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ZODIAC SIGN PDF

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Book of the Signs of the Zodiac for men and women, so that I may undertake and succeed in it through the strength of Yawar Ziwa and. Simat Hiia.* &a. He who. Zodiac Signs / Charms – 3. ”Look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see, and wonder about what makes the universe exist. The Sun spends about a month visiting each Sign and takes a year to journey through the twelve Signs of the Zodiac. It is masculine energy and rules Leo and .


Zodiac Sign Pdf

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PDF | On Jan 6, , Miah Adel and others published Favored Zodiac Sign. FOCUS ON ACTIVITY: STAR SIGNS AND PERSONALITY. 1. Read. Aries – 21 March to 20 April. Courageous leaders, energetic, ambitious, lovers of new ideas, . The Zodiac sign Leo from the Liturgical calendar for Ravenna The Liturgical calendar for Ravenna is considered to have been illuminated in Milan, as the text .

Is the Demiurge the God of Heavenly Harmony? Perhaps, but Plato, in his dialogue Cratylus EA, , pp. The discussion links music, prophecy, medicine, and archery, as the four attributes of Apollo, and also points to harmony as the unifying factor Lippman , p. In the Greek-speaking world it was Ptolemy who exercised a great influence on cosmology in the first century CE.

In Hellenistic times the attitude of philosophers changed, alongside a rising popular interest in religion, magic, initiation, astrology and individual salvation Dodds , pp. The concept of a harmonic cosmos took a magical turn. It suggested a rich network of sympathies that might be exploited by human operations Tomlinson , p.

In the first two centuries CE a revival of the Pythagorean brotherhood, later labelled Neo-Pythagoreanism, stressed a mystical element, a longing for an experience of the divine. The outstanding writer of this movement is Nicomachus of Gerasa.

Sagittarius (astrology)

Platonism eventually gave rise to theurgy, a word invented in the second century CE to stress the difference with theology: It was started by Chaldean magicians who engaged in evocations of the gods, spells and ritual and was taken up by Platonic philosophers, notably Iamblichus CE Dodds , p.

Iamblichus saw himself as the heir to Plato, Pythagoras and Egyptian wisdom Iamblichus As a champion of ritual he stands slightly apart from the Platonic or Neoplatonic tradition. His ideas are known primarily through a book later called On the Mysteries, which presents theurgic ritual in detail Iamblichus Iamblichus considered Egyptian wisdom the source of wisdom, the Pythagorean life the source of practice Shaw , p.

Musical theurgy gave the soul direct contact with the gods, because the soul would remember the divine harmony it had heard before being born into a body. According to Iamblichus, Pythagoras was the first composer of this anagogic music. The first part of the Timaeus survived in a Latin translation by Calcidius.

The sixth century philosopher Boethius composed a textbook on music, largely based on the Neo-Pythagorean Nicomachus, which became the foundation of Western music theory until the sixteenth century.

Boethius wrote that there are three kinds of music: This secured the survival of the idea of heavenly harmony through the Middle Ages in Western Europe. As the quadrivium became established in Christian education, the idea was accepted by the clergy, who were also in charge of organized music.

In the twelfth century the cathedral school of Chartres became the centre of a renewed interest in the Timaeus, heavenly harmony and astrology. The main rediscovery of Greek thought on music and the stars took place in the fifteenth century, after the fall of Constantinople in , through the translations and works of the Italian philosopher Marsilio Ficino Ficino stands out in comparison to any thinker before or after him, because he not only embraced the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmos and the role of music in it, but he actually applied it to his own life.

He lived the lifestyle of ancient Pythagoreans who were associated with vegetarianism, frugality, and the sharing of earthly goods. His Pythagoreanism reached the point of religious devotion in his zeal for playing the Orphic lyre and practising the healing arts Joost-Gaugier , p. The rebirth of Platonic philosophy took place in a circle of thinkers around Ficino.

However, Ficino went far beyond the customary acoustical experiments with the monochord by practising musical magic in a ritual context. Voss argues: Contrary to the Platonic and general Western tradition, Ficino ranked the auditory arts over the visual arts when it came to divine revelation Tomlinson , p. The music spirit arises through the direct combination of three factors, which we can see as the summation of all operative magic: As described by Castiglione, a courtier should have a detached, cool, nonchalant attitude, speak well, sing, recite poetry, have proper bearing, be athletic, know the humanities and classics, paint, draw and possess many other skills.

