HANDBOOK OF HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS PDF
View Table of Contents for Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis survey of the principles and applications of heterogeneous catalysis!. Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis. First published: 15 March Print ISBN: | Online ISBN: | DOI: /. Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis. 8 Volumes. Edited by. Gerhard Ertl, Helmut Knozinger, Ferdi Schuth,. andJens Weitkamp. Second, Completely Revised.
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Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis. Chapter · March with 98 Reads. DOI: /hetcat In book: Handbook of Heterogeneous . learning, reading, note taking, writing—is worth your while. There are, of course, some Chapter 3 introduces the ski 1 DOI: /anie Review. Vol. 3 5 Elementary Steps and Mechanisms 6 Kinetics and Transport Processes 7 Deactivation and Regeneration 8 Special Catalytic Systems.
Catalytic oxidation of nitric oxide NO with carbonaceous materials. RSC Adv. Photocatalytic abatement of NOx pollutants in the air using commercial functional coating with porous morphology. Anatase TiO2 nanotube arrays and titania films on titanium mesh for photocatalytic NOX removal and water cleaning.
Photocatalytic coatings - promising way to improve a quality of urban building surfaces. Plasma-based indoor air cleaning technologies: The state of the art-review. Using box modeling to determine photodegradation coefficients describing the removal of gaseous formaldehyde from indoor air. Aerosol Air Qual Res. Recent progress in the removal of volatile organic compounds by mesoporous silica materials and supported catalysts.
Acta Phys - Chim Sin.
Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis
A sustained approach to environmental catalysis: Reutilization of chromium from wastewater. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. Development of catalyst-sorbents for simultaneous removal of SO2 from flue gas by low temperature ozone oxidation.
Ozone Sci Eng. Direct reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur with hydrogen over Sn-Zr-based catalysts. Ind Eng Chem Res.
Taming interfacial oxygen vacancies of amphiphilic tungsten oxide for enhanced catalysis in oxidative desulfurization. Nanotechnology in Oil and Gas Industries. Cham: Springer Int Publishing; A review on the visible light active titanium dioxide photocatalysts for environmental applications.
Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode. Influence of agglomeration and aggregation on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles. Effect of TiO2 morphology on structure of TiO2-graphene oxide nanocomposite synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method.
J Alloys Compd. Three-dimensional interconnected mesoporous anatase TiO2 exhibiting unique photocatalytic performances. TiO2 immobilised on biopolymer nanofibers for the removal of bisphenol A and diclofenac from water. TiO2 based photocatalytic membranes: A review. J Memb Sci. Compact and uniform TiO2 g-C3N4 core-shell quantum heterojunction for photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline antibiotics. Core-shell g-C3N4 ZnO composites as photoanodes with double synergistic effects for enhanced visible-light photoelectrocatalytic activities.
The effect of surface heterojunction between and facets on photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO2. Mater Lett. Challenges in photocatalytic reduction of nitrate as a water treatment technology.
Sci Total Environ. Degradation of emerging concern contaminants in water by heterogeneous photocatalysis with Na4W10O Rapid syntheses of ultrafine LaMnO3 nano-crystallites with superior activity for catalytic oxidation of toluene. Catal Commun. Visible light photocatalysis over solid acid: Enhanced by gold plasmonic effect.
Biodegradability of agro-industrial wastewater photo treatment by heterogeneous catalysis. Photocatalytic degradation pathway of methylene blue in water. Direct photocatalysis by plasmonic nanostructures.
Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, 2nd edn, in 8 vols
Chem Commun. A visible light-driven plasmonic photocatalyst. Light Sci Appl. Plasmon induced enhanced photocatalytic activity of gold loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for methylene blue degradation under visible light.
Tailored Au TiO2 nanostructures for the plasmonic effect in planar perovskite solar cells. Multifunctional homopolymer vesicles for facile immobilization of gold nanoparticles and effective water remediation.
