ARCHITECTURE FORM SPACE AND ORDER 2ND EDITION PDF
ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, & Order Fourth Edition ARCHITECTURE Form, Space, ISBN (paperback); (ebk);. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (pbk.) 1. Architecture--Composition, proportion, etc. 2. Space (Architecture) I. Title. Architecture--form, space, & order / Francis D.K. Ching. -- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (pbk.) 1.
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The second edition continued to be a comprehensive primer on the ways form and space are interrelated and organized in the shaping of our environment, and was refined by editing the text and incorporating diagrams for greater clarity, adding selected examples of architectural works, expanding the sections on openings, stairways and scale, and finally, by including a glossary and an index to designers.
This third edition continues to illustrate the ways the fundamental elements and principals of architectural design manifest themselves over the course of human history but adds an electronic component to introduce the aspects of time and movement to the exposition of elements and principles.
The historical models in this book span time and cross cultural boundaries. While the juxtaposition of styles may appear to be abrupt at times, the diverse range of examples is deliberate. The collage is intended to persuade the reader to look for likenesses among seemingly unlike constructions and bring into sharper focus the critical distinctions that reflect the time and place of their making.
Readers are encouraged to take note of additional examples encountered or recalled within the context of their individual experiences.
As the design elements and principles become more familiar, new connections, relationships, and levels of meaning may be established. The illustrated examples are neither exhaustive nor necessarily the prototypes for the concepts and principles discussed. Their selection merely serves to illuminate and clarify the formal and spatial ideas being explored.
These seminal ideas transcend their historical context and encourage speculation: How might they be analyzed, perceived, and experienced? How might they be transformed into coherent, useful, and meaningful structures of space and enclosure?
How might they be reapplied to a range of architectural problems? This manner of presentation attempts to promote a more evocative understanding of the architecture one experiences, the architecture one encounters in literature, and the architecture one imagines while designing. Forrest Wilson, whose insights into the communication of design principles helped clarify the organization of the material, and whose support made its publication possible; James Tice, whose knowledge and understanding of architectural history and theory strengthened the development of this study; Norman Crowe, whose diligence and skill in the teaching of architecture encouraged me to pursue this work; Roger Sherwood, whose research into the organizational principles of form fostered the development of the chapter on ordering principles; Daniel Friedman, for his enthusiasm and careful editing of the final copy; Diane Turner and Philip Hamp, for their assistance in researching material for the illustrations; and to the editorial and production staff at Van Nostrand Reinhold, for their exceptional support and service during the making of the first edition.
For the second edition, my appreciation goes to the many students and their teachers who have used this book over the years and offered suggestions for its improvement as a reference and tool for study and teaching.
I want to especially thank the following educators for their careful critique of the first edition: Rudolph Barton, Laurence A. Clement, Jr.
Steinfeld, Cheryl Wagner, James M. Wehler, and Robert L. In preparing this third edition, I am thankful to Michele Chiuini, Ahmeen Farooq, and Dexter Hulse for their thoughtful reviews of the second edition. While I have attempted to incorporate much of their wise counsel, I remain solely responsible for any deficiencies remaining in the text.
To Debra, Emily, and Andrew, whose love of life it is ultimately the role of architecture to house. These conditions may be purely functional in nature, or they may also reflect in varying degrees the social, political, and economic climate.
In any case, it is assumed that the existing set of conditions—the problem—is less than satisfactory and that a new set of conditions—a solution—would be desirable.
The act of creating architecture, then, is a problem-solving or design process. The initial phase of any design process is the recognition of a problematic condition and the decision to find a solution to it. Design is above all a willful act, a purposeful endeavor. A designer must first document the existing conditions of a problem, define its context, and collect relevant data to be assimilated and analyzed.
This is the critical phase of the design process since the nature of a solution is inexorably related to how a problem is perceived, defined, and articulated. Piet Hein, the noted Danish poet and scientist, puts it this way: The shaping of the question is part of the answer.
This book focuses, therefore, on broadening and enriching a vocabulary of design through the study of its essential elements and principles and the exploration of a wide array of solutions to architectural problems developed over the course of human history. As an art, architecture is more than satisfying the purely functional requirements of a building program. Fundamentally, the physical manifestations of architecture accommodate human activity. However, the arrangement and ordering of forms and spaces also determine how architecture might promote endeavors, elicit responses, and communicate meaning.
So while this study focuses on formal and spatial ideas, it is not intended to diminish the importance of the social, political, or economic aspects of architecture. Form and space are presented not as ends in themselves but as means to solve a problem in response to conditions of function, purpose, and context—that is, architecturally. The analogy may be made that one must know and understand the alphabet before words can be formed and a vocabulary developed; one must understand the rules of grammar and syntax before sentences can be constructed; one must understand the principles of composition before essays, novels, and the like can be written.
Once these elements are understood, one can write poignantly or with force, call for peace or incite to riot, comment on trivia or speak with insight and meaning. In a similar way, it might be appropriate to be able to recognize the basic elements of form and space and understand how they can be manipulated and organized in the development of a design concept, before addressing the more vital issue of meaning in architecture.
All of these constituents can be perceived and experienced. Some Architectural order is created when the organization of parts makes visible may be readily apparent while others are more obscure to our intellect and their relationships to each other and the structure as a whole.
When these senses. Some may convey images and meaning while others serve as singular nature of the whole, then a conceptual order exists—an order that qualifiers or modifiers of these messages. Villa Savoye, Poissy, east of Paris, —31, Le Corbusier This graphic analysis illustrates the way architecture embodies the harmonious integration of interacting and interrelated parts into a complex and unified whole. Its inside order accommodates the multiple functions of a house, domestic scale, and partial mystery inherent in a sense of privacy.
Its outside order expresses the unity of the idea of house at an easy scale appropriate to the green field it dominated and possibly to the city it will one day be part of.
If the line shifts to form a plane, we obtain a two-dimensional element. In the movement from plane to spaces, the clash of planes gives rise to body three-dimensional. A summary of the kinetic energies which move the point into a line, the line into a plane, and the plane into a spatial dimension.
Each element is first considered as a conceptual element, then as a visual element in the vocabulary of architectural design.
