BRITAIN JAMES O DRISCOLL PDF
Jam es O ' Driscoll BRITAIN FOR LEARNERS OF ENGLISH James O 'Driscoll BRITAIN FOR LEA R N ER S OF ENGLISH OXFORD OXTORD U N IV E R S IT Y . 'Britain bans EC Medals' from News Digest, The Sunday Times, (Gamma, T Bitchburn), 65 (K Bernstein/ESP) Britain. James O'Driscoll. Oxford University Press. Britain - The Country and its People by James O'myavr.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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This book is for learners of English as a foreign language, n any level of proficiency from intermediate upwards, who need to know more about Britain. It will be. aspects of great britain summary chapter and country and people identity the origin of the adjective 'great' in the name great britain was not piece of. Britain consists of four separate nations that were slowly unified over a period of For more detail see Britain for Learners of English by James O'Driscoll.
Politically speaking. The four nations. The dominance of England. National loyalties.
Chapter 2 History. The Roman period 43 The Germanic invasions The medieval period The sixteenth century. The seventeenth century. The eighteenth century. The nineteenth century. The twentieth century. Chapter 3 Geography. Land and settlement. The environment and pollution. Southern England. The Midlands. Northern England. Northern Ireland. Chapter 4 Identity.
Ethnic identity: the native British. Ethnic identity: the non-native British. The family. Geographical identity. Men and women. Religious and political identity. Social and everyday contacts. Identity in Northern Ireland. Being British. Chapter 5 Attitudes. Stereotypes and change. English versus British. Being different. The love of nature. The love of animals.
Formality and informality. Public spiritedness and amateurism. Privacy and sex. Chapter 6 Political life. The public attitude to politics. The style of democracy. The constitution. The style of polities.
The party system.
The modern situation. Chapter 7 The monarchy. The appearance: The reality. The role of the monarch. The value of the monarchy. Each has a complete internal self-government, including its own parliament and its own tax system. Both are ruled by a Lieutenant Governor appointed by the British government. This is not correct and its use can make some people angry. England is only one of the four nations in this part of the world. The others are Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Their political unification was a gradual process that took several hundred years.
It was completed in when the Irish parliament was joined with the parliament for England, Scotland and Wales in Westminster so that the whole area became a single state that was known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. W hatever the reason. In In addit ion. But by the end of the First World War. Cha nnel tunnel o pens. The Suffrage ttes. Britain w as no longer the world's richest count ry. Just one thing shou ld be not ed here.
O'Driscoll James. Britain. The Country and its People
In Parliament. The 'age o f majorit y' the age at which Britain joins the European Economic so mebod y legall y beco mes an adult is Community. Ro semary Sutcliffe an d Henry and Geo ffrey Treece are good exam ples. Th e w ritings o f Geo rget te Heyer.
What is significant about the dat e ' similar to those that have oc curred in yo ur 3 Which of th e famous names in popular British countr y? This typi c. Are the changes that ha ve taken place deliberate. Episo des are largely histo rical in co nten t and very in teresting. Ox ford is a very readable history of Brita in. Norah Lofts. What reasons can yo u find in this chapter which migh t help to expla in th is stability?
Jean Plaid y. It took a long time to prepare 5 How would yo u de scribe th e chang ing relation- this pa ckage but the decision to publish it in ship be tween religion and politics in British and not.
Britain has mountains.. EA More than The po pu lar belief that it rains all the time in Britain is sim ply not true.. The lack of ex trem es is the reason wh y.
The mild winters mean that snow is a regular featur e of the higher area s o nly. There is a saying th at Britain doesn't have a climate. Thi s is its changeability.. Th e image of a wet. London gets no m ore rain in a year than m ost ot her m ajor European cit ies The w in ters are in ge ne ral a bit co lde r in the east o fthe co untry than they are in the west. It m ay not rain very much alto gether These things happen so rarely tha t it is no t worth o rganizing life to be ready for them Gene rally spea king How wet is Britain?
Annual total rainfall approximate in so me European cities west east In fact A bit of sno w and a few days of frost and the trains SlOp working an d the roads are blo cked. Wh y has Britain 's climate gO suc h a bad reputa tion? Perhaps it is for th e same reaso n that British people always seem to be talking about the wea the r.
