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IRRIGATION AND WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING PDF

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that of the book “Irrigation Engineering”, significant additions and revisions have been has now been retitled as “Irrigation and Water Resources Engineering”. Water resources and irrigation engineering pdf. 1. 1 | P a g e SAQIB IMRAN 1 Assala mu alykum My Name is saqib imran and I. US EPA Stormwater Best Management Practice Design Guide. Pages·· CE Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering. Pages··5 .


Irrigation And Water Resources Engineering Pdf

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To download full book, click on the link given below. Irrigation and Water Resources Engineering by G.L. Asawa myavr.info · Home · Pantnagar Students; Civil. [PDF] Irrigation and Water Resources Engineering By Asawa, G.L Book Free Download[PDF] Irrigation and Water Resources Engineering By Asawa, G.L Book. Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering By V. Rajandran and Dr. G. Vijayakumar (Local Author) – PDF Free Download [PDF] Water Resources and.

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With a good subject knowledge in civil engg i have started this blog to share valuable information to fellow civil engineers. You can also follow me on fb and twitter by clicking below. Download Here. Sharing Is Caring Share our site with your friends and help them to learn civil engineering. Particularly, the volumetric assessment would encourage the farmer to use the water carefully. The water tax should be imposed on the basis of volume of water consumption.

It reduces the loss of water due to seepage and hence the duty is enhanced. It controls the water logging and hence the bad effects of water-logging are eliminated. It provides smooth surface and hence the velocity of flow can be increased.

Due to the increased velocity the discharge capacity of a canal is also increased. Due to the increased velocity, the evaporation loss also can be reduced. It eliminates the effect of scouring in the canal bed 7. The increased velocity eliminates the possibility of silting in the canal bed.

It controls the growth of weeds along the canal sides and bed. It provides the stable section of the canal. It reduces the requirements of land width for the canal, because smaller section of the canal can be used to produce greater discharge. It prevents the sub-soil salt to come in contact with the canal water.

It reduces the maintenance cost for the canals. Disadvantages of Canal Lining 1. The initial cost of the canal lining is very high. So, it makes the project very expensive with respect to the output. It involves many difficulties for repairing the damaged section of lining.

It takes too much time to complete the project work. It becomes difficult, if the outlets are required to be shifted or new outlets are required to be provided, because the dismantling of the lined section is difficult. Surface water: It is found on the surface of the land. These include spring water, River water, lake water, etc.

This can be supplied to the field by weir check dam by gravity or by using pump. Where the slop of the source of water is greater than the slop of the field to be irrigated. Pumps are used where the source of water for the field is at down stream at lower altitude.

Here mostly centrifugal type pumps are used. Ground water: Where these is shortage of surface water ground water is used for irrigation. This is supplied only by using pumps. It is usually the flow in an Open Channels Surface Flow: The flow which is above the ground level is called surface flow.

Ground Flow: The flow which is below the surface of the earth is called ground flow. Deals with the study of surface water only Ground Flow: Deals with the surface as well as ground water water. Open channel flow has a free water surface 2. Open channel flow is subjected to atmospheric pressure while pipe flow is not when pipe is full.

Irrigation and Water Power Engineering 16th Edition

Open channel flow is not completely enclosed by boundaries, unlike pipe flow. Open channel is always under the action of gravity, while pipe can be under gravity or may flow due to some external pressure. Partially filled pipes flow: Open Channel flow Free Gravity flow: Open Chanel flow is that type of flow which is neither completely enclosed by the boundaries nor is under any external pressure but gravity.

It is subjected to atmospheric pressure.

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Rivers, natural and artificial canals, streams, channels etc. Partially filled pipes flow is also an example of open channel flow. Types of open channel flow Steady Flow: For open channel, the flow is steady if the depth of flow does not change with respect to time at a particular location or section. Unsteady flow: For open channel, the flow is unsteady if the depth of flow changes with respect to time at a particular location or section.

Uniform flow: For open channel flow, the flow is uniform if the depth of flow remains constant along a certain length of the channel. Non Uniform flow: For open channel flow, the flow is non uniform if the depth of flow does not remains constant along a certain length of the channel.

If the depth of flow changes over a relatively long distance along the length of a channel, then the flow is called gradually varied flow. Rapidly Varied flow: If the depth of flow changes over a relatively short distance along the length of a channel, then the flow is called rapidly varied flow.

Why to study open channel flow: For construction of successful hydraulic structures. Open channel flow is difficult to deal with because: Open channel flow can be said to be as the flow of fluid water over the deep hollow surface channel with the cover of atmosphere on the top. Examples of open channels flow are river, streams, flumes, sewers, ditches and lakes etc.

