DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS AN ALGORITHMIC APPROACH PDF
Distributed systems. An algorithmic approach | 𝗥𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗣𝗗𝗙 on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Sukumar Ghosh and others published Distributed systems. by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. An Algorithmic Approach. Sukumar Ghosh. Distributed Systems. University of Iowa. Iowa City, U.S.A. Review of: Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach (2nd Full Text: PDF . Distributed Computing Column Annual Review
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Reference books. Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach by Sukumar, Ghosh, myavr.info: the original high level (user oriented) view. myavr.info: the . Buy Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach, Second Edition (Chapman & Hall/CRC Computer and Information Science Series) on myavr.info ✓ FREE. Source: Sukumar Ghosh, Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach, Chapman and Hall/CRC, .. myavr.info~baldoni/baldoni pdf.
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Fault-Tolerant Message-Passing Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach
About this Textbook This book presents the most important fault-tolerant distributed programming abstractions and their associated distributed algorithms, in particular in terms of reliable communication and agreement, which lie at the heart of nearly all distributed applications. The book also presents impossibility results in classic distributed computing models, along with strategies, mainly failure detectors and randomization, that allow us to enrich these models.
In this sense, the book constitutes an introduction to the science of distributed computing, with applications in all domains of distributed systems, such as cloud computing and blockchains. Each chapter comes with exercises and bibliographic notes to help the reader approach, understand, and master the fascinating field of fault-tolerant distributed computing.
Introduction The terahertz spectrum, occupying the frequency range between 0. To enable this diverse set of applications, there has been a concerted effort in the research community to miniaturize complex THz systems into chip-scale form that are operable at room temperature.
Wedged between the microwave band and the infrared spectrum, this effort has spanned across a large array of substrates ranging from solid-state to photonic devices 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 2D nano-materials 15 , 16 , quantum-cascade lasers QCLs 17 , 18 , 19 , microbolometers 20 , 21 , nanowires 22 , metamaterials 23 , and ultrafast photoconductive materials 24 , The field-effect-based devices can detect THz waves at frequencies beyond their cutoff frequencies by exploiting nonlinearities in the operation regime through a non quasistatic plasma-wave excitation by the incident THz waves They also exhibit orders of magnitude much faster response times and higher pixel integration capability compared with microbolometers This has been a significant advancement, as it not only makes possible THz systems below 1 THz compact and battery operable at room temperature, but also exploits the economics of scale of semiconductor fabrication to enable complex THz systems in a cost-effective fashion.
A limiting factor in all of these classes of THz sensors is that they are typically sensitive to a narrow set of the incident field properties, i. This has hindered deployment of THz sensors in practical applications where single modality sensing across any field property is not robust enough.
Due to the spectrally sensitive nature of scattering and penetration through optically opaque objects in these frequency ranges, sensor fusions exploiting frequency, pattern and polarization diversity, will become increasingly important for high-performance sensing applications. Prior works have demonstrated merging imaging with spectroscopic sensing, exploiting the unique advantages in the THz regime, to clearly differentiate the advantages against other spectral regions 39 , 40 , We are seeing a similar evolution in the neighboring frequencies, where sensor fusions particularly combining millimeter-wave, infra-red and optical frequencies is becoming critical to enable effective and robust understanding of the environment for autonomous vehicles and systems.
In a similar fashion, the ability to extract information across the incident THz field properties can allow a much richer sensing interface 42 , Enabling such programmability in the THz spectrum, particulary in chip-scale form, is very challenging.
Limited reconfigurability in THz systems have been demonstrated in mechanically and optically controlled metamaterials 43 , 44 , micro-electromechanically actuated slits for THz modulation 45 , thermally tunable THz filters 46 and phase-change material 47 , graphene-based switchable high-impedance surface HIS 48 , 49 , and graphene-based multi-input—multi-output antenna array The key to realize such a rich sensing interface is to allow simultaneous programmability across all the three incident field properties and across such a wide variation range.
In addition, integration in a substrate compatible with semiconductor fabrication processes is also important to allow for low-cost and wide-scale deployments of such sensors. This is particularly challenging, since the THz frequencies can far exceed the cutoff frequencies of such devices making any form of reconfigurability very limited and inefficient. In this paper, we present our approach toward a universal THz sensing surface which can reconfigure its responsivity to spectrum 0.
Hypergeometric Summation. An algorithmic approach to summation and special function identities
Therefore, this distributed approach, realized with devices operating up to four times their cutoff frequencies, can be translated to other semiconductor platforms for programmability in other spectral ranges.
While preliminary results on the sensor response at THz were presented in ref. We also present measurement results in the implemented chip to demonstrate the tri-modal reconfigurability across 0. Results Direct digital programming of THz surface The ability to reconfigure against incident field properties opens up new dimensions to information that can be extracted from the sensor interface.