ACS Nano. Gold catalysts in environmental remediation and water-gas shift technologies. Energy Environ Sci. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using silver nanoparticles with adjustable activity. Rapidly constructing multiple AuPt nanoalloy yolk shell hollow particles in ordered mesoporous silica microspheres for highly efficient catalysis. Remediation of wastewater using various nano-materials.
Arab J Chem. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals using electrochemical activation of peroxomonosulfate, peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide. J Hazard Mater. An effect of iron III oxides crystallinity on their catalytic efficiency and applicability in phenol degradation-A competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Environmental heterogeneous catalysis and water purification by activated interfaces: a survey of different ways of surface activation and demonstration of a novel, simple and efficient procedure.
The use of zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment: a review. Use of various zero valent irons for degradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes.
Activation of peroxymonosulfate by carbonaceous oxygen groups: experimental and density functional theory calculations. Remediation of hexachlorocyclohexanes by cobalt-mediated activation of peroxymonosulfate. Desalin Water Treat. The impact of peroxydisulphate and peroxymonosulphate on disintegration and settleability of activated sludge.
Environ Technol United Kingdom. A novel approach for simultaneous improvement of dewaterability, post-digestion liquor properties and toluene removal from anaerobically digested sludge. Activated persulfate for organic chemical degradation: A review. Activation of persulfates by carbon nanotubes: Oxidation of organic compounds by nonradical mechanism.
Insights into heterogeneous catalysis of persulfate activation on dimensional-structured nanocarbons. Metal-free catalysis of persulfate activation and organic-pollutant degradation by nitrogen-doped graphene and aminated graphene. Environ Pollut.
Persulfate activation by subsurface minerals. J Contam Hydrol. Field assessment of nanoscale bimetallic particles for groundwater treatment. Environ Sci Technol. Degradation of lindane by zero-valent iron nanoparticles.
J Environ Eng. Removal of arsenic III, V from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero-valent iron stabilized with starch and carboxymethyl cellulose. J Environ Heal Sci Eng. Electrospun membrane composed of poly [acrylonitrile-co- methyl acrylate -co- itaconic acid ] terpolymer and ZVI nanoparticles and its application for the removal of arsenic from water. Removal of arsenic from water by supported nano zero-valent iron on activated carbon. Gum karaya Sterculia urens stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles: characterization and applications for the removal of chromium and volatile organic pollutants from water.
A field-validated model for in situ transport of polymer-stabilized nZVI and implications for subsurface injection. The main concern for this situation is the need for reusable chiral catalysts for industrial implementation. When relevant, we will present our Handbook of Asymmetric Heterogeneous Catalysis. For in-depth discussions and a comprehensive elaboration of each technique, the reader is referred to excellent recent reviews [12—16] and the ensuing chapters in this handbook, all of which have been written by scientists with expertise in these areas of research.
The main goal for the development of an immobilized chiral catalyst is to combine the positive aspects of a homogeneous catalyst e. Over the past few decades, a number of strategies have been developed for this purpose.
Soluble chiral catalysts bearing linear polymer supports or dendritic ligands. In the latter case, these liquids can form biphasic systems with the immiscible organic product liquid, thus giving rise to the possibility of an easy isolation and recovery of the chiral catalysts by phase separation. An important option to the Figure 1. In order to apply an immobilized chiral catalyst to a chemical process, it is often necessary to make a critical evaluation in terms of its activity, productivity, enantioselectivity, stability, ease of recovery and reusability, and so on.
An ideal immobilized catalyst should not only exhibit activity and selectivity comparable or superior to its homogeneous counterpart, but also be easily recoverable from the reaction stream without metal leaching, and reusable for many runs without any loss of catalytic performance.
