100 IC CIRCUITS EBOOK FULL
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The relay is energized and the pump starts operating. When the water level drops the shorter sensor will be no longer in contact with the water, but the output of the IC will keep the transistor tuned ON until the water falls below the level of the longer rod.
When the water level falls below the longer sensor, the output of the IC goes low and the pump will stop. The switch provides reverse operation. Switching to connect the transistor to pin 11 of the IC will cause the pump will operate when the tank is nearly empty and will stop when the tank is full. In this case, the pump will be used to fill the tank and not to empty it.
The two steel rods must be supported by a small insulated wooden or plastic board. The circuit can be used also with non-metal tanks, provided a third steel rod having about the same height as the tank is connected to the negative. Adding an alarm to pin 11 will let you know the tank is nearly empty. This occurs in the circuit when the gate is LOW.
Ideally the PNP transistor should be replaced with a Darlington transistor. This circuit originally designed by: Ken Moffett Scientific Instrumentation The length of activation depends on the value of the resistor across the 10u electrolytic.
Pin 2 will be kept LOW and the 10u will discharge via the resistor across it and eventually pin 3 will go LOW and the relay will turn off. If a signal is still present on the base of the input transistor, the relay will remain energised as the circuit will charge the 10u again. The original design was bought over 40 years ago, before the introduction of the electret microphone. They used a crystal earpiece. We have substituted it with a piezo diaphragm and used a quad op-amp to produce two building blocks.
The first is a high-gain amplifier to take the few millivolts output of the piezo and amplify it sufficiently to drive the input of a counter chip. This requires a waveform of at least 6v for a 9v supply and we need a gain of about The other building block is simply a buffer that takes the high-amplitude waveform and delivers the negative excursions to a reservoir capacitor u electrolytic.
The charge on this capacitor turns on a BC transistor and this effectively takes the power pin of the counter-chip to the positive rail via the collector lead. The chip has internal current limiting and some of the outputs are taken to sets of three LEDs. The chip is actually a counter or divider and the frequency picked up by the piezo is divided by and delivered to one output and divided by over 8, by the highest-division output to three more LEDs The other lines have lower divisions.
This creates a very impressive effect as the LEDs are connected to produce a balanced display that changes according to the beat of the music.
The voltage on the three amplifiers is determined by the 3M3 and 1M voltage-divider on the first op-amp. It produces about 2v. This makes the output go HIGH and it takes pin 2 with it until this pin see a few millivolts above pin3. At this point the output stops rising. Any waveform voltage produced by the piezo that is lower than the voltage on pin 3 will make the output go HIGH and this is how we get a large waveform.
This signal is passed to the second op-amp and because the voltage on pin 6 is delayed slightly by the n capacitor, is also produces a gain. When no signal is picked up by the piezo, pin 7 is approx 2v and pin 10 is about 4.
Because pin 9 is lower than pin 10, the output pin 8 is about 7. The LED connected to the output removes 1. Any colour LEDs can be used and a mixture will give a different effect.
Click the link above for more details on the project, including photos and construction notes. The flashing LED takes almost no current between flashes and thus the clock line is low via the 1k to 22k resistor. When the LED flashes, the voltage on the clock line is about 2v -3v below the rail voltage depending on the value of the resistor and this is sufficient for the chip to see a HIGH.
Sw1 is pressed for a brief period. This charges the 47u and the 1u is charged via the k. The voltage on the 1u rises until it puts a HIGH on input pin It is charged by the k and discharged by the 10 and diode. The HIGH on pin 2 allows the 1u to charge via the k and this gradually reduces the voltage on the 47u. As the voltage on the 47u falls, the time taken to charge the 1u increases and creates the slow-down effect. Test 1: Test 2: You now now the base lead and the type of transistor.
Place the transistor in Test 2 circuit top circuit and when you have fitted the collector and emitter leads correctly maybe have to swap leads , the red or green LED will come on to prove you have fitted the transistor correctly. Test 3: The value of gain is marked on the PCB that comes with the kit.