Mirroring this courtly self-image the concept of the artist as intellectual is born Joost-Gaugier , p. Perhaps there was a parallel development of the new self-perception in the arts: The typical Renaissance man was a genius, scientist and artist, breaking through with new ideas. It was the time of the Copernican revolution, establishing the rational mind as a Solar Logos Campion , p. With Johannes Kepler the idea of the Harmony of the Spheres reached its full development in astronomy.

Kepler found the planets to move in ellipses around the sun instead of circles around the earth. Kepler recognized the proportions of the five Platonic solids in the planetary orbits producing the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. The division of the ecliptic in twelve parts and the five consonances of music were according to him also due to the proportions of the platonic solids Kepler Mysterium Cosmographicum, chapter 12; in Godwin , p.

To match the consonances with the solids he proposed imagining the string of the monochord to be a circle, which suggests a correspondence with astrological aspects. But here Kepler abandoned the Pythagorean-Platonic esoteric tradition of spiritual reality and turned to modern science, saying the zodiac exist in the imagination rather than in reality.

He also concluded that the division of the string is not made on a circle, leaving it to the industry of others to investigate concords and aspects. Godwin takes this as wisdom not to compare the arithmetically divided circle of the zodiac with the logarithmically divided string Godwin , pp. Upon publication of his Harmonices Mundi in Kepler clashed with the prominent alchemist Robert Fludd , resulting in years of polemics.

Interestingly, the Kepler- Fludd controversy has been the subject of a study by the quantum physicist Wolfgang Pauli in , advancing the familiar image of Kepler as a great modern scientist trapped in a backward age of superstition James , p.

Pauli does not argue that Kepler was right and Fludd wrong, but that both were gripped by their ideas. After Kepler the heavenly harmony of the planets in terms of astronomy was expressed by Galileo and was common to a generation of scientists, music theoreticians and artists for instance Martin Mersenne: Harmonie universelle; Athanasius Kirchner: Musurgia universalis; John Heydon: The harmony of the world but the link to astrology and magic had fewer followers.

This well-ordered picture of the world saw the light of day in the years ; Isaac Newton was one of its principal founders Proust , p. For the purpose of this essay it is important to note that the mysterious connections between planets, stars, gods and zodiac had disappeared from the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p.

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The world view that dominated the Age of Enlightenment valued proof and clockwork, and had little sympathy for divination or enchantment.

The mysterious aspect of astrology and music found shelter in such movements as the Hermetic tradition, the Freemasons, and in the works of individual researchers, poets, artists, and musicians. There was a subtle change in the attitude of the Age of Enlightenment scholar to number: For our subject this means heavenly harmony was no longer an aspect of the soul that moves the world, but a quality of the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Research was directed towards understanding matter itself, not its cause. One could argue the Enlightenment had thereby left the domain of the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmology. They all wrote on the Harmony of the Spheres, but did not express it as a tone-zodiac.

The heavenly harmony reappeared in the romantic and modern era in the Theosophical and Anthroposophical movements, where astrology also made a sort of come-back. In and Rudolf Steiner gave lectures on the nature of music. Each time the human being falls asleep and loses consciousness, his astral body emerges from his physical body.

In this state man is certainly unconscious but living in the spiritual world. The spiritual sounds make an impression on his soul. The human being awakens each morning from a world of the music of the spheres, and from this region of harmony he re-enters the physical world Steiner , p.

When man has passed through the portal of death, he passes at the same time from the earthly world into the world of the stars. Though it appears that I am speaking figuratively, this description is a reality. Imagine the earth, surrounding it the planets, and beyond them the fixed stars, which are traditionally pictured, for good reason, as the Zodiac.

When you look toward the constellation of Aries you have a soul-consonant impression. Perhaps you behold Saturn behind Aries: In this soul-vowel element, which radiates from Saturn into cosmic space, there lives the soul-spiritual consonant element of Aries or Taurus. You therefore have the planetary sphere that sings in vowels into cosmic space, and you have the fixed stars that ensoul this song of the planetary sphere with consonant elements.

Vividly picture the more serene sphere of the fixed stars and behind it the wandering planets. As a wandering planet passes a constellation of fixed stars, not just one tone but a whole world of tones resounds, and another tone world sounds forth as the planet moves from Aries to Taurus. Each planet, however, causes a constellation to resound differently. You have in the fixed stars a wonderful cosmic instrument, and the players of this instrument of the Zodiac and fixed stars are the gods of the planets beyond Steiner , pp.