While they do not actually exist, we nevertheless feel their presence. We can sense a point at the meeting of two lines, a line marking the contour of a plane, a plane enclosing a volume, and the volume of an object that occupies space. When made visible to the eye on paper or in three-dimensional space, these elements become form with characteristics of substance, shape, size, color, and texture.
As we experience these forms in our environment, we should be able to perceive in their structure the existence of the primary elements of point, line, plane, and volume. Point A point extended becomes a Line with properties of: As the prime element in the vocabulary of form, a point can serve to mark: At the center of its environment, a point is stable and at rest, organizing surrounding elements about itself and dominating its field.
When the point is moved off-center, however, its field becomes more aggressive and begins to compete for visual supremacy.
Visual tension is created between the point and its field. To visibly mark a position in space or on the ground plane, a point must be projected vertically into a linear form, as a column, obelisk, or tower.
Any such columnar element is seen in plan as a point and therefore retains the visual characteristics of a point. Other point-generated forms that share these same visual attributes are the: Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, c. The equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius marks the center of this urban space. Michel, France, 13th century and later. The pyramidal composition culminates in a spire that serves to establish this fortified monastery as a specific place in the landscape. Although the points give this line finite length, the line can also be considered a segment of an infinitely longer path.
Two points further suggest an axis perpendicular to the line they describe and about which they are symmetrical. Because this axis may be infinite in length, it can be at times more dominant than the described line.
In both cases, however, the described line and the perpendicular axis are optically more dominant than the infinite number of lines that may pass through each of the individual points. Extended vertically, the two points define both a plane of entry and an approach perpendicular to it.
The Mall, Washington, D. Conceptually, a line has length, but no width or depth. Whereas a point is by nature static, a line, in describing the path of a point in motion, is capable of visually expressing direction, movement, and growth. A line is a critical element in the formation of any visual construction. It can serve to: It is seen as a line simply because its length dominates its width.
The character of a line, whether taut or limp, bold or tentative, graceful or ragged, is determined by our perception of its length—width ratio, its contour, and its degree of continuity. Even the simple repetition of like or similar elements, if continuous enough, can be regarded as a line. This type of line has significant textural qualities. The orientation of a line affects its role in a visual construction.
While a vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity, symbolize the human condition, or mark a position in space, a horizontal line can represent stability, the ground plane, the horizon, or a body at rest. An oblique line is a deviation from the vertical or horizontal. It may be seen as a vertical line falling or a horizontal line rising. In either case, whether it is falling toward a point on the ground plane or rising to a place in the sky, it is dynamic and visually active in its unbalanced state.
Place de la Concorde, Paris. The obelisk, which upright megalith, usually standing alone This cylindrical shaft commemorates marked the entrance to the Amon temple at Luxor, but sometimes aligned with others. Louis Phillipe and installed in Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of space.
In the example illustrated to the left, four minaret towers outline a spatial field from which the dome of the Selim Mosque rises in splendor. Selim Mosque, Edirne, Turkey, A. In these three examples, linear elements: Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland, —30, Robert Maillart. The sculptured female figures stand as columnar supports for the Beams and girders have the bending strength to span the space entablature.
Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan, 17th century. Linear columns and beams together form a three-dimensional framework for architectural space. An example is the axis, a regulating line established by two distant points in space and about which elements are symmetrically arranged. Villa Aldobrandini, Italy, —, Giacomo Della Porta House 10, , John Hejduk Although architectural space exists in three dimensions, it can be linear in form to accommodate the path of movement through a building and link its spaces to one another.
Buildings also can be linear in form, particularly when they consist of repetitive spaces organized along a circulation path. As illustrated here, linear building forms have the ability to enclose exterior spaces as well as adapt to the environmental conditions of a site.
These lines can be expressed by joints within or between building materials, by frames around window or door openings, or by a structural grid of columns and beams. How these linear elements affect the texture of a surface will depend on their visual weight, spacing, and direction. A transparent spatial membrane can be stretched between them to acknowledge their visual relationship. The closer these lines are to each other, the stronger will be the sense of plane they convey.
A series of parallel lines, through their repetitiveness, reinforces our perception of the plane they describe. Considering their flexibility, clustered organizations of forms may be organized in the following ways: A clustered organization can also consist of forms that are generally equivalent in size, shape, and function.
These forms are visually ordered into a coherent, nonhierarchical organization not only by their close proximity to one another, but also by the similarity of their visual properties. Numerous examples of clustered housing forms can be found in the vernacular architecture of various cultures.
Even though each culture produced a unique style in response to differing technical, climatic, and sociocultural factors, these clustered housing organizations usually maintained the individuality of each unit and a moderate degree of diversity within the context of an ordered whole.
Habitat Israel, Project, Jerusalem, , Moshe Safdie Vernacular examples of clustered forms can be readily transformed into modular, geometrically ordered compositions which are related to grid organizations of form. It generates a geometric pattern of regularly spaced points at the intersections of the grid lines and regularly shaped fields defined by the grid lines themselves.
The most common grid is based on the geometry of the square. Because of the equality of its dimensions and its bilateral sym- metry, a square grid is essentially nonhierarchical and bidirec- tional. It can be used to break down the scale of a surface into measurable units and give it an even texture. It can be used to wrap several surfaces of a form and unify them with its repeti- tive and pervasive geometry.
The square grid, when projected into the third dimension, generates a spatial network of reference points and lines. Within this modular framework, any number of forms and spaces can be visually organized. In these situations, the following forms can evolve: The centrality of a circular form enables it to act as a hub and unify forms of contrasting geometry or orientation about itself. The interior space of this mosque is oriented exactly with the cardinal points so that the quibla wall faces in the direction of the holy city of Mecca, while its exterior conforms to the existing layout of the fort.
Its surfaces appear as discrete planes with adjoining surfaces to de-emphasize the individuality of the surface planes and distinct shapes and their overall configuration is legible and easily emphasize instead the volume of a form. In a similar manner, an articulated group of forms accentuates the joints between the constituent parts in order to visually express their individuality.
A form can be articulated by: While a corner can be articulated by simply contrasting the surface qualities of the adjoining planes, or obscured by layering their joining with an optical pattern, our perception of its existence is also affected by the laws of perspective and the quality of light that illuminates the form.