The kit has ezy clips that clip onto the leads of the transistor to make it easy to use the project. The project also has a probe at one end of the board that produces a square wave - suitable for all sorts of audio testing and some digital testing.
Project cost: Adjust the 5k pot for The plug pack will need to be upgraded for the mA or 1. The red LED indicates charging and as the battery voltage rises, the current-flow decreases. The output has an active buzzer that produces a beep when the pulse LED illuminates.
The buzzer is not a piezo-diaphragm but an active buzzer containing components. It is called an electro-mechanical buzzer as it has two coils.
The main coil pulls the diaphragm to the core via a transistor and the feedback coil drives the base. When the transistor is fully saturated, the feedback winding does not see any induced voltage and current and the transistor turns OFF.
The rapid action of this oscillator produces an annoying squeal. When relay 1 turns off, relay 2 turns ON for any period of time as determined by C2 and R2. When relay 2 turns off, relay 1 turns ON and the cycle repeats. He wanted 4 pumps to operate randomly in his water-fountain feature. A 74C14 IC can be used to produce 4 timing circuits with different on-off values.
The trim-pots can be replaced with resistors when the desired effect has been created. A flip-flop is a form of bi-stable multivibrator, wired so an input signal will change the output on every second cycle. In other words it divides halves the input signal. When two of these are connected in a "chain" the input signal divides by 4. The CD IC has 14 stages. The IC also has components called gates or inverters on pins 9,10 and 11 that can be wired to produce an oscillator.
Three external components are needed to produce the duration of the oscillations. In other words the frequency of the "clock signal. Each stage rises and falls at a rate that is half the previous stage and the final stage provides the long time delay as it takes 2 13 clock cycles before going HIGH. We have only taken from Q10 in this circuit and the outline of the chip has been provided in the circuit so different outputs can be used to produce different timings.
The diode on the output "jams" the oscillator and stops it operating so the relay stays active when the time has expired. Ladybug automatically makes a left turn the moment it detects an object in its path. It continues to move forward again when no obstacle is in the way. See Hex Bug in " Transistor Circuits" for a transistor version of this circuit. It is only suitable for low frequency signals such as audio but can also reproduce low-frequency square waves.
It's fun to talk into the microphone and see the result on the screen. To see a trace across the centre of the screen. The audio will raise and lower the trace to produce a waveform. The photo on the right shows the authors model.
More photos of PCB on eBay. A very interesting kit and great educational value. User selectable time scale from mS to 6. Scan rate of k samples per second for effective maximum frequency of 15kHz. Operates from a single supply and can even be powered off a single 9V battery. Two voltage scales and a full range voltage offset allows measurement of AC and DC signals.
Supply Voltage: Preset VR1 is fine-tuned to get 0. At the same time, pulses obtainable from pin 1 will be of 1.
555 Circuits.pdf - Talking Electronics
Working with a built-in oscillator-type piezo buzzer generates about 1kHz tone. Just after a time interval of 0. This is followed by two seconds of no sound interval.
Thereafter the pulse pattern repeats by itself. It can be adjusted to give the desired speed for the display. The output of the is directly connected to the input of a Johnson Counter CD The 10 outputs Q0 to Q9 become active, one at a time, on the rising edge of the waveform from the Each output can deliver about 20mA but a LED should not be connected to the output without a current-limiting resistor R in the circuit above.
The first 6 outputs of the chip are connected directly to the 6 LEDs and these "move" across the display. The next 4 outputs move the effect in the opposite direction and the cycle repeats. The animation above shows how the effect appears on the display. Using six 3mm LEDs, the display can be placed in the front of a model car to give a very realistic effect.
The same outputs can be taken to driver transistors to produce a larger version of the display. The outputs are "fighting" each other via the R resistors except outputs Q0 and Q5. This circuit drives 11 LEDs with a cross-over effect: The battery voltage for a car can range from 11v to nearly 16v, depending on the state-of-charge and the RPM of the engine.
This circuit provides constant current so the LEDs are not over-driven. When the first IC turns off, the n is uncharged because both ends are at rail voltage and it pulses pin 2 of the middle LOW. This activates the and pin 3 goes HIGH. This pin supplies rail voltage to the third and the two red LEDs are alternately flashed. See it in action: The circuit consumes about 30mA when sitting and waiting.