Here we have one of the very few people who — as the text implies — may have actually heard the heavenly harmony. In absence of a testimony of Pythagoras this text may be considered to be the most important statement considering the reality of the heavenly music. Steiner himself explains this spiritual musical world in terms of the Pythagorean music of the spheres Steiner , p.

This idea would imply change in the tone-zodiacs over time. As Steiner was the founder of the worldwide Anthroposophical movement he inspired a number of scholars who 8 It is possible to consider all Anthroposophical music philosophy as belonging to the Pythagorean -Platonic tradition in its general outlines, but I am inclined to see it as a new tradition, as it is based on the authority of Steiner.

Another scholar who claims to have actually encountered the heavenly harmony is the Swiss mathematician Hans Cousto born In , he experienced a personal revelation of the Music of the Spheres Cousto , p. Ever since he has been researching the planetary sounds, paying his respects to Kepler. In his publications however he never mentions any sounds connected with the constellations of the zodiac.

It is of course Pythagoras who stands at the source of this idea. Copernican System. Andreas Cellarius: Harmonia Macrocosmica See http: World on a scale This chapter addresses different properties of music in relation to the tone-zodiac. Just as the stars are grouped together to form constellations, man makes scales from tones. In nature, there are no scales. Sound in general is made up of waves with different frequencies, but a tone has a single frequency that can be identified as the fundamental pitch plus overtones.

When that pitch is doubled, it results in an octave, tripled an octave plus fifth, and so on, resulting in this series: The Pythagoreans knew this and were thrilled by the fact that whole numbers integers produced consonances, pleasant combinations of tones. Harmonics have been the basis for an esoteric approach to music, for instance overtone-singing, in many ages and cultures But harmonics also present a problem.

When pictured as a spiral, the first 16 harmonics show a beautiful Figure 6: Harmonics as spiral. The first 16 harmonics as a spiral with the intervals.

With each octave the www. From this image it appears that harmonics are the building blocks of music. The Pythagoreans based their musical system on integers and especially on the first 10 An excellent overview is presented in Jonathan Goldman Healing Sounds.

To complete the scale with other harmonics they have to be transposed one or more octaves down. Unfortunately, some do not fit into the Pythagorean scale. They sound slightly out-of-tune, as explained below. Musicians are familiar with the so-called circle of fifths figure 7.

It comprises twelve steps of a fifth apart along a circle, which should bring the series round after seven octaves. Musically the problem is solved by reducing all the Figure 7: Circle of Fifths. The difference between perfect fifths and tempered fifths is hard to notice. However, the resulting positions of the tones in the scale are no longer based on integers and so do not correspond to the Pythagorean idea of heavenly harmony. Apart from octaves, all intervals in equal temperament are slightly out of tune.

Equal temperament was developed in Western Europe with the rise of a new triadic style in the 16th century CE and became general in the 18th century. It consists of only twelve notes, which can be transposed indefinitely and therefore makes it possible to make music in all keys without retuning an instrument.

The deviation of the tempered scale to the first 16 harmonics is given below in cents figure 8. Harmonics as notes. The first 16 harmonics as notes of a tempered scale and the deviation in rounded cents. Sibelius Academy - www2. Two notes an octave apart are normally called the same note. This may stem from men and women singing together. The cyclic structure of the octave is common to all systems of tuning McClain , p. It seems likely that the octave was recognized in India, Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, and Palestine well before the cycles of sun, moon, and planets were coordinated with even modest accuracy McClain , p.

In most of the tone-zodiacs the octave is represented as a twelve part circle. In fact the circle is not an accurate image as the beginning and end note are not the same but an octave apart; a helix of octaves spinning out of sight might do better. But even the helix may be questionable; we call notes low and high, but slow and fast would be more appropriate to represent frequencies.

What is low about slow frequencies anyway? Perhaps a spiral, suggesting speed, would be a better representation figure 5. The circle symbol does not seems to point at the mathematics, but at the movement of music.

Music is often poetically described as flowing like a river, suggesting emotion, or floating like a cloud. When this movement is considered to be not linear but circular, that supposes a distant centre, like the centre of the earth, just as the planets and fixed stars circle the earth making the Harmony of the Spheres.