For a corner to be formally active, there must be more than a slight deviation in the angle between the adjoining planes. Since we constantly search for regularity and continuity within our field of vision, we tend to regularize or smooth out slight irregularities in the forms we see.
For example, a wall plane that is bent only slightly will appear to be a single flat plane, perhaps with a surface imperfection.
A corner would not be perceived. At what point do these formal deviations become an acute angle? If the two planes simply touch and the corner remains unadorned, the presence of the corner will depend on the visual treatment of the adjoining surfaces.
This corner condition emphasizes the volume of a form. A corner condition can be visually reinforced by introducing a separate and distinct element that is independent of the surfaces it joins. This element articulates the corner as a linear condition, defines the edges of the adjoining planes, and becomes a positive feature of the form.
If an opening is introduced to one side of the corner, one of the planes will appear to bypass the other. The opening diminishes the corner condition, weakens the definition of the volume within the form, and emphasizes the planar qualities of the neighboring surfaces.
If neither plane is extended to define the corner, a volume of space is created to replace the corner. This corner condition deteriorates the volume of the form, allows the interior space to leak outward, and clearly reveals the surfaces as planes in space. The scale of the radius of curvature is important. If too small, it becomes visually insignificant; if too large, it affects the interior space it encloses and the exterior form it describes.
The unadorned corners of the forms emphasize the volume of their mass. The timber joinery articulates the individuality of the members meeting at the corner. The corner column emphasizes the edge of the building form. Linear patterns have the ability to emphasize the height or length of a form, unify its surfaces, and define its textural quality. A grid pattern unifies the surfaces of the three-dimensional composition.
We turn clay to make a vessel; but it is on the space where there is nothing that the utility of the vessel depends. We pierce doors and windows to make a house; and it is on these spaces where there is nothing that the utility of the house depends.
Therefore, just as we take advantage of what is, we should recognize the utility of what is not. Through the volume of space, we move, see forms, hear sounds, feel breezes, smell the fragrances of a flower garden in bloom. It is a material substance like wood or stone. Yet it is an inherently formless vapor. Its visual form, its dimensions and scale, the quality of its light—all of these qualities depend on our perception of the spatial boundaries defined by elements of form. As space begins to be captured, enclosed, molded, and organized by the elements of mass, architecture comes into being.
To better comprehend the structure of a visual field, we tend to organize its elements into two opposing groups: Our perception and understanding of a composition depends on how we interpret the visual interaction between the positive and negative elements within its field. On this page, for example, letters are seen as dark figures against the white background of the paper surface. Consequently, we are able to perceive their organization into words, sentences, and paragraphs.
As it grows in size relative to its field, however, other elements within and around it begin to compete for our attention as figures. At times, the relationship between figures and their background is so ambiguous that we visually switch their identities Two Faces or a Vase? White-on-Black or Black-on-White? In all cases, however, we should understand that figures, the positive elements that attract our attention, could not exist without a contrasting background. Figures and their background, therefore, are more than opposing elements.
Together, they form an inseparable reality—a unity of opposites—just as the elements of form and space together form the reality of architecture. Shah Jahan built this white marble mausoleum for his favorite wife, Muntaz Mahal. Line defining the boundary B. The form of solid mass C. The form of the spatial void between solid mass and rendered as a figure rendered as a figure spatial void Architectural form occurs at the juncture between mass and space.
In executing and reading design drawings, we should be concerned with both the form of the mass containing a volume of space as well as the form of the spatial volume itself. Fragment of a Map of Rome, drawn by Giambattista Nolli in Depending on what we perceive to be positive elements, the figure-ground relationship of the forms of mass and space can be inverted in different parts of this map of Rome.
In portions of the map, buildings appear to be positive forms that define street spaces. In other parts of the drawing, urban squares, courtyards, and major spaces within important public buildings read as positive elements seen against the background of the surrounding building mass.
At each level, we should be concerned not only with the form of a building but also its impact on the space around it. At an urban scale, we should carefully consider whether the role of a building is to continue the existing fabric of a place, form a backdrop for other buildings, or define a positive urban space, or whether it A might be appropriate for it to stand free as a significant object in space.
At the scale of a building site, there are various strategies for relating the form of a building to the space around it. A building can: D Building as an object in space Buildings defining space Monastery of St.
Meletios on Mt. Kithairon, Greece, 9th century A. H Buildings Defining Space: Building as an Object in Space: The white space in between, however, should not be seen simply as background for the walls, but also as figures in the drawing that have shape and form. Even at the scale of a room, articles of furnishings can either stand as forms within a field of space or serve to define the form of a spatial field. Some spaces, such as offices, have specific but similar functions and can determined by, the form of the spaces around it.
Alvar Aalto, for example, we can distinguish several categories of spatial forms B. Some spaces, such as concert halls, have specific functional and technical and analyze how they interact. Each category has an active or passive role in requirements, and require specific forms that will affect the forms of the defining space. Some spaces, such as lobbies, are flexible in nature and can therefore be freely defined by the spaces or grouping of spaces around them.
In a similar manner, any three-dimensional form naturally articulates the volume of space surrounding it and generates a field of influence or territory which it claims as its own. The following section of this chapter looks at horizontal and vertical elements of form and presents examples of how various configurations of these formal elements generate and define specific types of space.
This field can be visually reinforced in the following ways. Elevated Base Plane A horizontal plane elevated above the ground plane establishes vertical surfaces along its edges that reinforce the visual separation between its field and the surrounding ground. Depressed Base Plane A horizontal plane depressed into the ground plane utilizes the vertical surfaces of the lowered area to define a volume of space. Overhead Plane A horizontal plane located overhead defines a volume of space between itself and the ground plane.
The stronger the edge definition of a horizontal plane is, the more distinct will be its field. Although there is a continuous flow of space across it, the field nevertheless generates a spatial zone or realm within its boundaries.
The surface articulation of the ground or floor plane is often used in architecture to define a zone of space within a larger context. The examples on the facing page illustrate how this type of spatial definition can be used to differentiate between a path of movement and places of rest, establish a field from which the form of a building rises out of the ground, or articulate a functional zone within a one-room living environment. The changes in level that occur along the edges of the elevated plane define the boundaries of its field and interrupt the flow of space across its surface.