The am ount of rain that falls on a lawn in Britain depe nd s o n w he re it is.. One di stinctive human influence. The Hol beck Hotel falling into thesea Most people in Britain are happier using the Fahrenhe it scale of measurement F.
This instead of seeing fifteen me tres of feature increases the impression ofvariety. When Ireland.. Although many hedgerow s hote l garden.
But thi s does not mean that its landscape is Every year. During the da y various rooms of the hot el bird-life. H ow hot o r c old is Britain? What it lacks in grandeur it makes up for in variet y.
The for ests that on ce covere d been the best hot el in town for J J 0 the land have largely di sappeared.. It has often lime s the land slips away slowly.. In a dram atic example is comparatively low -lyin g TheBritish landscape The vanish into the North Sea..
Th e vanishi ng co a stlin e Britain has neither towering mountain ranges. The re was no time to have dug them up to increase the size of their fields an d become more collect their belongings.
Hnle bits of the east coast boring. They had to efficient.. Britain has a grea ter proporti on years. To them But been rem arked that a journey of 10 0 m iles 1 6 0 kilometres can. Some- scenery changes noticeably over quite short d istances Hun - dreds of them watched the action throughout the day. Land and sett lement 33 Land and settlement. Moun tainous areas are found only in the north and The Holbc ck Hotel.
Ty ne "'- Norwich. Greater London has abo ut three tim es the popu- latio n o f greater Athe ns but it occupies len tim es the area afland. Thi s image is no w out of date. The British Isles: The situation in London reached its w orst po int in Water pollution wa s also a problem.
In the ninet eenth century Londo n 's 'pea -soupcrs ' thick smogs became famo us thro ugh descriptio ns of them in the works of Charles Dickens and in the Sherlock Holmes sto ries. As the world 's first indu strialized co untry. On some occ asio ns it is bad enough to prompt official advice that certain people such as asthma sufferers should not even leave their ho uses.
At one time. The env ironmen t and pollution 3 S- Much of the land is used for human hab itation.
At the end of that year a part icularly bad smog. There are areas o f co m pletely open countryside ever ywhere and so me o f the m ountainous areas remain virtually untouched. This is not just because Britain is den sely populated e.
Partly because of their desire for privacy and their love of the country- side see chap ter 5. This problem has become so serio us that the television weather forecast now regularl y issues warnings o f 'poor air quality'. Until the s. The en vironment and pollution It w as in Britain that the word 'smog ' wa s first used to describe a mix ture of smoke and fog. In the nineteenth century it was once suggested that th e Houses of Parliament should be wrapped in eno rmous wet shee ts to pro tec t tho se inside from the awfu l smell of the RiverThames.
The square mile is home to the cou ntry's main finan - cial organizati ons. It contains the headqu arters o f the national tele visio n netwo rks and o f all the national newspapers. Toda y. This popularit y is probably the result of its com bination o f ap parent ly infinite cul- tural variet y and a lo ng hi story which ha s left man y visi ble signs o f its richness and drama.
In common with many o ther European cit ies. There are m any ot her pans of cen tral Lo nd o n w hich have their own distinctive characters.
Like ma ny larg e cities. It is kno w n co lloq uially today as 'the sq uare m ile " It did not co n tain Parlia m ent or the ro yal co urt. The former is known for its man y theatres.
It is th e home of the Cockney see chap ter 4 an d in the twen tie th ce ntury large numbers of imm ig rants se ttled the re. It is losing its place as one o f the world 's big gest finan cial ce ntres an d. Although all of Britain's cities have so me degree of cu ltural and racial variety. A survey car ried out in th e s found that different languages w ere spoke n in the homes o f just o ne district.
It is the country's business and bankin g ce ntre and the centre o f its trans po rt network. And it is not only tour ists w ho like visiting London. These suburbs cover a vast area o fl and. The latt er is known as the po o rer rcsidcnrial area of central Lo nd on.