The World Soul is modelled on the intervals of a Pythagorean scale. By contemplation the soul may return to its origins. This suggests that listening to anagogic music is a way to reconnect to the World Soul. Is the twelvefold division of the heavenly circle connected to music? The harmonic series does not suggest a twelve-note scale and so in non-western cultures we find scales with a different number of steps, notably five pentatonic or multiple numbers based on microtone steps.

In the history of western music the scale has slowly evolved towards a set of twelve chromatic notes within the octave, called equal temperament. Twelve steps seem to have a persistent attraction for western musicians, even beyond traditional tonality. As equal temperament with its twelve interchangeable notes was firmly established, there was no longer any reason to assign importance to specific intervals or consonances, which is called atonality.

Atonality was not a break with the past but an inevitable and necessary step, as tonality had reached the end of its useful life in romantic- classical music Fauvel , p. Traditional tonality was perceived as limiting creativity and it was time for a new set of rules allowing more freedom. It appears the twentieth century featured a permanent struggle to liberate western music from all its traditional forms, in classical music as well as in jazz and popular styles.

On the connection of the twelve tone system to the stars Stockhausen says in an interview: So serial thinking is something that's come into our consciousness and will be there forever: It just says: Use all the components of any given number of elements, don't leave out individual elements, use them all with equal importance and try to find an equidistant scale so that certain steps are no larger than others.

It's a s piritual and democratic attitude toward the world. The stars are organized in a serial way. Whenever you look at a certain star sign you find a limited number of elements with different intervals. If we more thoroughly studied the distances and proportions of the stars we'd probably find certain relationships of multiples based on some logarithmic scale or whatever the scale may be Cott , p.

Dodecaphony did not endure. The twentieth century has seen various systems for composing music including one using the chromatic circle of the tone-zodiac. It is the tone clock by the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. He fitted all possible triads11 and their four transpositions in chromatic circles and arranged them in the form of a clock figure 9.

Schat read Plato and saw the significance of his idea; surprisingly it is among jazz musicians that it found followers. Jazz musicians picked up the idea of heavenly harmony, notably John Coltrane , who studied Indian Figure 9: Tone Clock by Peter Schat. Specific music on the star signs has been composed by the jazz musicians Mary Lou Williams for her Zodiac Suite and Nat Adderley for his Soul Zodiac album In rock music it was Morton Garson who composed the music for the Zodiac album of There are many more compositions on the zodiac, in New Age, New Sacred Music and even electronic music.

Does music have a basis in nature? To consider this question, we have to go back to the fundamental and its harmonics, as this turns sound into tone. Just as the overtones extend upwards from the fundamental, there is a realm of frequencies below, involving sub- harmonics or undertones, difference tones and missing fundamentals. It seems man perceives much more than he is consciously aware of.

Man knows this unconsciously as he can control harmonics, using the mouth and throat to vary the overtones of his vocal sound, thus producing the different vowels a-e-i-o-u. There is no principal difference between speech and music in the use of the vocal cords; it just feels very different and has a different tradition.

Obviously man has an unconscious knowledge of the building blocks of music, but using them in singing is a different mode of consciousness than speech. Where they ever just one? How did music emerge? The book he wrote about it is titled The Singing Neanderthals, which says it all.

Homo Sapiens differentiated communication into singing and spoken language around , years ago. The Neanderthaler never did and died out Mithen , p. The neurologist Ian McGilchrist is also convinced that mankind was singing before it started talking. The evidence of the fossil record is, says McGilchrist, that the control of voice and respiration needed for singing apparently came into being in primitive man long before they would ever have been required by language McGilchrist , p.

Observation of the development of language in children confirms that the musical aspects of language do indeed come first. The child begins to sing earlier than to speak. Unlike speech, music builds on an element of repetition. Recent research has shown that whether we perceive words as speech or music does not depend on the characteristics of the sounds itself but on the attitude of the listener. Repetition can actually shift the perceptual circuitry such that a segment of speech is heard as music, following the rhythmic and melodic contours rather than the meaning and inviting anticipation and participation instead of separation see Margulis It looks as if the control of the harmonics of the voice has led to the development of speech, while the control of the fundamental has led to the development of music.