If the surface characteristics of the base plane continues up and across the elevated plane, then the field of the elevated plane will appear to be very much a part of the surrounding space. If, however, the edge condition is articulated by a change in form, color, or texture, then the field will become a plateau that is separate and distinct from its surroundings. The edge of the field is well-defined; 1 visual and spatial continuity is maintained; physical access is easily accommodated.
Visual continuity is maintained; 2 spatial continuity is interrupted; physical access requires the use of stairs or ramps. Visual and spatial continuity is 3 interrupted; the field of the elevated plane is isolated from the ground or floor plane; the elevated plane is transformed into a sheltering element for the space below.
The elevated ground plane can be a preexisting site condition, or it can be artificially constructed to deliberately raise a building above the surrounding context or enhance its image in the landscape. The examples on this and the preceding page illustrate how these techniques have been used to venerate sacred and honorific buildings. Combined with a roof plane, it develops into the semiprivate realm of a porch or veranda.
The Farnsworth House was constructed to rise above the flood plain of the Fox River. This elevated floor plane, together with an overhead roof plane, defines a volume of space that hovers delicately above the surface of its site. This raised space can serve as a retreat from the activity around it or be a platform for viewing the surrounding space. Within a religious structure, it can demarcate a sacred, holy, or consecrated place. The vertical surfaces of the depression establish the boundaries of the field.
These boundaries are not implied as in the case of an elevated plane, but visible edges that begin to form the walls of the space. The field of space can be further articulated by contrasting the surface treatment of the lowered area and that of the surrounding base plane. A contrast in form, geometry, or orientation can also visually reinforce the identity and independence of the sunken field from its larger spatial context.
Creating a stepped, terraced, or ramped transition from one level to the next helps promote continuity between a sunken space and the area that rises around it. Rock-cut churches of Lalibela, 13th century Whereas the act of stepping up to an elevated space might express the extroverted nature or significance of the space, the lowering of a space below its surroundings might allude to its introverted nature or to its sheltering and protective qualities.
The natural change in level benefits both the sightlines and the acoustical quality of these spaces. Underground village near Loyang, China The ground plane can be lowered to define sheltered outdoor spaces for underground buildings. A sunken courtyard, while protected from surface-level wind and noise by the mass surrounding it, remains a source of air, light, and views for the underground spaces opening onto it.
He then uses the vertical bounding surfaces of the reading area for additional book storage. A sunken area can also serve as a transitional space between two floors of a building. Since the edges of the overhead plane establish the boundaries of this field, its shape, size, and height above the ground plane determines the formal qualities of the space.
While the previous manipulations of the ground or floor plane defined fields of space whose upper limits were established by their context, an overhead plane has the ability to define a discrete volume of space virtually by itself. If vertical linear elements such as columns or posts are used to support the overhead plane, they will aid in visually establishing the limits of the defined space without disrupting the flow of space through the field.
Similarly, if the edges of the overhead plane are turned downward, or if the base plane beneath it is articulated by a change in level, the boundaries of the defined volume of space will be visually reinforced.
It not only Steel Joist shelters the interior spaces of a building from sun, rain, and snow, but also has a major impact on the overall form of a building and the shaping of its spaces. The form of the roof plane, in turn, is determined by the material, geometry, and proportions of its structural system and the manner in which it transfers its loads across space to its supports. Since it need not resist any weathering forces nor carry any major loads, the ceiling plane can also be detached from the floor or roof plane and become a visually active element in a space.
Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, , Henri Maclaine Pont As in the case of the base plane, the ceiling plane can be manipulated to define and articulate zones of space within a room.
It can be lowered or elevated to alter the scale of a space, define a path of movement through it, or allow natural light to enter it from above. The form, color, texture, and pattern of the ceiling plane can be manipulated as well to improve the quality of light or sound within a space or give it a directional quality or orientation. The following section discusses the critical role vertical elements of form play in firmly establishing the visual limits of a spatial field.
Vertical forms have a greater presence in our visual field than horizontal planes and are therefore more instrumental in defining a discrete volume of space and providing a sense of enclosure and privacy for those within it.
In addition, they serve to separate one space from another and establish a common boundary between the interior and exterior environments. Vertical elements of form also play important roles in the construction of architectural forms and spaces. They serve as structural supports for floor and roof planes. They provide shelter and protection from the climatic elements and aid in controlling the flow of air, heat, and sound into and through the interior spaces of a building. Single Vertical Plane A single vertical plane articulates the space on which it fronts.
L-shaped Plane An L-shaped configuration of vertical planes generates a field of space from its corner outward along a diagonal axis. Parallel Planes Two parallel vertical planes define a volume of space between them that is oriented axially toward both open ends of the configuration. U-shaped Plane A U-shaped configuration of vertical planes defines a volume of space that is oriented primarily toward the open end of the configuration.
Four Planes: Closure Four vertical planes establish the boundaries of an introverted space and influence the field of space around the enclosure.
Standing upright and alone, a slender linear element is nondirectional except for the path that would lead us to its position in space. Any number of horizontal axes can be made to pass through it. When located within a defined volume of space, a column will generate a spatial field about itself and interact with the spatial enclosure. A column attached to a wall buttresses the plane and articulates its surface. At the corner of a space, a column punctuates the meeting of two wall planes.
Standing free within a space, a column defines zones of space within the enclosure. When centered in a space, a column will assert itself as the center of the field and define equivalent zones of space between itself and the surrounding wall planes. When offset, the column will define hierarchical zones of space differentiated by size, form, and location. Linear elements serve this purpose in marking the limits of spaces that require visual and spatial continuity with their surroundings.
Two columns establish a transparent spatial membrane by the visual tension between their shafts. Three or more columns can be arranged to define the corners of a volume of space. This space does not require a larger spatial context for its definition, but relates freely to it. The edges of the volume of space can be visually reinforced by articulating its base plane and establishing its upper limits with beams spanning between the columns or with an overhead plane.
A repetitive series of column elements along its perimeter would further strengthen the definition of the volume. In the example above, the tokobashira, often a tree trunk in natural form, is a symbolic element that marks one edge of the tokonoma in a Japanese tearoom.