The circuit consumes less than 1mA. If the battery voltage is 12v, the circuit will deliver about 9v at 20mA. The regulator has an internal voltage reference of 1. As the current required by the circuit increases, the voltage across this resistor will increase. When it is 1. If the current increases due to the output resistance decreasing, the voltage across the resistor increases and the LN reduces the output voltage. This causes the current to reduce to 20mA.
This is how the circuit produces a constant current. The output current can be changed to any value according to the formula shown below. The current will also depend on the rating of the plug pack. As soon as the current reaches the limit set by the R pot, the BC transistor starts to turn on and rob the regulator of voltage on the Adj pin. The output voltage starts to reduce. If the output is shorted, the output voltage will reduce to almost zero.
Mains wiring must not be touched. Many CMOS chips can be used for this purpose. CD , , as they all have very sensitive inputs. This circuit will also detect "Mains Hum. Use a small length of copper-clad PC board 1cm wide for the detector.
The LED will flash when the antenna is 10cm to 15cm from the cable. THE 74c14 IC - also known as or - it works on 5v to 15v. They are TTL chips and operate on 4.
When you realise its versatility, you will use it for lots of designs. In this section we describe its capability and provide circuits to show how it can be used. Minimum supply voltage 5v Maximum supply voltage 15v Max current per output 10mA - 60mA total Maximum speed of operation 4MHz Current consumption approx 1uA with nothing connected to the inputs or outputs. The output of each gate will deliver about 10mA.
For up to mA, a BC can be used. For up to 4 amps a BD Darlington transistor can be used. Here is how it works: It takes less than 1 microamp on the input to make the output high or low. Here's the second feature of the gate: There are 6 of the gates in the IC and they are all internally wired to the power rails.
You can think of the input as having infinite impedance resistance , so it does not put a load on anything connected to this pin. Here is an animation of how the gate works. The input has to be above mid-rail for the output to change and below mid-rail for the output to change back to its originals state. It does not matter if the capacitor is placed above or below the resistor as the time delay will be the same.
The only difference will be the value of the voltage at the beginning and end of the timing cycle. The join of the two components is the point where the voltage is detected and is called the "Detection Point. This will be the input of one of the Schmitt gates. The detection circuit must not load the timing circuit.
In other words the detection circuit must have a very high input impedance. That's the advantage of this IC. If we monitor the voltage across the capacitor, we can determine when it is at a particular voltage level.
In the animation below we see the capacitor charging via a resistor, with a meter showing the approx voltage across the capacitor. The capacitor does not charge at a constant rate, but this characteristic does not concern us at the moment. The point to remember is the TIME it takes for the capacitor to charge.
Here is the clever part. Instead of the voltmeter monitoring the voltage across the capacitor, the input of the Schmitt Inverter can be connected to the capacitor. In this way we need only one gate to create an oscillator. There are two very important things to observe in the animation below.
The output is a square wave. The animation below shows the gate in operation. You will notice that the diagram does not show the chip connected to the positive and negative rail. Here are the basic oscillator blocks for a 74C14 IC: Fig A shows a capacitor - high frequency oscillator Fig B shows an electrolytic - low frequency oscillator An oscillator is created by placing a resistor from output to input and a capacitor from input to 0v.
The output will be a square-wave and and the mark high will be equal to the space low. The frequency of the output will depend on the value of R and C. Values of 1k to 4M7 for R and p to u for C can be used.
This is shown in circuits A and B above. In figure C the output is output is low for a short period of time as the two resistors R1 and R2 are discharging the capacitor. In figure D the diode is reversed compared to figure C and output is high for a short period of time as the two resistors R1 and R2 are charging the capacitor. Here are some basic building blocks: It can be detecting a piece of equipment being turned on, for example.
This action charges capacitor C via resistor R. The Delay Time is determined by the values of R and C. We are not concerned with the actual values of R and C at this point in time. They can be worked out by experimentation.