It is home for the headquarter s of all government departmen ts. About a fifth of the total populat ion of th e UK lives in the Greater London area. Th e o rig inal wall ed cit y ofLondon was q uite small. During the da ytime. The maj ority o f 'Londoners' live in its suburbs. Parli am ent. London is in so me w ays unt ypi cal o f the rest o f th e co u ntry in tha t it is so co smopolitan.
In recent years it has been claimed that Lo ndo n is in decline. It is about seve n times larger than any other city in th e co u n try. It wa s in Westminster. South ern England The area surrou nding the outer suburbs of London has the repu tatio n of being 'co mm uter land'.
This is the most densely populated area in the U K wh ich does not include a large city, and mill ion s of its inhabitants travel into Londo n to w ork every day. Further out from Londo n the region has more ofits own di stinctive character. The county of Kent, w hich you pass thro ugh when travel- ling from Dover or the Channel tunnel to London, is known as 't he garde n of England ' because o f th e man y kind s offru it and vegetables grown there. The Downs, a series of hills in a horseshoe shape to the south ofLondon, are used for shee p farm ing though not as intens- ively as they used to be.
The son them side o f the Down s reaches the sea in many places and for ms the white cliffs o f the south coast. Man y retired people live along this coast. Emplo yment in the south-e ast of England is mainly in trade, the provision o fservices and ligh t manufac- turing. There is little heavy industry. It has therefore not suffered the slow econo m ic declin e of man y ot her part s of England.
The regi on know n as 'the West Country' has an attractive image of rural beaut y in British peop le's minds - not ice the use o f the word 'country' in its nam e. There is so me industry and on e large city Bristol wa s once Britain's mos t im por tant po rt after London , bu t farming is m ore widespread than it is in most o ther reg ions.
Some parts o f th e we st country are we ll-known for their dairy produc e, Farmland in southeast England such as Devonshi re cream , and fruit. The so uth-west pe ninsu la, wit h its roc ky coast, numerous sma ll bays once noted for sm ugglin g activities and w ild m oorlands such as Exmoor and Dartmoor, is the most popular holida y area in Britain.
The winters are so mild in so m e low-lying parts that it is even possible to grow palm tree s, and the tourist industry has co ined the phra se 't he English Riviera'. East Anglia , to the north-east ofLondon, is also comparatively rural. It is the o nly regi on in Britain where there are large expanses of uniformly flatland.
This flatness, together with the com paratively dry climate, has mad e it the main area in the co un try for the growing of w heat and other arabl e crops. Part of this regi on , the area known as the Fens, has been reclaimed from the sea, and mu ch of it still has a very watery, misty feel to it.
The Nor folk Broad s, for exam ple, are criss-crossed by hundred s o f waterways but the re are no towns here, so thi s is a pop ular area for boating holidays. During the Indu strial Revolut ion see chapte r 2 , Birm ingham, and the sur ro und ing area o f th e West Midl and s sometim es kno wn as the Black Country developed into th e co untry 's major engineering centre.
Despit e the decline of heavy industry in modern tim es , factor ies in thi s area still co nv ert iron and steel into a vast variety of goods. Th e north-so ut h divide There arc other indu strial areas in the Midlands, notabl y the town s The re arc many aspects ofltfe in between the Black Country and Manc hest er known as The Pott eries Britain which illustrate the so-called famous for producing china such as that made at the factori es of 'no rth-so uth divid e', This is a well- Wedgewood , Spode and Minton , and several towns in the East known fact o f Brirish life.
On the east there is no actual geographical coast, Grim sby, although a com paratively sm all town, is one of bo unda ry. Basically , the south has almost always bee n mo re prosper- Britain's most important fishing pons. This is especially true of count ry' ce nt red on Stratford -upon-Avon, Sha kespe are's the sout h-eastern area surrounding birthplace , and No ttingham has suc cessfully capitalized on th e London.
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Th is area is often referred legend of Robin Hood see chapter 2. Th e w ord 'home' in this co ntext high lights the im po rtance attached to London and Northern England its dom ination of public life. The Pennine mountains run up the middle o f northern England like a sp ine. On either side , the large deposits of coal u sed to provid e power and iron ore used to make machiner y en abled the se area s to lead the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century.