While on the other hand flow under pressure is said to be as pipe flow e. Open-channel flow is usually categorized on the basis of steadiness. Flow is said to be steady when the velocity at any point of observation does not change with time; if it changes from time to time, flow is said to be unsteady.

At every instant, if the velocity is the same at all points along the channel, flow is said to be uniform; if it is not the same, flow is said to be non-uniform. Non- uniform flow which is also steady is called as varied flow; non-uniform flow which is unsteady is called as variable flow.

Flow occurs from a higher to a lower concentration by aid of gravity. Shapes of open channels Usually the man made and artificial open channels don't have rectangular cross section. The most common shapes of open channels are circular and trapezoidal. Types of open channel Open Channels are classified as: Rigid boundary open channels 2. Loose boundary open channels 3. Prismatic open channels Rigid boundary open channels can be said to be as the open channels with the non-changeable boundaries.

While on the other hand if open channel has the boundaries which changes due to scouring action or deposition of sediments, such channels are said to be as loose boundary open channels. The open channels in which shape, size of cross section and slope of the bed remain constant are said to be as the prismatic channels.

Opposite o these channels are non-prismatic channels. Natural channels are the example of non-prismatic channels while man made open channels are the example of prismatic channels. Properties of Open Channels: The main difference in the open channel flow and pipe flow is that in pipe flow usually the cross section of channel is fixed and confined while on the other hand open channel flow is unconfined.

Open channels flow is difficult to analyze than the pipe flow. That's why in open channel flow measurement empirical approach is adopted.

The velocity of flow in open channel can be computed by help of Manning's formula: There is no restriction for the conduit in case of open channel flow to be completely filled. Factors influencing the flow in open channels: Channel shape 2. Fluid depth 3. Fluid velocity 4. Slope of channel Flow measurement in open channel The most common method which is used for the measurement of flow in open channel is to measure the height of the liquid as it passes over an obstruction a flume or weir in the open channel.

This is usually done by constructing hydraulic structures like weirs, notches and flumes etc Manning approach can be used for flow measurement in open channels. The irrigation system in Pakistan has brought great benefits to many people. Dependence on the natural hydrological system has been minimized and new settlements in canal irrigated areas have been established. However, the canal system has been accompanied by problems, which are increasingly difficult to overcome. Water logging and salinity are two of the outcomes of canal irrigation in Pakistan.

When only inundation canals were used, water for crops was only available during the summer season. A balance was maintained between the precipitation and evapo-transpiration that kept the water-table low.

With the introduction of perennial canals, water was available throughout the year resulting in a rise of the water-table. Salts in the soil also rise to the surface with the water-table. The water on reaching the surface evaporates and the salts are deposited on the surface, rendering the land unsuitable for farming.

The rise of the water-table to the surface level is called water logging and the appearance of salty patches is called salinity. Management of Water Resources: Its storage, ibution and use have to be carefully managed in order me Water Accord was not followed resulting in disputes between the provinces and a decrease in the agricultural output. As Pakistan is predominancy an agricultural country, the scarcity of water resources may affect Pakistan's economy negatively.

Sites for small dams should be developed to store surplus flow during the monsoon season. Small dams are more cost effective and produce quick results compared with large dams because they are constructed in a shorter period of time are cheaper to build and easy to maintain.

In order to avoid water loss from unlined canals, a crash program should be launched to line the canals with cement. Fresh water sources like rivers and lakes should not be used as dumping sites of solid and liquid waste. Natural fresh water lakes should be conserved to develop local water sources. In Sindh, the Manchar, Kinjhar and Haleji lakes are the worst affected by pollution.

Ground water contamination should be prevented as far as possible by controlling the seepage of toxic waste into the ground. A public education and information programme should be launched to influence the attitudes of the people towards the need to conserve water because it is a diminishing natural resource.

The media, NGOs and educational institutions should take part in this programme. Methods of Estimation of Consumptive Use of Water To measure or estimation the consumptive use there are three main methods: Empirical Methods 3.

Pan evaporation method 1. Direct Methods: In this method field observations are made and physical model is used for this purpose.

This includes, i. Field Plot Method iii. Tanks and Lysimeter iv. Irrigation Method vi. Inflow Outflow Method 1. In this method of estimation of water consumptive use, soil moisture measurements are taken before and after each irrigation.

The quantity of water extracted per day from soil is computed for each period. A curve is drawn by plotting the rate of use against time and from this curve, the seasonal use can be estimated. This method is suitable in those areas where soil is fairly uniform and ground water is deep enough so that it does not affect the fluctuations in the soil moisture within the root zone of the soil.