If the output is required to be the opposite of the circuit above, an inverter is added: If a diode is added across the input resistor, the capacitor "C" will be discharged when the input goes low, so the "Delay Time" will be instantly available when the input goes HIGH: To invert the output, add an inverter: To produce a pulse after a delay, the following circuit is required: Gating To gate an oscillator via another inverter, a diode is placed between the two gates: The high from the diode prevents the capacitor discharging via the oscillator and it is "jammed" or "frozen" with the output LOW.
The following circuit produces a tone for a short period of time as determined by the pulse section. When the output of the Pulse section is LOW, the oscillator will operate. To extend the action of a push button, a pulse-extender circuit can be added: To produce a pulse of constant length, no matter how long the button is pressed , the following circuit is needed: The input of the has a microscopic current availability and over a period of a few hours it will charge the n and cause the circuit to re-trigger.
That's why the 4M7 is needed. The push-button produces a brief LOW on pin 1, no matter how long it is pushed and this produces a pulse of constant length via the three components between pin 2 and 3.
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This pulse is long enough to fully discharge the u timing electrolytic on pin 5. The k and electrolytic between pins 6 and 9 are designed to produce a brief pulse to energize the relay. Here is another very similar circuit.
Produces a 0. In the following design, the output produces 3mS pulses every second. The circuit is adjustable to a wide range of requirements. This circuit pulses the pager motor about 2 - 4 seconds after the circuit is turned on: The following circuit allows a higher voltage to be used and PWM controls the energy to the Pager Motor.
The component values will have to be determined by experimentation: The feedback diode from the output prevents the inputs re-triggering the timer during the delay period the so that a device such as a motor, globe or voice chip can be activated for a set period of time.
This alarm circuit only has one fault. The alarm keeps wailing if the door is kept open. It only turns off after minutes when the door is closed. This arms the alarm. Gate "B" is an inverter that detects when the Instant input is broken and it charges the u via the 3k3 resistor. Gate "C" detects the charge on the u and turns on the BC transistor via the 4k7 resistor. The u and 4M7 provide the minutes timer for the "wailing.
Colin Mitchell - 100 IC Circuits
It will buzz for 20 seconds then turn off. If the Entry door is left open, the main siren will wail after 45 seconds. All you need are the surrounding components to complete the project. Click HERE to order the chip or the kit.
The only additional parts you require are 4 reed switches. Here is the link: The alarm takes about 1mA when monitoring a house and about mA when activated. The siren is only activated ONCE for 5 minutes when a break-in occurs as this is the maximum allowable time for a siren to wail in Australia.
If you want the alarm to constantly wail after a break-in, push button A when the alarm is turned on and the exit beep is being produced. The constantly wailing LED will flash. Push the button again and the 5 minute LED will flash. The button toggles between the two features. You can use reed switches for the input devices for doors and drawers.
You can also trap the burglar by placing money under a clip and have a very thin length of tinned copper wire wound around two pins. When the money is removed, the wire is pulled off the pins. A single strand of wire can be obtained from a length of hook-up flex.
It is connected to the door you will use to enter or exit the property. The alarm gives you 45 seconds to exit. When you enter the property, the buzzer turns on as soon as you open the door and beeps for 45 seconds to allow you to turn off the alarm.
If the alarm is not turned off, the main piezo siren produces a soft tone for 30 seconds and then a piercing wailing sound. This allows you to turn off the alarm before the loud wailing is produced and is one of the best features of the alarm as the worry of false-triggering an alarm prevents many householders setting their alarm.
Any unused inputs must be connected with a link so the alarm can be set. When the circuit is turned ON, you have 45 seconds to exit the premises.
You can change the setting by pressing the button. The circuit then beeps for 45 seconds to give you time to exit the property. It then monitors all 4 inputs. Alarm 4-Zone PCB The main chip contains an internal oscillator to drive a piezo diaphragm and also a wailing oscillator for the Piezo Siren.
1-100 Transistor Circuits.pdf - talkingelectronics.com
The Piezo Siren is an 80dB piezo diaphragm driven by a BD Darlington transistor with a 10mH choke to produce a high voltage for the diaphragm.