Piazza of St. Four columns can establish the corners of a discrete volume of space During the Renaissance, Andrea Palladio incorporated the tetrastyle theme in within a larger room or setting. Supporting a canopy, the columns form the vestibules and halls of a number of villas and palazzi. The four columns not an aedicule, a diminutive pavilion that serves as a shrine or the symbolic only supported the vaulted ceiling and the floor above but also adjusted the center of a space.
Traditional Roman houses typically were organized about an atrium open In the Sea Ranch condominium units, four posts along with a sunken floor and to the sky and surrounded by a roof structure supported at the corners by an overhead plane define an intimate aedicular space within a larger room. Vitruvius termed this a tetrastyle atrium. Condominium Unit No. Michel, France, — A regularly spaced series of columns or similar vertical elements form a colonnade.
This archetypal element in the vocabulary of architectural design effectively defines an edge of a spatial volume while permitting visual and spatial continuity to exist between the space and its surroundings. A row of columns can also engage a wall and become a pilastrade that supports the wall, articulates its surface, and tempers the scale, rhythm, and proportioning of its bays.
A grid of columns within a large room or hall not only serves to support the floor or roof plane above. The orderly rows of columns also punctuate the spatial volume, mark off modular zones within the spatial field, and establish a measurable rhythm and scale that make the spatial dimensions comprehensible.
This type of construction, in particular the use of concrete columns to support floor and roof slabs, afforded new possibilities for the definition and enclosure of spaces within a building.
Interior spaces could be defined with non-load-bearing partitions, and their layout could respond freely to programmatic requirements. Sketches for The Five Points of the New Architecture, , Le Corbusier On the facing page, two contrasting examples of the use of a column grid are illustrated: A column grid establishes a fixed, neutral field of space in which interior spaces are freely formed and distributed.
A grid of columns or posts corresponds closely to the layout of the interior spaces; there is a close fit between structure and space. A round column has no preferred direction except for its vertical axis. A square column has two equivalent sets of faces and therefore two identical axes.
A rectangular column also has two axes, but they differ in their effect. As the rectangular column becomes more like a wall, it can appear to be merely a fragment of an infinitely larger or longer plane, slicing through and dividing a volume of space. A vertical plane has frontal qualities. Its two surfaces or faces front on and establish the edges of two separate and distinct spatial fields. These two faces of a plane can be equivalent and front similar spaces. Or they can be differentiated in form, color, or texture, in order to respond to or articulate different spatial conditions.
A vertical plane can therefore have either two fronts or a front and a back. The field of space on which a single vertical plane fronts is not well-defined. The plane by itself can establish only a single edge of the field. To define a three- dimensional volume of space, the plane must interact with other elements of form. When 2-feet high, a plane defines the edge of a spatial field but provides little or no sense of enclosure.
When waist-high, it begins to provide a sense of enclosure while allowing for visual continuity with the adjoining space. When it approaches our eye level in height, it begins to separate one space from another. Above our height, a plane interrupts the visual and spatial continuity between two fields and provides a strong sense of enclosure.
The surface color, texture, and pattern of a plane affect our perception of its visual weight, scale, and proportion. When related to a defined volume of space, a vertical plane can be the primary face of the space and give it a specific orientation. It can front the space and define a plane of entry into it. It can be a freestanding element within a space and divide the volume into two separate but related areas.
Architecture - Form, Space and Order 3rd ed..pdf
Agostino, Rome, —, Giacomo da Pietrasanta larger volume. The partitions never form closed, geometrically static areas. While this field is strongly defined and enclosed at the corner of the configuration, it dissipates rapidly as it moves away from the corner.
The introverted field at the interior corner becomes extroverted along its outer edges. While two edges of the field are clearly defined by the two planes of the configuration, its other edges remain ambiguous unless further articulated by additional vertical elements, manipulations of the base plane, or an overhead plane.
If a void is introduced to one side of the corner of the configuration, the definition of the field will be weakened. The two planes will be isolated from each other and one will appear to slide by and visually dominate the other.
If neither plane extends to the corner, the field will become more dynamic and organize itself along the diagonal of the configuration. One of the arms of the configuration can be a linear form that incorporates the corner within its boundaries while the other arm is seen as an appendage to it.
Or the corner can be articulated as an independent element that joins two linear forms together. A building can have an L-shaped configuration to establish a corner of its site, enclose a field of outdoor space to which its interior spaces relate, or shelter a portion of outdoor space from undesirable conditions around it. L-shaped configurations of planes are stable and self- supporting and can stand alone in space.
Because they are open-ended, they are flexible space-defining elements. They can be used in combination with one another or with other elements of form to define a rich variety of spaces. Typically, sheltered by the building form and to which interior spaces can be directly one wing contains the communal living spaces while the other contains related.
In the Kingo Housing estate, a fairly high density is achieved with this private, individual spaces. The service and utility spaces usually occupy a type of unit, each with its own private outdoor space.
The outdoor space enclosed by the architect's studio in Helsinki is used as an amphitheater for lectures and social occasions.
It is not a passive space whose form is determined by the building that encloses it. Rather, it asserts its positive form on the shape of its enclosure. The History Faculty Building at Cambridge uses a seven-story, L-shaped block to functionally and symbolically enclose a large, roof-lit library, which is the most important space in the building. The open ends of the field, established by the vertical edges of the planes, give the space a strong directional quality.
Its primary orientation is along the axis about which the planes are symmetrical. Since the parallel planes do not meet to form corners and fully enclose the field, the space is extroverted in nature. The definition of the spatial field along the open ends of the configuration can be visually reinforced by manipulating the base plane or adding overhead elements to the composition.
The spatial field can be expanded by extending the base plane beyond the open ends of the configuration. This expanded field can, in turn, be terminated by a vertical plane whose width and height is equal to that of the field.
If one of the parallel planes is differentiated from the other by a change in form, color, or texture, a secondary axis, perpendicular to the flow of the space, will be established within the field. Openings in one or both of the planes can also introduce secondary axes to the field and modulate the directional quality of the space. Sets of parallel vertical planes can be transformed into a wide variety of configurations. Their spatial fields can be related to one another either through the open ends of their configurations or through openings in the planes themselves.
Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, Italy, — Champ de Mars, Paris The directional quality and flow of the space defined by parallel planes are naturally manifested in spaces used for circulation and movement, such as the streets and boulevards of towns and cities. These linear spaces can be defined by the facades of the buildings fronting them, as well as by the more permeable planes established by colonnades, arcades, or rows of trees.
The parallel planes that define a circulation space can be solid and opaque to provide privacy for the spaces along the circulation path. The planes can also be established by a row of columns so that the circulation path, open on one or both of its sides, becomes part of the spaces through which it passes.
Their repetitive pattern can be modified by varying their length or by introducing voids within the planes to accommodate the dimensional requirements of larger spaces.
These voids can also define circulation paths and establish visual relationships perpendicular to the wall planes. The slots of space defined by parallel wall planes can also be modulated by altering the spacing and configuration of the planes.
They not only provide structural support for the floors and roofs of each housing unit, but also serve to isolate the units from one another, curb the passage of sound, and check Entry level the spread of fire.
The pattern of parallel bearing walls is particularly appropriate for rowhousing and townhouse schemes where each unit is provided with two orientations. At the closed end of the configuration, the field is well defined.
Toward the open end of the configuration, the field becomes extroverted in nature. The open end is the primary aspect of the configuration by virtue of its uniqueness relative to the other three planes. It allows the field to have visual and spatial continuity with the adjoining space. The extension of the spatial field into the adjoining space can be visually reinforced by continuing the base plane beyond the open end of the configuration. If the plane of the opening is further defined with columns or overhead elements, the definition of the original field will be reinforced and continuity with the adjoining space will be interrupted.
If the configuration of planes is rectangular and oblong in form, the open end can be along its narrow or wide side. In either case, the open end will remain the primary face of the spatial field, and the plane opposite the open end will be the principal element among the three planes of the configuration. If the field is entered through the open end of the configuration, the rear plane, or a form placed in front of it, will terminate our view of the space.
If the field is entered through an opening in one of the planes, the view of what lies beyond the open end will draw our attention and terminate the sequence. If the end of a long, narrow field is open, the space will encourage movement and induce a progression or sequence of events. If the field is square, or nearly square, the space will be static and have the character of a place to be in, rather than a space to move through. If the side of a long, narrow field is open, the space will be susceptible to a subdivision into a number of zones.
U-shaped configurations of building forms and organizations have the inherent ability to capture and define outdoor space. Their composition can be seen to consist essentially of linear forms. The corners of the configuration can be articulated as independent elements or can be incorporated into the body of the linear forms. They can also focus on an important or significant element within their fields.
When an element is placed along the open end of its field, it gives the field a point of focus as well as a Sacred Precinct of Athena,Pergamon, Asia Minor, 4th century B. A U-shaped building form can also serve as a container and can organize within its field a cluster of forms and spaces. The cells form an enclave for a village of community rooms.
Athens early Anatolian or Aegean house U-shaped enclosures of interior space have a specific orientation toward The Hotel for Students at Otaniemi, Finland, by Alvar Aalto, demonstrates the their open ends. These U-shaped enclosures can group themselves around use of U-shaped enclosures to define the basic unit of space in double-loaded a central space to form an introverted organization. These units are extroverted. They turn their back on the corridor and orient themselves to the exterior environment.
CL O SURE Four vertical planes encompassing a field of space is probably the most typical, and certainly the strongest, type of spatial definition in architecture. Since the field is completely enclosed, its space is naturally introverted. To achieve visual dominance within a space or become its primary face, one of the enclosing planes can be differentiated from the others by its size, form, surface articulation, or by the nature of the openings within it.
Well-defined, enclosed fields of space can be found in architecture at various scales, from a large urban square, to a courtyard or atrium space, to a single hall or room within a building complex.
The examples on this and the following pages illustrate enclosed spatial fields in both urban and building-scale situations. Historically, four planes have often been used to define a visual and spatial field for a sacred or significant building that stands as an object within the enclosure. The enclosing planes may be ramparts, walls, or fences that isolate the field and exclude surrounding elements from the precinct.
The enclosure may consist of arcades or gallery spaces that promote the inclusion of surrounding buildings into their domain and activate the space they define. Plan of the Agora at Priene and its surroundings, 4th century B. Forum at Pompeii, 2nd century B.
The examples on these two pages illustrate the use of enclosed volumes of space as ordering elements about which the spaces of a building can be clustered and organized. These organizing spaces can generally be characterized by their centrality, their clarity of definition, their regularity of form, and their dominating size. They are manifested here in the atrium spaces of houses, the arcaded cortile of an Italian palazzo, the enclosure of a Greek House No.
In contrast, other buildings can be seen to be dominated by the form of their exterior, enclosing wall planes. Exterior walls determine to a great extent the visual character of a building, whether they have the weight and opacity of load-bearing walls, the lightness and transparency of nonbearing curtain walls supported by a structural framework of columns and beams, or a combination of both.
The transition from bearing-wall constructions to frame structures have given rise to new forms that go beyond the timeless elements of basic statics—the columns, beams, and load-bearing walls of stable constructions that are fixed in time and space. The rational forms of rectilinear geometry and the rule of the vertical have been revised, both statically and optically, by the development of irregular structures that rely on tension and friction rather than pressure.
We can see these new forms as they mimic topography, orient themselves toward views, embrace sunlight, and turn away from cold winds and stormy weather.
E N C L OS URE The evolution of materials and technology for separating the skin of a building from its structure has also played a major role in the development of building forms. Structural glass facades integrate structure and cladding to provide maximum transparency in buildings.
Many of the structural systems use trusses or trussed supports, which may slope inward or outward, or follow a curved geometry in plan or section. Some use glass fines set perpendicular to the glass facade to provide lateral support.
Gridshells are form-active structures that derive their strength from their double-curved surface geometry. The system uses a network of in-plane prestressed cables to provide stability and shear resistance to the thin shell grid. Vaulted, domed, and other double- curved configurations can be used in vertical and overhead applications as well as to form complete building enclosures. The diagonal members are capable of carrying both gravity and lateral loads through triangulation, which results in a relatively uniform load distribution.