Many o ther towns sprang up on both sides of the Pennines at this time , as a result o f the grow th o f certain auxiliary industries and of coal mi nin g. Further south, Sheffield became a cen tre for the produc- tio n of stee l goo ds. Furt he r north , around Newcastle, sh ipbuild in g was the majo r industry. An industrial town in northern England In the m inds of British people the pro totype o f the noi sy, dirty factory that sym bolizes the Ind ustrial Revol ution is found in the ind us- trial north.
But the achievemen ts o f these new industrial towns also induce d il feeling of civic pride in their inhabitant s and an energetic realism, epitomized by the cliched saying 'where there's muck there's bra ss' wherever there is dirt , there is money to be made.
The decline in heavy industry in Europe in the seco nd half of the twentieth cen tur y hit the industrial north of England hard. For a long tim e, the region as a w hole ha s had a level o f un employm ent significantly above the national average. The towns on either side ofthe Pennines are flanked by steep slopes on which it is difficult to build and are surrounde d by land most of which is un suitable for an y agr iculture othe r th an sheep farming.
Therefore , the pattern of settlement in the north of England is oft en different from that in th e sout h. Op en and uninhabited co untryside is never far away from its cities and tow ns.
The typically industrial and the very rural interloc k. The wild , windswept moors which are the sening for Emily Brame 's famou s novel Wuthering Heights seem a world away from the smoke and grime of urba n life - in fact, they are just up the ro ad about 15 kilometres from Bradford '. Further away from the ma in ind ustrial areas , the north of England is sparsely populated.
In the north -western corner of th e country is the Lake District. The Romantic poets of the nineteenth century, Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey the ' Lake Poets , lived here and wrote about its beauty. It is the favourite destination of people who enjoy wa lking ho lidays and the whole area is classified as a National Park the largest in Engl and.
Scotland Scotland has three fairly clearly-marked regions. Just north of the border with England are the southern up lands , an area of small towns , qu ite far apart from each other, whose econo my depends to a large extent on sheep farmin g.
Further no rth, there is the central plain. Finally, there are the highlands, con sisting of mountains and deep valleys and including numerous sm all islands off the we st coast. This area of spectacular natural beauty occupies the same land area as southern England bu t fewe r than a mill ion people live there.
Touri sm is important in the local eco nomy , and so is the production ofwhisky. In recent times , this reg ion has had m any of the same difficult ies as the industrial north of England , althoug h th e No rth Sea oil ind ustry has help ed to keep unem ployment dow n, Sco tland 's tw o m ajor cities have very different reputations. Glasgow is the third largest city in Britain, It is associated with heavy industry and som e of the w orst housing conditions in Britain the district called the Gorbals.
However, thi s image is one-sided, Glasgow has a strong arti stic heritage. A hundred years ago the work of the Glasgow School led by Mackintosh put the city at the forefro nt of European design and architect ure.
In J , it was the European City of Culture. Over the centuries, Glasgow has received ma ny immig- rants from Ireland and in some wa ys it reflects the di vision s in the com munity that exist in Northern Ireland see chapter 4.
For exam ple, ofits two rival football teams , one is Catholic Celtic and the other is Protestant Range rs.
Summary - Britain - for Learners of English
Edinburgh, whic h is half the size of Glasgow, has a comparatively mid dle-cla ss im age although class differences between the two cities are not really very great. It is the capital of Scotland and is associated wi th scholarship , the law and adm inistration.
This repu ta- tion , toge ther w ith its man y fine histor ic buil dings, and also perhaps its topograph y there is a rock in the middle of the city on which stands the castle has led to its being called 't he Athens of the north '.
The annual Edinburgh Festival of the arts is internationally famous see chapter Wales As in Scotland. In the We lsh case, it is the so uth- east of the country that is mo st heavily populated. Coal has been m ined in man y pan s of Britain. Despite its indu stry. It is the only part of Britain with a high proportion o f industri al villages. Coal mining in sout h Wales has now ceased and, as elsew here, the transitio n to o ther forms o f em ployme nt has been slow and painful. Most of the rest of Wa les is mountainous.