It is expressed in terms of volume i. Acre-feet or Hectare-meter 1. We select a representative plot of area and the accuracy depends upon the representativeness of plot cropping intensity, exposure etc.

It replicates the conditions of an actual sample field field plot. Less seepage should be there. Also some correction has to be applied for deep percolation as it cannot be ascertained in the field. In this method of measurement of consumptive use of water, a watertight tank of cylindrical shape having diameter 2m and depth about 3m is placed vertically on the ground.

The tank is filled with sample of soil. The bottom of the tank consists of a sand layer and a pan for collecting the surplus water. The plants grown in the Lysimeter should be the same as in the surrounding field. The consumptive use of water is estimated by measuring the amount of water required for the satisfactory growth of the plants within the tanks.

Methods 1 and 2 are the more reliable methods as compare to this method. In this method, it is necessary to know the division of total area, i. In this method, annual consumptive use for the whole area is found in terms of volume. It is expressed in Acre feet or Hectare meter. In this method, unit consumption is multiplied by some factor.

The multiplication values depend upon the type of crops in certain area. This method requires an Engineer judgment as these factors are to be investigated by the Engineers of certain area. In this method annual consumptive use is found for large areas. If U is the valley consumptive use its value is given by, Empirical Methods: Empirical equations are given for the estimation of water requirement.

These are, 2. It is a very simple method. Steps to design Precast Parabolic Channels The following steps are involved in the design of our selected water channel. A water well is a specially engineered hole in the ground; For ground water monitoring, or for scientific research purposes, wells may be drilled in a way that allows the specialists to closely examine the rock formations and take frequent water samples. Augured wells and diamond core drilling are drilling techniques often used for scientific purposes.

Most home wells are drilled to 8 or 6 inches in diameter. Municipal or irrigation wells are likely to be drilled at larger diameters, sometimes as much as 24 inches or more. The important tasks for preparing a planning report of a water resources project would include the following: Analysis of basic data like maps, remote sensing images, geological data, hydrologic data, and requirement of water use data, etc.

Selection of alternative sites based on economic aspects generally, but keeping in mind environmental degradation aspects. Studies for local protective works — levees, riverbank revetment, etc. Formulation of optimal combination of structural and non-structural components for projects with flood control component. Economic and financial analyses, taking into account environmental degradation, if any, as a cost.

Environmental and sociological impact assessment. It is the quantity of water used by the vegetation growth of a given area. It is the amount of water required by a crop for its vegetated growth to evapotranspiration and building of plant tissues plus evaporation from soils and intercepted precipitation.

It is expressed in terms of depth of water. Consumptive use varies with temperature, humidity, wind speed, topography, sunlight hours, method of irrigation, moisture availability.

Factors Affecting the Consumptive Use of Water Evaporation which depends on humidity 2. Mean Monthly temperature 3. Growing season of crops and cropping pattern 4. Monthly precipitation in area 5. Wind velocity in locality 6. Soil and topography 7. Irrigation practices and method of irrigation 8. Optimum Consumptive Use 2. Potential Consumptive Use 3. Seasonal Consumptive Use 1. Optimum Consumptive Use: It is the consumptive use which produces a maximum crop yield.

Potential Consumptive Use: If sufficient moisture is always available to completely meet the needs of vegetation fully covering the entire area then resulting evapotranspiration is known as Potential Consumptive Use. Seasonal Consumptive Use: The total amount of water used in the evapo-transpiration by a cropped area during the entire growing season.

A cross drainage work is a structure carrying the discharge from a natural stream across a canal intercepting the stream. Canal comes across obstructions like rivers, natural drains and other canals.

The various types of structures that are built to carry the canal water across the above mentioned obstructions or vice versa are called cross drainage works. It is generally a very costly item and should be avoided by: Types of cross drainage works Depending upon levels and discharge, it may be of the following types: Cross drainage works carrying canal across the drainage: An Aqueduct 2.

Siphon Aqueduct Aqueduct: When the HFL of the drain is sufficiently below the bottom of the canal such that the drainage water flows freely under gravity, the structure is known as Aqueduct.

In case of the siphon Aqueduct, the HFL of the drain is much higher above the canal bed, and water runs under siphonic action through the Aqueduct barrels.

The drain bed is generally depressed and provided with pucci floors, on the upstream side, the drainage bed may be joined to the pucca floor either by a vertical drop or by glacis of 3: The downstream rising slope should not be steeper than 5: When the canal is passed over the drain, the canal remains open for inspection throughout and the damage caused by flood is rare.

However during heavy floods, the foundations are susceptible to scour or the waterway of drain may get choked due to debris, tress etc. The structures that fall under this type are: This structure is suitable when the bed level of drainage is above the flood surface level of the canal.