This exoskeletal framework allows for the possible reduction in the number of internal supports, saving on space and building materials and providing for greater flexibility in interior layouts. Also, because each diagonal can be viewed as providing a continuous load path to the ground, the number of possible load paths in case of a localized structural failure results in a high degree of redundancy.
This project uses a structural diagrid system positioned on the outside of and very close to the glass facade to create a visually unique exterior. Similar to the growth pattern of trees, the diagrid members get thinner and more numerous with a higher ratio of openings as you move up higher in the building. E N C L OS URE The various forms of diagram structures have been made possible through digital technologies that help us to conceive of and make visible complex three-dimensional constructions and compositions.
Many of these creations would be difficult, if not impossible, to do by hand. This is especially true of the calculations necessary to determine the structural requirements for the individual members of a diagrid system. Perimeter hoops resist the horizontal forces at each node level where the diagonal columns intersect.
As with dome structures, the hoops in the upper region are in compression while those at the middle and lower levels are subject to significant tensile forces. The hoops also serve to transform the diagrid into a very stiff triangulated shell, freeing the interior core from the need to resist lateral wind forces. The shape of the tower was partially influenced by the need to have a smooth flow of wind around the building and minimize its impact on the local wind environment.
Across this curved surface the diagrid structure is formed by generating a pattern of intersecting diagonals spiraling in two directions. Doors offer entry into a room and influence the patterns of movement and use within it. Windows allow light to penetrate the space and illuminate the surfaces of a room, offer views from the room to the exterior, establish visual relationships between the room and adjacent spaces, and provide for the natural ventilation of the space.
While these openings provide continuity with adjacent spaces, they can, depending on their size, number, and location, also begin to weaken the enclosure of the space. Along one edge Along two edges Turning a corner Grouped Skylight At Corners An opening can be located along one edge or at a corner of a wall or ceiling plane.
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In either case, the opening will be at a corner of a space. Vertical Horizontal Three-quarter opening Window-wall Skylight Between Planes An opening can extend vertically between the floor and ceiling planes or horizontally between two wall planes. It can grow in size to occupy an entire wall of a space. If centered within the plane, the opening will appear stable and visually organize the surface around it. Moving the opening off-center will create a degree of visual tension between the opening and the edges of the plane toward which it is moved.
The shape of the opening, if similar to the shape of the plane in which it is located, will create a redundant compositional pattern. The shape or orientation of the opening may contrast with the enclosing plane to emphasize its individuality as a figure. The singularity of the opening may be visually reinforced with a heavy frame or articulated trimwork. Multiple openings may be clustered to form a unified composition within a plane, or be staggered or dispersed to create visual movement along the surface of the plane.
As an opening within a plane increases in size, it will at some point cease to be a figure within an enclosing field and become instead a positive element in itself, a transparent plane bounded by a heavy frame. Openings within planes naturally appear brighter than their adjacent surfaces. If the contrast in brightness along the edges of the openings becomes excessive, the surfaces can be illuminated by a second light source from within the space, or a deep-set opening can be formed to create illuminated surfaces between the opening and the surrounding plane.
This directional effect may be desirable for compositional reasons, or the corner opening may be established to capture a desirable view or brighten a dark corner of a space. A corner opening visually erodes the edges of the plane in which it is located and articulates the edge of the plane adjacent and perpendicular to it. The larger the opening, the weaker will be the definition of the corner.
9780471286165 - Architecture Form, Space, and Order by Francis D.K. Ching
If the opening were to turn the corner, the angle of the space would be implied rather than real and the spatial field would extend beyond its enclosing planes.
If openings are introduced between the enclosing planes at all four corners of a space, the individual identity of the planes will be reinforced and diagonal or pinwheel patterns of space, use, and movement will be encouraged. The light that enters a space through a corner opening washes the surface of the plane adjacent and perpendicular to the opening. This illuminated surface itself becomes a source of light and enhances the brightness of the space.
The level of illumination can be enhanced further by turning the corner with the opening or adding a skylight above the opening. If located at a corner, the vertical opening will erode the definition of the space and allow it to extend beyond the corner to the adjacent space. It will also allow incoming light to wash the surface of the wall plane perpendicular to it and articulate the primacy of that plane in the space. If allowed to turn the corner, the vertical opening will further erode the definition of the space, allow it to interlock with adjacent spaces, and emphasize the individuality of the enclosing planes.
A horizontal opening that extends across a wall plane will separate it into a number of horizontal layers. If the opening is not very deep, it will not erode the integrity of the wall plane. If, however, its depth increases to the point where it is greater than the bands above and below it, then the opening will become a positive element bounded at its top and bottom by heavy frames. Turning a corner with a horizontal opening reinforces the horizontal layering of a space and broadens the panoramic view from within the space.
If the opening continues around the space, it will visually lift the ceiling plane from the wall planes, isolate it, and give it a feeling of lightness.
Locating a linear skylight along the edge where a wall and ceiling plane meet allows incoming light to wash the surface of the wall, illuminate it, and enhance the brightness of the space.
The form of the skylight can be manipulated to capture direct sunlight, indirect daylight, or a combination of both. If they are oriented to capture direct sunlight, sun- shading devices may be necessary to reduce glare and excessive heat gain within the space. While a window-wall weakens the vertical boundaries of a space, it creates the potential for visually expanding the space beyond its physical boundaries. Living Room, Villa Mairea, Noormarkku, Finland, —, Alvar Aalto Combining a window-wall with a large skylight overhead creates a sun room or greenhouse space.
The boundaries between inside and outside, defined by the linear members of a frame, become obscure and tenuous. The qualities of an architectural space, however, are much richer than what the diagrams are able to portray. The spatial qualities of form, proportion, scale, texture, light, and sound ultimately depend on the properties of the enclosure of a space. Our perception of these qualities is often a response to the combined effects of the properties encountered and is conditioned by culture, prior experiences, and personal interest or inclination.
Chapter 6 presents the issues of dimensions, proportion, and scale. While the first part of this chapter outlines how basic configurations of linear and planar elements define volumes of space, this concluding section describes how the size, shape, and location of openings or voids within the enclosing forms of a space influence the following qualities of a room: From within a space, we see only the surface of a wall. It is this thin layer of material that forms the vertical boundary of the space.
The actual thickness of a wall plane can be revealed only along the edges of door and window openings.