Because of this, com- mu nica tio n between so uth and nor th is very difficult. As a result , each part of Wales has closer con tact wi th its neighbouring part of England than it does w ith ot her pa rts of Wales: The area around Mount Snowdo n in the no rth-west of the country is very beautiful and is the larges t Nat ional Park in Britain.
Northern Ireland Wi th the exce ptio n of Belfast , w hich is fam ous for the manufacture of linen and w hich is still a shipbuilding City , thi s region is, like the res t ofIreland, largely agricu ltura l. It has several areas of spectacu- lar natural beaut y. One of these is the Giant's Causew ay o n its north coast, so-called becau se the ro cks in the area form w hat lo ok like eno rmous step pin g stones.
More rece ntly. W hy do yo u thin k this is? W hich arc the regi on s in Britain that seem to 3 Does the capi tal city of yo ur count ry stand in the have the higher profiles' What do their reputa- same relation to the rest o f the country as tio ns co ns ist of? London does LO Britain? The action in Thomas Hard y's novel s. Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte has the York- shire moors as its se ll ing.
This is partly because some reg ions have would like to visit for a holiday' Why not? Is this the same part that you others.
But nei ther has a 'South of Eng land' correspondent. Graham Sw ift's no ve l Waterland Picador. Seath and W hite Oxford University Press is a book written for the non-native student of Britain using a geographical approach. Questions and sug gestions. Eth nic id entity: For people living in Scotland. For som e people living in England who call them selves Scottish. This is partly because o f the historical cultural split between highland and lowland Scotland see chapter 2.
Wales and Northern Ireland. Peopl e in Scot - land have constant reminders of thei r distincti ven ess. This chap ter explores the loyalties and senses of identity most typic- ally felt by British peop le. Welsh or Irish. It has man y features which are different from othe r forms of English and cannot usually be understood by peopl e who are not Scottish.
Agenu- inely Scottish Gaelic sense of cultural identity is. But fo r others. These peop le speak Scottish Gaelic w hich they call 'Gallic' as a first language. A modern form o f the dialect known as Scots see chapter 2 is spoken in everyday life by mo st of the wor king classes in the lowl and s.
These clubs promote natio nal folk music. Everybod y has an image of themselves. It is very important that yo u are a member o f a particular family.
Wh at docs it mean to be Scottish'. The Sunday Times. Bucci euc hs 7 practicall y destro yed High land Scot. Burn s' supper. Pse udo-Scotti sh. Scots are prepared 3 'loch' is Gaelic for 'lake' ancie nt ceremonies were invented. Kilts worn wit h frilly I adore the fierce romant ic. It means that w e Prince Charlie. Bonnie for the rest of us Scots. Her e are two op pos ing views of th is way of ce lebrat ing Sco u ishness.
Many Scottish Scots hate the ro man. The ceremoniol cutting ofthe haggis at a Bums' supper The sent ime nta l nat io nalist The realpolitik! Scot doesn 't see it ma tch es at Murrayfield.
Dun no. Th e n ative British 43 ' What doe s it m e an to be Scottish? On 25 Jan uar y eve ry yea r. Thi s usc o f Scontsh symbols by 23 january 19 94 ad apt ed tic. But 1 feel moved by the pipes. Gay furious. At these pa r ties th ey read fro m th e w ork o f the eight eenth cent ury poet Rober t Burns regar ded as Sco tla nd's na tio nal poet. Scott did they are. In a to suffer the bor ed om of these occa. His phlegm. He on ly relates to heavy ind us.
No of Scotland invent ed by the Eng lish. The norm alizing of relati ons Th e realist choke on their haggis. English accent s because they w ent to o 'Shantc r! But z a rich fru it cake. But thes e pseudo-Scot s have figh t their wa y through haggi s and Tam heart is in the Gorbals. On Englishmen at the top of the heap and properly without coughing up Burns' Night. The people who arc really keen S the name o f a partic ular reel beggarly savages becam e a na tion of o n them aren 't Scottish at all.
Lions ram pant? The y think 6 th e Scottish nat ional football noble.. To them. I a pat riot ic British song w hi ch refers Under his d irection. And I hop e they all land.. Sir Walter tha t I would rath er sing a chorus of 23 january 19 94 adapted Scott. A A Gill.
