INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET PDF
What is the Internet? 4 - -. GCF. myavr.info*. Introduction. Page 1. It's no secret that more and more the internet is becoming an integral part. Computer and Office Applications. 3. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET. INTRODUCTION. In the present age of information Technology, use of Internet. INTRODUCTION. TO THE INTERNET. Part 1. BEGINNERS GUIDE. TECH SAVVY SENIORS. The NSW 'Tech Savvy Seniors' program is a key initiative of the.
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The Internet - An Introduction and frequently use the applications provided by the Internet and the. WWW. .. and video), Adobe Acrobat Reader (to read PDF. Introduction to The. Internet. ITU/APNIC/MICT IPv6 Security. Workshop. 23rd – 27th May Bangkok. 1. Last updated 5th May San Diego County Library. Introduction to the Internet. SDCL: C. Doty: rev. P. Cipparrone: 2/ Page 1 of Overview. What is the Internet? The Internet is a.
This is usually implemented in physical LANs as a way to route requests through one IP address to the necessary backend servers.
It is a means of connecting separate LANs through the internet, while maintaining privacy. This is used as a means of connecting remote systems as if they were on a local network, often for security reasons. There are many other terms that you may come across, and this list cannot afford to be exhaustive.
We will explain other terms as we need them. At this point, you should understand some basic, high-level concepts that will enable us to better discuss the topics to come. Network Layers While networking is often discussed in terms of topology in a horizontal way, between hosts, its implementation is layered in a vertical fashion throughout a computer or network. What this means is that there are multiple technologies and protocols that are built on top of each other in order for communication to function more easily.
Each successive, higher layer abstracts the raw data a little bit more, and makes it simpler to use for applications and users. It also allows you to leverage lower layers in new ways without having to invest the time and energy to develop the protocols and applications that handle those types of traffic.
The language that we use to talk about each of the layering scheme varies significantly depending on which model you use. Regardless of the model used to discuss the layers, the path of data is the same.
As data is sent out of one machine, it begins at the top of the stack and filters downwards. At the lowest level, actual transmission to another machine takes place. At this point, the data travels back up through the layers of the other computer. Each layer has the ability to add its own "wrapper" around the data that it receives from the adjacent layer, which will help the layers that come after decide what to do with the data when it is passed off.
This model defines seven separate layers.
Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Internet
The layers in this model are: Application: The application layer is the layer that the users and user-applications most often interact with. Network communication is discussed in terms of availability of resources, partners to communicate with, and data synchronization. Presentation: The presentation layer is responsible for mapping resources and creating context. It is used to translate lower level networking data into data that applications expect to see.
Session: The session layer is a connection handler.
It creates, maintains, and destroys connections between nodes in a persistent way. Transport: The transport layer is responsible for handing the layers above it a reliable connection. In this context, reliable refers to the ability to verify that a piece of data was received intact at the other end of the connection.
This layer can resend information that has been dropped or corrupted and can acknowledge the receipt of data to remote computers. Network: The network layer is used to route data between different nodes on the network. It uses addresses to be able to tell which computer to send information to. This layer can also break apart larger messages into smaller chunks to be reassembled on the opposite end. Data Link: This layer is implemented as a method of establishing and maintaining reliable links between different nodes or devices on a network using existing physical connections.
Physical: The physical layer is responsible for handling the actual physical devices that are used to make a connection. This layer involves the bare software that manages physical connections as well as the hardware itself like Ethernet.
As you can see, there are many different layers that can be discussed based on their proximity to bare hardware and the functionality that they provide.
It defines the four separate layers, some of which overlap with the OSI model: Application: In this model, the application layer is responsible for creating and transmitting user data between applications.
The applications can be on remote systems, and should appear to operate as if locally to the end user.
The communication is said to take place between peers. Transport: The transport layer is responsible for communication between processes. This level of networking utilizes ports to address different services. It can build up unreliable or reliable connections depending on the type of protocol used. Internet: The internet layer is used to transport data from node to node in a network. This layer is aware of the endpoints of the connections, but does not worry about the actual connection needed to get from one place to another.
IP addresses are defined in this layer as a way of reaching remote systems in an addressable manner. Link: The link layer implements the actual topology of the local network that allows the internet layer to present an addressable interface. Through internet more than fifty million people in countries around the world have been connected.
Soon after the people from different backgrounds such as engineers, scientists, students and researchers started using the network for exchanging information and messages.
It comprises of millions of computing devices that carry and transfer volumes of information from one device to the other. Desktop computers, mainframes, GPS units, cell phones, car alarms, video game consoles, are connected to the Net.
World Wide Web. By the end of , the first Web page was served.
In April , the World Wide Web technology was available for anyone to use on a royalty-free basis. Since that time, the web has changed the world. It has perhaps become the most powerful communication medium the world has ever known. A global web of computers known as the Internet, allows individuals to communicate with each other often called the world wide web.
Introduction to the Internet Protocols
Make sure that you access your Internet provider with a local telephone call--otherwise, long distance charges will apply. The easiest way for new users to navigate the Internet may be through the "gopher," a navigational system that uses a series of menus to organize and provide access to information.
Unfortunately, "gopher," while easy to use, provides text-only information. This system organizes information to provide for linkages to related documents hypertext links , which allow users to move quickly and easily to related documents. Software such as Mosaic and Netscape give users a graphical interface and theoretically allow for effortless "point and click" travel through cyberspace.
An Introduction to the Internet
If you want to use programs such as Mosaic and Netscape, you will need an up-to-date personal computer and a fast modem--the faster the better--but most users find the rewards worth the extra investment. What Information Is Available? A world of information awaits potential users, everything from job listings to travel guides to exotic locations to movie reviews to full text versions of many of the classics.
On a single session on the Internet, you can Visit science museums to learn about the human heart , view the earth from space , or dissect a frog ; Listen to Bach played on the 10th largest pipe organ in the world; and then Visit Paris, where you can check out the Metro , visit the Louvre yes, you can view the Mona Lisa , and drop into a sidewalk cafe --but you'll need to provide your own espresso! As these examples show, the Internet contains a wide variety of information, much of it free.
Because of copyright issues, the free material is most likely to be material in the public domain, material for which the copyright has expired, or government documents. You won't find a free copy legally, anyway of the latest best seller on the Internet, but you will find on-line newspapers, catalogs for mail-order companies, movie review databases, and a wide variety of government publications.
Some sites will have both WWW sites and gopher sites. If you have the choice, start with the WWW site--it's usually much more interesting. Examples of a few of the governmental resources available on the Internet are: The White House home page, which provides information on the First Family, White House press releases, Presidential addresses, and links to other branches of government.
If you don't have WWW access, the Library of Congress MARVEL is a gopher-based system that provides links to a large collection of information from the Federal government, including full-text copies of Federal legislation and Congressional publications. The U. While you're at the ED site, be sure to visit the Home Page for the National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students , where you will find information on research activities, grant opportunities, and special projects sponsored by the Institute.
The Educational Resources Information Center ERIC , a federally funded national information system that provides access to an extensive body of education-related resources.
With this address, you can connect directly to the location.It is probably not worth fighting this habit. Riley, Secretary of Education Sharon P.
Fiber-optics allows unsurpassed connection speeds, both upload, and download. A directory search is the other kind of search hat some sites allow and it uses lists of categories instead of a search box. In April , the World Wide Web technology was available for anyone to use on a royalty-free basis.
By the end of , the first Web page was served.
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