The chip operates on 5v and the rest of the circuit uses 12v. A very simple voltage-dropper consisting of 2 LEDs and 1k5 drops the 12v to 5v. This project provides: You can build it in an evening on a piece of Matrix Board. And a further clap turns it OFF. It uses a speaker as a microphone and the fourth output of the is used to reset the chip. The u on pin 2 upsets the amplifier and prevents it clocking the chip, until the electro either charges or discharges.
A buffer transistor can replace the LED to operate a relay. It only requires 2mV signal to activate the circuit. The Motor should be connected to the panel so it rotates the panel in the direction of movement of the sun.
This is very handy when you have a battery powering a piece of equipment and you don't know its state of charge. When the voltage is above 10v, the zener diode conducts and turns ON the first transistor. The voltage between the collector and emitter of this transistor is less than 0. Thus the second transistor is not turned ON and it is effectively removed from the circuit. This means the reset pin of the CD is connected to the positive rail via a 1M resistor. This puts a HIGH on the reset pin and turns the chip off and prevents the oscillator producing clock pulses.
The chip contains inverters between pins 9, 10 and 11 so that when components are connected to these pins, an oscillator is produced. When pin 12 is taken HIGH it inhibits the oscillator prevents the clock pulses passing to the divider stages.
When the battery voltage falls below 10v, the first transistor is turned OFF and the second transistor is turned ON. These components can be found in devices such as a light dimmer or volume control for a radio. When you turn the shaft of a potentiometer the resistance changes in the circuit.
These are often found in exterior lights that automatically turn on at dusk and off at dawn. Capacitor Capacitors store electricity and then discharges it back into the circuit when there is a drop in voltage.
A capacitor is like a rechargeable battery and can be charged and then discharged. Diode A diode allows electricity to flow in one direction and blocks it from flowing the opposite way. Light-Emitting Diode LED A light-emitting diode is like a standard diode in the fact that electrical current only flows in one direction. The main difference is an LED will emit light when electricity flows through it.
Inside an LED there is an anode and cathode. The longer leg of the LED is the positive anode side. Transistor Transistor are tiny switches that turn a current on or off when triggered by an electric signal. In addition to being a switch, it can also be used to amplify electronic signals. A transistor is similar to a relay except with no moving parts.
Relay A relay is an electrically operated switch that opens or closes when power is applied. Inside a relay is an electromagnet which controls a mechanical switch. This circuit contains electronic components like resistors and capacitors but on a much smaller scale. Integrated circuits come in different variations such as timers, voltage regulators, microcontrollers and many more.
What Is A Circuit?
Before you design an electronic project, you need to know what a circuit is and how to create one properly. An electronic circuit is a circular path of conductors by which electric current can flow. A closed circuit is like a circle because it starts and ends at the same point forming a complete loop. In contrast, if there is any break in the flow of electricity, this is known as an open circuit.
All circuits need to have three basic elements. These elements are a voltage source, conductive path and a load. The voltage source, such as a battery, is needed in order to cause the current to flow through the circuit.
In addition, there needs to be a conductive path that provides a route for the electricity to flow. Finally, a proper circuit needs a load that consumes the power. The load in the above circuit is the light bulb.
Schematic Diagram When working with circuits, you will often find something called a schematic diagram. These symbols are graphic representations of the actual electronic components. Below is an example of a schematic that depicts an LED circuit that is controlled by a switch. It contains symbols for an LED, resistor, battery and a switch.
By following a schematic diagram, you are able to know which components to use and where to put them. These schematics are extremely helpful for beginners when first learning circuits.
Below are a few of the most commonly used electronic symbols in the US.Pin 7 divides the signal by 16 to produce a beep-beep-beep from the electro-mechanical buzzer. See it in action: When it is 1.
This is followed by two seconds of no sound interval. The chip is actually a counter or divider and the frequency picked up by the piezo is divided by and delivered to one output and divided by over 8, by the highest-division output to three more LEDs The other lines have lower divisions. LED Zeppelin.