Thus, the canal water runs under the gravity. For economy, the canal may be flumed but the drainage trough is never flumed. Type I: Sides of the aqueduct in earthen banks with complete earthen slopes. The length of culvert should be sufficient to accommodate both, water section of canal, as well as earthen banks of canal with aqueduct slope. Sides of the aqueduct in earthen banks, with other slopes supported by masonry wall. In this case, canal continues in its earthen section over the drainage but the outer slopes of the canal banks are replaced by retaining wall, reducing the length of drainage culvert.

Type II: Sides of the aqueduct made of concrete or masonry. Its earthen section of the canal is discontinued and canal water is carried in masonry or concrete trough, canal is generally flumed in this section. In view of growing population, urbanization and increased industrialization, the situation is likely to get worse. In addition, increasing pollution and saltwater intrusion threaten the country's water resources. In urban areas, most water is supplied from groundwater except for the cities of Karachi, Hyderabad and a part of Islamabad, where mainly surface water is used.

In most rural areas, groundwater is used. In rural areas with saline groundwater, irrigation canals serve as the main source of domestic water.

This shows the significance of agriculture in the country. Pakistan still has the world's largest Three reservoirs 2. More than , watercourses comprise the distribution network that takes water directly to the farms. The system commands a land area of Design Discharge cusecs No. Flood level from floor ft Total Design Withdrawals for Canal cusecs Chashma 1,, 52 37 26, Guddu 1,, 64 26 - Jinnah , 42 28 7, Kotri , 44 Usually water requirement for crop is expressed in water depth per unit area.

This is based on both the temperature range of your climate and the amount of precipitation. Take a close look at the area in which you are going to plant your garden.

If the ground tends to be very moist, choose plants that can tolerate constantly wet soil, and even standing water. If you live in an area that suffers from frequent droughts, however, select plants that can tolerate going long periods without water, especially in light of the frequent watering restrictions imposed on such areas.

If you are lucky enough to live in an area that has a balanced climate, you have a wider range of choices for your plants. Low Water Requirement Plants Plants that require low levels of water are often called drought tolerant. Drought-tolerant plants can thrive in hot, dry conditions with very little water.

They include both perennials and annuals. Most drought-tolerant plants only have to be hand-watered when they are planted and while they are establishing themselves.

After that, they can be left to the natural cycle of the elements. Popular All citrus trees are also drought tolerant. Many homeowners in areas prone to drought, such as parts of the southern United States, use shrubs and ground covering vines as part of their landscaping. These include Texas sage, orange jasmine and Chinese fountain grass.

Irrigation and Water Resources

There are not many perennial drought-tolerant plants, but amaryllis is one that is very popular, along with the African iris. Popular drought-tolerant annuals include marigold, cosmos and the Dahlberg daisy.

Mid-Level Water Requirement Crops Most plants land in this range when it comes to water requirements. These plants do not need to be watered every day, but they need to be watered when the soil has been dry for over a week or two. Sometimes these plants are classified as plants lying in the "occasional water zone".

These include popular plants such as geraniums, most roses, wisteria, clematis and other vine plants, sunflowers, spring flowering bulbs, and most flowering perennial shrubs. Note that flowering annuals planted in containers will need watering at least once or twice a week, while annuals planted in the ground will need watering less often. High Water Requirement Plants Some plants require large amounts of water. These plants typically grow in marshy areas or bogs, or along the banks of rivers, streams and lakes.

The soil for these plants should always be kept moist. Standing water is not a concern for these plants, so you don't have to worry about root rot. Perennials are especially good for wet areas because they don't have to be replanted year after year, which can be difficult in marshy areas.

Irrigation and water resource book {WRE} pdf download GL Asawa

Popular perennials for wet soil include iris plants, cannas, bee balms, ferns, and bog salvia. Aquatic mint is a pleasant ground cover that likes wet soil. Hibbeler Book April Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun April 8. April 7. Popular Files. January June Trending on EasyEngineering.

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August June 7. Never Miss. Easy Engineering - January 25 0. Load more. Sponsored By. Sharing is Caring.The first water supplies were developed from stream or river flows onto the adjacent flood plain through simple check-dams and a canal to distribute water to various locations. Irrigation has two primary objectives: The duty would vary inversely as the water requirement of crop. Base Period: Check your Email after Joining and Confirm your mail id to get updates alerts.

A consequence of poor judgement or design is poor efficiency. When the HFL of the drain is sufficiently below the bottom of the canal such that the drainage water flows freely under gravity, the structure is known as Aqueduct.

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