Hyperspectral operation can enable simultaneously higher resolution acquisition with higher penetration depth for 3D imaging 39 due to the spectrally dependent resolution and penetration depth of electromagnetic waves. The ability to electronically scan the beam pattern to various angles of incidence pattern reconfigurability can reduce image acquisition time by orders of magnitude circumventing slow mechanical raster scanning.
In addition, such pattern diversity can also introduce new orthogonal measurements allowing computational-based techniques for real-time imaging 51 , 52 , 53 , A sensor that can program to orient its reception beam to different angles of incidence is tantamount to phased array operation. While phased arrays have been demonstrated at radio 54 and optical frequencies 55 , terahertz operation of such arrays have been severely limited due to the unavailability of efficient active components such as amplifiers, phase shifters, and coherent sources which are the critical components of such a system 1.
Therefore, achieving simultaneous spectral and pattern reconfigurability has been very challenging, much more so at THz frequencies. In addition, the ability to reconfigure its polarization sensitivity is also important, since polarization rotation typically happens during transmission or reflection-based imaging and in spectroscopy.
Fundamentally, the limitations of a THz sensor to these three THz field properties are dependent on the electromagnetic resonant nature of the interface, its scattering properties and the coupling to the detector, in whichever substrate the latter is realized. First, sensitivity to spectrum arises due to the resonant electromagnetic modes sustained on the antenna surface and the resonant nature of the antenna-detector interface The latter is designed to ensure optimal power transfer and impedance matching, that is typically guaranteed within a narrow range of frequencies.
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Broadband detection without frequency selectivity can be achieved in optical domain with photoconductive substrates 7 , but the reception patterns are static and image acquisition requires bulky and complex optical assemblies, including femtosecond lasers.
In addition to frequency selectivity, sensitivity to the other field properties namely angle of incidence and polarization also arises out of the antenna structure and the boundary conditions.
Since a single-port antenna-detector system is reciprocal, its reception properties can be understood from its transmission properties. When excited, the antenna surface sustains a 2D THz current distribution, that determines all its electromagnetic properties, including its frequency response, beam pattern, and polarization.
Traditional methods of reconfigurability that focus on the system by partitioning into its functional elements such as the antenna, the coupling network and the detectors are limited in their ability to efficiently achieve the desired parameters particularly at THz frequencies.
Typically, such architectures focus on one aspect of reconfigurability against the incident field. While prototypical method of partitioning the design space and applying intuition-based approaches allow us to create a step-by-step design methodology, it also limits the space of possible architectures due to the complex interactions of several inter-dependent variables and properties.
This is particularly true at THz frequencies where the individual device performance and variability itself is limited. Since the electromagnetic properties of the THz interface is dependent on the THz surface current distribution it supports, the key concept in this work is to directly program the 2D distribution under THz field incidence. This is achieved with active devices placed at subwavelength scales that can simultaneously program and absorb the incident fields at the sites of reconfiguration.
The boundary conditions at each detector site is reconfigurable independently. This changes the local fields, reprograms the impressed current over the surface and redistributes the power distribution across the detector array. Through the complex interactions of the multiport distributed detector array, the 2D amplitude and phase distribution on the surface is changed. By independently programming the distributed detector array, a large set of THz sensor reception properties can be engineered.
The goal of the reconfigurable THz sensor design is to map a subset of these large configuration states against optimal reception across frequency, pattern, and polarization. The incident power is absorbed in a distributed fashion at the sites of reconfiguration. Each site is reconfigurable with a coded capacitor bank that locally changes the boundary condition to redistribute the surface current distribution. Each detector is realized with field-effect-transistors that rectifies the local THz field to produce a signal proportional to the local flux.
Each detection site is programmable with a switched capacitor bank and a 4-bit thermometer code. With 16 detectors distributed over the surface, this results in possible reconfigurations of the surface. The locations of the 16 detectors are shown in Fig.
Multiport matching is taken into consideration to enable optimal power absorption into the distributed detector array The collective outputs of the detectors that represent the total power absorbed by the sensing surface can be read in a time-multiplexed fashion. The figure shows the distribution of amplitude and phase of the impressed surface current under incidence a 0.
Interprocess Communication: An Overview Chapter 3: Models for Communication Chapter 4: Representing Distributed Algorithms: Syntax and Semantics Chapter 5: Program Correctness Chapter 6: Time in a Distributed System Chapter 7: Mutual Exclusion Chapter 8: Distributed Snapshot Chapter 9: Global State Collection Chapter Graph Algorithms Chapter Coordination Algorithms Chapter Fault-Tolerant Systems Chapter Group Communication Chapter The programming of the surface effectively tilts the reception beam towards the angle of incidence allowing electronic scanning across 0.
The state reconfiguration can be extended to even polarization as shown in a 16 times increase in reception for the orthogonal polarization with optimized detector settings. The effect of number of detectors is investigated by increasing the number of locations occupied by the detectors up to 84, and analyzing their reception properties against the incident field.
Computational Molecular Biology.
We follow a heuristic based design methodology to choose the number and location of the detector array. The effect of the location distribution is represented in Fig.
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