner.
సత్య శోధన లేక ఆత్మకథ (Sathya Sodhana Leka Athma Katha)
Not surprisingly, at this point, although Gandhi still remained loyal to Britain and enamored with the ideals of the British constitution, his desire to support and independent home rule became stronger. As time passed, Gandhi became exhausted from his long journey around the country and fell ill with dysentery. He refused conventional treatment and chose to practice his own healing methods, relying on diet and spending a long time bedridden, while in recovery in his ashram.
While the British alleged that they fought to protect the rights of small states and independent peoples from tyranny, in India, an increasing number of people found this alleged commitment less than genuine. After the end of the war, the British government decided to follow the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee, which advocated the retention of various wartime restrictions in India, including curfews and measures to suppress free speech.
Gandhi was still sick when these events took place and, although he could not protest actively, he felt his loyalty to the British Empire weaken significantly. Later, when the Rowlatt Act actually became law, Gandhi proposed that the entire country observe a day of prayer, fasting, and abstention from physical labor as a peaceful protest against the injustice of the oppressive law. Gandhi's plea generated an overwhelming response as millions of Indians did not go to work on April 6, As the entire country stood still, the British arrested Gandhi, which provoked angry crowds to fill the streets of India's cities and, much to Gandhi's dislike, violence erupted everywhere.
Gandhi could not tolerate violence so he called off his campaign and asked that everyone return to their homes. He acted in accordance with his firm belief that if satyagraha could not be carried out without violence, it should not take place at all.
Unfortunately, not all protesters shared Gandhi's conviction as ardently. In Amritsar, capital of the region known as the Punjab, where the alarmed British authorities had deported the local Hindu and Muslim members of the Congress, the street mobs became very violent and the British summoned Brigadier-General Reginald E.
Dyer to restore order. Dyer prohibited all public meetings and instituted public whippings for Indians who approached British policemen. Despite these new regulations, a crowd of over ten thousand protesters gathered in the center of Armitsar, and Dyer responded with bringing his troops there and opening fire without warning. Tightly packed together, the protesters had nowhere to run from the fire, even when they threw themselves down on the ground the fire was then directed on the ground, ceasing only when the British troops no longer had ammunition.
Hundreds died and many more were wounded. This unfortunate occurrence became known as the Amritsar Massacre, it outraged the British public almost as much as Indian society. The authorities in London eventually condemned Dyer's conduct, forcing him to resign in disgrace. The effect the massacre had on Indian society became even more profound as more moderate politicians, like Gandhi, now began to wholeheartedly support the idea of Indian independence, creating an intense climate of mutual hostility.
After the massacre, Gandhi eventually obtained permission to travel to Amritsar and conduct his own investigation. He produced a report months later and his work on the report motivated him to contact a number of Indian politicians, who advocated for the idea of independence from British rule.
Muslims considered the Caliphs as heirs of Mohammed and spiritual heads of Islam. While the British considered such suppression a necessary effort to restore order after World War I, the Muslim populations viewed it as slap in the face.
Gandhi urged them not to accept the actions of the British. He proposed a boycott of British goods, and stated that if the British continued to insist on the elimination of the Caliphate, Indian Muslims should take even more drastic measures of non-cooperation, involving areas such as government employment and taxes.
During the months that followed, Gandhi continued to advocate for peace and caution, however, since Britain and Turkey were still negotiating their peace terms. Unlike more nationalistic politicians, he also supported the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms for India, as they laid the foundation for constitutional self-government.
Eventually, other politicians who thought the reforms did not go far enough had to agree with Gandhi simply because his popularity and influence had become so great that the Congress could accomplish little without him.
As the British remained determined to put an end to the Muslim Caliphate, they enforced the Rowlatt Act resolutely. Even Gandhi became less tolerant towards British practices and in April , he urged all Indians, Muslim and Hindu, to begin a "non-cooperation" protest against the British rule by giving up their Western clothing and British jobs.
As a personal example, on August 1, he returned the kasar-i-hind medal that he had received for providing medical service to the Boer War's wounded British army in South Africa. He also became the first president of the Home Rule League, a largely symbolic position which confirmed his position as an advocate for Indian Independence.
In September , Gandhi also passed an official constitution for the Congress, which created a system of two national committees and numerous local units, all working to mobilize a spirit of non-cooperation across India.
Gandhi and other volunteers traveled around India further establishing this new grass roots organization, which achieved great success.
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By , Gandhi decided that the initiative of non-cooperation had to transform into open civil disobedience, but in March , Lord Reading finally ordered Gandhi's arrest after a crowd in the city of Chauri Chaura attacked and killed the local representatives of British authority. Gandhi, who had never encouraged or sanctioned this type of conduct, condemned the actions of the violent crowds and retreated into a period of fasting and prayer as a response to this violent outburst.
However, the British saw the event as a trigger point and a reason for his arrest. Part V[ edit ] The British authorities placed Gandhi on trial for sedition and sentenced him to six years in prison, marking the first time that he faced prosecution in India.
Because of Gandhi's fame, the judge, C. Broomfield, hesitated to impose a harsher punishment. He considered Gandhi clearly guilty as charged, despite the fact that Gandhi admitted his guilt and even went as far as requesting the heaviest possible sentence.Satyagraha in Champaran By: Nagabhushanam marked it as to-read Jul 18, Home Feedback Contact Us www. Retrospect and Prospect Edited by: Navajivan Mudranalaya, Ahemadabad India.
Harijan Bandhu Courtesy: To attain Independence for the country, Gandhi initiated several movements which helped him achieve his goals.
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