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CELL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY KARP PDF

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Another important disaccharide is lactose found in milk, consisting of a glucose molecule and a galactose molecule. Lactose may be hydrolysed by lactase , and deficiency in this enzyme results in lactose intolerance. When a few around three to six monosaccharides are joined, it is called an oligosaccharide oligo- meaning "few".

These molecules tend to be used as markers and signals , as well as having some other uses. They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may be branched. Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen , both consisting of repeating glucose monomers.

Cellulose is an important structural component of plant's cell walls and glycogen is used as a form of energy storage in animals. Sugar can be characterized by having reducing or non-reducing ends.

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A reducing end of a carbohydrate is a carbon atom that can be in equilibrium with the open-chain aldehyde aldose or keto form ketose. If the joining of monomers takes place at such a carbon atom, the free hydroxy group of the pyranose or furanose form is exchanged with an OH-side-chain of another sugar, yielding a full acetal.

This prevents opening of the chain to the aldehyde or keto form and renders the modified residue non-reducing.

Lactose contains a reducing end at its glucose moiety, whereas the galactose moiety forms a full acetal with the C4-OH group of glucose. Saccharose does not have a reducing end because of full acetal formation between the aldehyde carbon of glucose C1 and the keto carbon of fructose C2. Main articles: Lipid , Glycerol , and Fatty acid Structures of some common lipids.

At the top are cholesterol and oleic acid. At the bottom is the common phospholipid , phosphatidylcholine. Some lipids are linear, open chain aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures.

Some are aromatic with a cyclic [ring] and planar [flat] structure while others are not.

Some are flexible, while others are rigid. In triglycerides , the main group of bulk lipids, there is one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids. Fatty acids are considered the monomer in that case, and may be saturated no double bonds in the carbon chain or unsaturated one or more double bonds in the carbon chain.

In general, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar or hydrophobic "water-fearing" , meaning that it does not interact well with polar solvents like water. Another part of their structure is polar or hydrophilic "water-loving" and will tend to associate with polar solvents like water.

This makes them amphiphilic molecules having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions. In the case of cholesterol , the polar group is a mere —OH hydroxyl or alcohol. In the case of phospholipids, the polar groups are considerably larger and more polar, as described below.

Most oils and milk products that we use for cooking and eating like butter , cheese , ghee etc. Vegetable oils are rich in various polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFA.

Lipid-containing foods undergo digestion within the body and are broken into fatty acids and glycerol, which are the final degradation products of fats and lipids. Lipids, especially phospholipids , are also used in various pharmaceutical products , either as co-solubilisers e. Proteins are very large molecules—macro-biopolymers—made from monomers called amino acids.

The side chain "R" is different for each amino acid of which there are 20 standard ones. Biochemistry is rapidly The sixth edition explores core concepts in considerable depth and presents experimental detail when it helps to explain and reinforce the concepts. The majority of discussions have been modified to reflect the latest changes in the field.

The book also builds on its strong illustration program by opening each chapter with VIP art that The edition continues this tradition, and additionally incorporates coverage of recent research and an expanded focus on preparing and supporting students Molecular Biology by Robert Weaver, is designed for an introductory course in molecular biology.

Molecular Biology 5th edition focuses on the fundamental concepts of molecular biology emphasizing experimentation. What are the alternative substrates K and M acting like?

If one is present in excess, the pathway involving the other is inhibited. Why then is there a net production of only 2 ATPs for each glucose molecule in the pathway?

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Consequently, there is a net gain of only 2 ATPs per glucose. First, there is a lack of financial incentives since antibiotics are taken for only a short period of time, as opposed to drugs prescribed for chronic conditions diabetes, depression.

Second, new antibiotics run the risk of having a relatively short lifetime in the marketplace as bacteria become resistant to each successive product. Last, the most effective antibiotics are being held back from widespread use and being kept instead as weapons of last resort when other drugs have failed. Name two common antibiotics that work this way.

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What is their site of action and why don't they affect eukaryotic protein synthesis? They act by binding to prokaryotic ribosomes. Eukaryotic ribosomes are sufficiently different from those in prokaryotes to prevent binding of these substances.

Thus, eukaryotic protein synthesis is unaffected. The cell wall is thus fragile and the bacteria die. Penicillin and its derivatives are structural analogs of the natural substrates of these enzymes.

Why doesn't penicillin normally kill humans, unless a severe allergic reaction anaphylaxis develops? How does penicillin inhibit transpeptidase? Thus, penicillin cannot inhibit an enzyme that humans do not possess and it will not normally harm humans.

Since penicillin occupies the transpeptidase active site, it acts somewhat like a competitive inhibitor, but since it binds irreversibly, it is not truly competitive. You find, not surprisingly, that sulfa drugs inhibit the enzyme's activity. What happens to the Vmax and KM of this enzyme when it is treated with sulfa drugs?How do these bacteria escape the fatal effects of penicillin? Why would this approach not work with penicillin?

Why would this approach not work with penicillin? Main articles: Lipid , Glycerol , and Fatty acid Structures of some common lipids.

Different tactics have evolved in different animals, depending on the animals' needs. Why then is there a net production of only 2 ATPs for each glucose molecule in the pathway? Molecular Biology by Robert Weaver, is designed for an introductory course in molecular biology.

Molecular Biology 5th edition focuses on the fundamental concepts of molecular biology emphasizing experimentation.

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