Openings lying wholly within the enclosing planes of a space do not weaken the edge definition nor the sense of closure of the space. The form of the space remains intact and perceptible. Openings located along the edges of the enclosing planes of a space visually weaken the corner boundaries of the volume.
While these openings erode the overall form of a space, they also promote its visual continuity and interaction with adjacent spaces. Openings between the enclosing planes of a space visually isolate the planes and articulate their individuality. As these openings increase in number and size, the space loses its sense of enclosure, becomes more diffuse, and begins to merge with adjacent spaces.
The visual emphasis is on the enclosing planes rather than the volume of space defined by the planes. As the luminous energy of the sun is dispersed by clouds, haze, and precipitation, it transmits the changing colors of the sky and the weather to the forms and surfaces it illuminates.
With the 12 Noon 2 PM shifting patterns of light, shade, and shadows that it creates, 4 PM the sun animates the space of the room, and articulates the 10 AM W forms within it. By its intensity and dispersion within the Sunset 6 PM room, the luminous energy of the sun can clarify the form of S the space or distort it. The color and brilliance of sunlight can create a festive atmosphere within the room or a more diffuse 8 AM N daylight can instill within it a somber mood.
The size of an opening in a wall or roof plane, however, is also regulated by factors other than light, such as the materials and construction of the wall or roof plane; code requirements for ventilation; the desire for views and visual privacy; the appropriate degree of enclosure for the space; and the effect of openings on the exterior form of a building. The location and orientation of a window or skylight, therefore, can be more important than its size in determining the quality of daylight a room receives.
An opening can be oriented to receive direct sunlight during certain portions of the day. Direct sunlight provides a high degree of illumination that is especially intense during midday hours. It creates sharp patterns of light and dark on the surfaces of a room and crisply articulates the forms within the space. Possible detrimental effects of direct sunlight, such as glare and excessive heat gain, can be controlled by shading devices built into the form of the opening or provided by the foliage of nearby trees or adjacent structures.
An opening can also be oriented away from direct sunlight and receive instead the diffuse, ambient light from the sky vault overhead. The sky vault is a beneficial source of daylight since it remains fairly constant, even on cloudy days, and can help to soften the harshness of direct sunlight and balance the light level within a space. When located entirely within a wall plane, an opening can appear as a bright spot of light on a darker surface.
This condition can induce glare if an excessive degree of contrast exists between the brightness of the opening and the darker surface surrounding it. The uncomfortable or debilitating glare caused by excessive brightness ratios between adjacent surfaces or areas in a room can be ameliorated by allowing daylight to enter the space from at least two directions.
When an opening is located along the edge of a wall or at the corner of a room, the daylight entering through it will wash the surface of the wall adjacent and perpendicular to the plane of the opening. This illuminated surface itself becomes a source of light and enhances the light level within the space. Additional factors influence the quality of light within a room.
The shape and articulation of an opening is reflected in the shadow pattern cast by sunlight on the forms and surfaces of the room. The color and texture of these forms and surfaces, in turn, affect their reflectivity and the ambient light level within the space.
While some rooms have an internal focus, such as a fireplace, others have an outward orientation given to them by a view to the outdoors or an adjacent space.
Window and skylight openings provide this view and establish a visual relationship between a room and its surroundings. The size and location of these openings determine, of course, the nature of the outlook as well as the degree of visual privacy for an interior space.
A long, narrow opening, whether vertical or horizontal, can not only separate two planes but also hint at what lies beyond. A group of windows can be sequenced to fragment a scene and encourage movement within a space. As an opening expands, it opens up a room to a broad vista. The large scene can dominate a space or serve as a backdrop for the activities within it.
A window can be located such that a specific view can be seen from only one position in a room. Interior openings offer views from one space to another. An opening can be oriented upward to offer a view of treetops and the sky. A bay window can project a person into a scene. If large enough, the projected space can become an alcove able to be occupied.
Tokonoma, the spiritual center of a traditional Japanese house Views should not be limited to the outdoors or adjacent spaces. Interior design elements can also provide subjects for visual attention. A good house is a single thing, as well as a collection of many, and to make it requires a conceptual leap from the individual components to a vision of the whole.
The choices … represent ways of assembling the parts. They can also make space, pattern, and outside domains. They dramatize the most elementary act which architecture has to perform. To make one plus one equal more than two, you must in doing any one thing you think important making rooms, putting them together, or fitting them to the land do something else that you think important as well make spaces to live, establish a meaningful pattern inside, or claim other realms outside.
Few buildings, however, consist of a solitary space. They are normally composed of a number of spaces which are related to one another by function, proximity, or a path of movement. This chapter lays out for study and discussion the basic ways the spaces of a building can be related to one another and organized into coherent patterns of form and space.
Space within a Space A space may be contained within the volume of a larger space. Interlocking Spaces The field of a space may overlap the volume of another space. Adjacent Spaces Two spaces may abut each other or share a common border.
Spaces Linked by a Common Space Two spaces may rely on an intermediary space for their relationship. Visual and spatial continuity between the two spaces can be easily accommodated, but the smaller, contained space depends on the larger, enveloping space for its relationship to the exterior environment.
In this type of spatial relationship, the larger, enveloping space serves as a three-dimensional field for the smaller space contained within it. For this concept to be per- ceived, a clear differentiation in size is necessary between the two spaces. If the contained space were to increase in size, the larger space would begin to lose its impact as an enveloping form. If the contained space continued to grow, the residual space around it would become too com- pressed to serve as an enveloping space.
It would become instead merely a thin layer or skin around the contained space.This corner condition emphasizes the volume of a form.
The second edition continued to be a comprehensive primer on the ways form and space are interrelated and organized in the shaping of our environment, and was refined by editing the text and incorporating diagrams for greater clarity, adding selected examples of architectural works, expanding the sections on openings, stairways and scale, and finally, by including a glossary and an index to designers. Taking a critical look at the evolution of spaces, Architecture distills complex concepts of design into a clear focus that inspires, bringing difficult abstractions to life.
Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. So while this study focuses on formal and spatial ideas, it is not intended to diminish the importance of the social, political, or economic aspects of architecture. In an aritst perspective this is great to look at to see the basic structures of a building.
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