Unfortunately, this is seldom found in real-world cases, and numerous problems can occur during the immobilization of a homogeneous catalyst. For example, in a supported chiral catalyst, one often-observed negative effect is the lower catalytic activity even complete deactivation compared to a homogeneous catalyst, as a result of the poor accessibility of the active sites in the solid matrix. On the other hand, the geometry of an optimized homogeneous catalyst can be unintentionally disturbed by interactions with the support, and this often leads to a negative change in enantioselectivity.
For this reason, the support material and the linkage for immobilization should have good mechanical, thermal and chemical stabilities in order to withstand the reaction conditions used in the catalytic process. In addition, the issue of the robustness of the complex itself can be nontrivial. Immobilization is sometimes found to decrease complex degradation by virtue of steric constraints imposed by the supporting matrix, and thus may improve the stability of an immobilized catalyst relative to its homogeneous analogues.
For these reasons, the stability issue of an immobilized catalyst must be addressed on a case-by-case basis, by including the data on catalyst leaching into the product phase for assessing the potential degree of catalyst decomposition.
In this regard, numerous immobilized asymmetric catalytic systems have been examined over a broad range of reactions, and a number of innovative techniques for chiral catalyst immobilization have emerged during the past two decades. Several distinct types of strategy, featuring covalent bonds or noncovalent interactions e. Each of these immobilization strategies has advantages and limitations with respect to the others.
Covalent bonding linkage Figure 1. However, it is synthetically demanding since generally some special functionalization of the ligand is required, either for grafting to a preformed support or for forming an organic polymer by copolymerization with a suitable monomer.
In contrast, a major advantage of noncovalent immobilization in general is the ease of catalyst preparation, often without the need for prior functionalization of the ligand. Adsorption Figure 1.
Immobilization by electrostatic interaction Figure 1. Here, the solid support can be either anionic or cationic, and the catalyst is adsorbed by ion-pairing. Figure 1. Although this approach can provide relatively stable immobilized catalysts, it is still limited to the catalysts which can lend themselves to immobilization through electrostatic interaction. Furthermore, competition with ionic species either present in or produced during the reaction in solution may result in catalyst instability and leaching.
Finally, the catalytic complex can also be entrapped within the pores of some solid matrix Figure 1. In this entrapment methodology, the size of the metal complex relative to that of the window or tunnel of a porous solid is the factor of paramount importance, leading to a mechanically immobilized catalyst.
Although conceptually very elegant, the entrapment strategy is relatively complex to implement compared with the other methods, and the size of the substrate molecules may cause diffusion problems in the catalysis. Although covalent bonding remains the most popular approach to chiral catalyst immobilization mainly due to stability advantages , examples illustrated in the following chapters in this Handbook have shown that noncovalent immobilizations are gaining increasing recognition as a feasible way to achieve good stability and reusability as well as high selectivity and activity of an immobilized chiral catalyst.
A salient feature of the insoluble solid-supported catalysts is their easy recovery. Inorganic solids such as silicas, mesoporous solids e.
MCM, SBA , zeolites and clays have been widely used as supports for the immobilization of various homogeneous chiral catalysts [14, 24—30].
Handbook of heterogeneous catalysis - second, completely revised and enlarged edition - volume 5
Depending on the properties of the complex and the structure of the support, the immobilization strategies can encompass the whole spectra of aforementioned interactions, from physical entrapment to covalent bonding. For example, zeolites are crystalline microporous aluminosilicates with interior cavities accessible to small reactants from the solution. One advantage of the zeolite-entrapped catalyst is that the zeolite can impose shape selectivity to the catalytic system; that is, only those substrates with appropriate size and shape can reach the catalyst and 5 6 1 An Overview of Heterogeneous Asymmetric Catalysis react.
Zeolite entrapment may also lead to a better catalyst stability as a result of protection of the inert framework. Alternative inorganic solids were also examined as supports, for example, to immobilize the catalytic complex on the external surface of an nonporous solid such as amorphous silica, or in the interior of porous solids with void dimensions larger than zeolites.