35521566 Britain for Learners of English James O Driscoll Oxford
The sight of a man in a I the title of a poe m by Burns. The dour McStalin.
And Burns' suppers? The Far- In the eighteenth century. In additi on. The warning letter and there are extremist groups who at their village shop. Ray Sulton refused to fee l a certain ho stility w the check their mail and car for bo mbs. For these peopl e Welsh identity obv iously means mor e than just living in the region kno wn as Wales. Ray and Jan Suno n Last year. Welsh shows sig ns o f continued Vitality. Nor are there as man y well-known symbo ls of Welshness. Moreove r. Julian Cayo-Evans.
The shop's English cultural invas ion of their Targeted last w eek by arsonists. The Suttons are ho lding out co lonist.
Everybod y in Wales can speak English. All chil dren in Wales learn it at school. The organization o f public life is sim ilar to that in England. You arc on Meibion the actions of one such group. Irish and English people we nt to find work there. Thanks to successive cam paigns. But sometimes it can be. You mus t leave burnt out o f the village store they Wales by the first of Marc h 3. You ng Welsh peop le are destructio n across north and west forced to emigrate whereas these Wales.
In the nineteenth century large numbers o f Scottish. Of Sons of Glendow er I. Ethnic identi ty: Most of the country's no n. For them.
O'Driscoll James. Britain. The Country and its People
There is plenty of evidence of this. Th ese immigr ants. There is qui te a lot of this in Britain. Nev ertheless. W ith m inor variatio ns. Part ly because of thi s. The situation for the seve ral millio n people in Britain whose fam ily roots lie in the Caribbean or in south Asia or elsewhere in the world is different. As well as this 'given ' identity. All in all. The great w ave ofimmigralion from th e Caribbean and so uth Asia took place be tween ' an d 19 Most no n-whites.
Pride can increase as a defen sive reaction to racial discrimination. The non-nat ive British 45" The question of identi ty in Northern Ireland is a much m ore complex issue and is dealt w ith at the end of this chapte r. Scottish an d Welsh people. Irish and Welsh have their o w n son gs. As for English identity. As th ey usually married among themselves. This pride seems to be increasing as th eir cultural practices.
For some yo ung people brough t up in Britain. There are tens of thousands of racially motivated attacks on people every year. It is still common to appo int peop le to certain roles on such occasio ns. Significant famil y events such as weddings. They do not imply lifelong responsibili ty. Divor ces have increased.. Family size Average number of persons per household People over the age of 6S living alone 2. It is unusual 25 for adults of di fferent generations within the family to live together Children born outside marriage The famil y in Britain In comparison w ith most other places in the world..
Family size.. This is reflected in the size and composition of households. There is littl e sense of 30 extended fam ily ide ntity.. The proportion of 15 elderly people living alone is similarly high e. Europe in Figures Children born outside marriage in Britain. For most people. Britain has a higher rate of divorce than Source: Key Data anyw here else in Europe except Denmark and the pro portion o f chil- dren bo rn ou tside m arriage has risen dramatically and is also o ne o f the highest abou t a th ird of all births r.
But in Britain this defin itely m eans the nuclear famil y. In additio n Geor dies from the Newcastle area and example. A feature of Cockney speec h is stro ng sense of identification.
Even tod ay. Celtic hi stor y. There isqu ite a lot oflocal pr ide. Although sho rtened to 'apples'. What is a Cockney? The fact th at the sou th is on the w hole richer than the no rth. Regional identity is often felt strongly at sporting events such as football match". This pride. In so m e cases there is quite a working -class o rigins. Some rhyming slang has passed into their bo undaries and names do not alw ays co nform to the modern general informal British usage.The modern situation.
Their political unification w as a Latin word albus. Education beyond sixteen. The Prime Ministc r. Traditionally, the Liberal party was also relatively strong in Scotland and Wales. In the ninet eenth century Londo n 's 'pea -soupcrs ' thick smogs became famo us thro ugh descriptio ns of them in the works of Charles Dickens and in the Sherlock Holmes sto ries. The most obvious fifty had such a name.
This would lead to divisions in the party. The sight of a man in a I the title of a poe m by Burns.
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