The immobilization of an electrically charged homogeneous complex by electrostatic interaction with the surface of the inorganic support is an attractive method owing to the experimental simplicity of the procedure. In this regard, lamellar solids bearing charged layers clays such as montmorillonite K10, laponite or bentonite have been used as supports to immobilize a variety of charged chiral metal complexes via simple anionexchange procedures. Usually, these immobilization approaches do not necessarily require special functionalization of the ligand part.
In contrast, immobilization by covalent binding of a catalyst to an inorganic support is generally accomplished by reacting complementary functional groups — one located on the solid and the other at the complex moiety — to create a new covalent bond connecting the solid and the complex.
Although a large variety of functional groups have been shown to be applicable for this purpose, and despite strong immobilization not necessarily being expected, the approach suffered from the major drawback of a need for extensive organic synthesis.
The use of inorganic solids can demonstrate certain advantages over other types of support. In general, the rigid framework can prevent the aggregation of active catalysts which sometimes leads to the formation of inactive multinuclear species. The chemical and thermal stabilities of the inorganic supports are also superior, rendering them compatible with a broad range of reagents and relatively harsh reaction conditions.
Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis
Compared with organic polymeric supports, inorganic solids are generally superior in their mechanical properties, which makes them less prone to attrition caused by stirring and solvent attack. The use of an inorganic support for the immobilization of homogeneous chiral catalysts has been a steadily expanding area of research during recent years, as evidenced by the numerous examples described in Chapter 2. To date, a wide variety of polymer-supported chiral complexes have been prepared and tested over a broad spectrum of synthetic reactions.
Some systems have demonstrated catalytic performances activity and selectivity rivaling their homogeneous counterparts in certain model reactions, with the additional advantages of easy recovery and reusability. By virtue of its good chemical inertness, ready availability and ease of functionalization, polystyrene crosslinked with various amounts of p-divinylbenzene DVB is the most popular insoluble organic polymer support used in chiral catalyst immobilization. For the covalent immobilization of a homogeneous catalyst to an insoluble polymer support, two different approaches have been employed, depending on whether the polymer is formed in or before the process.
One approach is to use a solid-phase synthesis, starting with a preformed functionalized polymer and anchoring the suitably derivatized chiral ligand or complex by stepwise assembly of the components. A wide array of commercially available functionalized polymers with a large variety of functional groups including chloromethyl, hydroxyl, amino, thiol or pyridine rings can be used for this purpose, and a large number of chiral ligands have been immobilized to the polystyrene support using this method.
Print ISBN: About this book The first comprehensive survey of the principles and applications of heterogeneous catalysis! Simultaneously, literature on heterogeneous catalysis has become increasingly widespread and difficult to follow. This handbook collects the available knowledge on heterogeneous catalysis and provides the reader with easy-to-find yet comprehensive information.
With contributions from more than leading experts from all over the world it covers all aspects of the subject, from physico-chemical foundations to large-scale industrial applications.
With its highly topical contributions, the straightforward presentation of the material and its comprehensive coverage, this handbook sets new standards.
Saving you the time for laborious searches for information, it is an indispensable tool for every scientist working in heterogeneous catalysis. Reviews Obwohl an diesem anspruchsvollen Werk mehr als Autoren mitgewirkt haben und die Erstellung mehrere Jahre gedauert hat, Der PreisPlasmon induced enhanced photocatalytic activity of gold loaded hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for methylene blue degradation under visible light.
Carbon-based metal-free catalysts. Popular in Chemical Process Engineering. Towards the understanding of sintering phenomena at the nanoscale: Geometric and environmental effects. Zeit Phys Chemie. Wiley Int I consider this series to be a resource that will be invaluable to those in academia as well as to scientists in industrial and government laboratories and perhaps indispensable to researchers working in small industrial laboratories that have limited library facilities.
The immobilization of an electrically charged homogeneous complex by electrostatic interaction with the surface of the inorganic support is an attractive method owing to the experimental simplicity of the procedure.