Both of these systems are rooted in nature but have clearly developed rules of their own, and drifted apart. Where speech has primarily become a tool for reasoning, music has become a means to experience emotion. In conclusion I would say that music is a natural human mode of behaviour, even if equal temperament perhaps is not. It seems music belongs to a participatory state of consciousness just as the star signs belong to an animated worldview.

Although only a dozen Greek melodies have been reconstructed and no Roman ones, we have extended information on Greek and Roman music from scholarly musicological treatises, mostly by Neo Pythagorean writers. However, Philolaus, Aristoxenos, Archytas, Nicomachus nor Boethius mention the zodiac in connection to music.

The only ancient authority to do so is the Alexandrian Ptolemy 1st century CE. Ptolemy explains the astrological aspects by invoking music as an analogy, following Pythagorean ideas about the role of the ratios Barton , p.

The Mythology of your Star Sign

He lays out a two-octave Pythagorean scale14 on a zodiac circle, noting that the rotating movements of the stars are all circular and regular and similar to the movements within the tone-system figure In this form of the tone-zodiac, the octave Figure Tone-Zodiac of Ptolemy Godwin, To the modern sense of consonance it seems strange to portray opposition by the octave and conjunction by the double octave. McClain thinks Ptolemy selected this scale as a convenient approximation to a whole tone scale in equal-temperament, which fits the duodecimal circle.

That makes Ptolemy look strangely modern McClain , p. This comparison, based on the tropics, connects the seven Greek modes with the twelve star signs: Figure Modes and Tropics of Ptolemy Godwin, , p.

The musical scale is the same as in figure As this chapter survives only in very corrupt manuscripts it is not very useful not go into detail here Godwin , p. But it does show that the concept of the tone-zodiac, in different forms, was well-known to Ptolemy. Where the Figure Moon Tone-Zodiac of Ptolemy Godwin, , p. After Ptolemy ancient and medieval scholars in Western Europe discussed the connections between the planetary movements to the musical scale, but not to the zodiac.

As more Greek sources became available in the second millennium CE the interest in ancient science, including astrology, grew. In the Italian Renaissance the tone-zodiac surfaces again. In his tone-zodiac he uses a one-octave scale and places the major seventh as the opposite aspect figure However, he manages to keep the Ptolemaic consonances of whole-tone sextile , fourth square and fifth trine in the same place Godwin , p.

Voss argues that Ficino is advocating in his letter a tuning system in Figure Tone-Zodiac of Ficino. Voss As Ficino was a practising astrologer and a musician himself he may have chosen to adapt the Ptolemaic tone-zodiac to fit his own practice. Johannes Kepler tried to show that the geometry of the heavens is ruled by musical harmony, connected to the Platonic solids. Kepler also signals the problem of comparing the arithmetically divided circle of the Zodiac with the logarithmically divided string Godwin , p.

Even if he did not discriminate between astronomy and astrology as modern science does, Kepler made a connection between cosmological geometry and musical ratios, not between the character of the zodiacal signs and the experience of consonances or scales in music. In the Age of Enlightenment no new tone-zodiacs appear. The renewed interest in the esoteric wisdom of antiquity in the romantic times of the later nineteenth century reintroduces the idea, which flowers in the theosophical and anthroposophical movements.

On her tone-zodiac she writes: Godwin As the Anthroposophical tone-zodiac is based on equal temperament and keys rather than consonances, it begs the question how this relates to history before modern tuning. Tone-Zodiac of Anny von Lange. They see their own times as chaotic and urge change, expecting the Age of Aquarius to bring about the joining of music, mathematics and astrology in the true universal The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p.

It is founded on the vision of Pythagoras of the heavens as a musical harmony. A tone is assigned to each star sign, thus creating a circle of sounds and images. This myth laid the foundations for a cosmology, in which the heavens and music reflects divine reason. This essay will explore the tone-zodiacs related to the Pythagorean-Platonic tradition. As Rudolf Haase argues: The tone-zodiac turns music into a vision of the cosmos and lends astrology the power of musical harmony.

It is much more than a mathematical diagram, because it connects human emotion and intuition with the divine. As it brings together rational and non-rational elements it is a symbol for the unity of opposites. It obviously has limited practical use but it has a profound symbolical meaning. What does the tone-zodiac symbolize and what might it mean?

Those are the questions of this essay. The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. So the connections between tones and zodiac signs are taken to be symbolic and associative, a different mode from attempts to find the 'actual' pitches of planetary revolutions or from constructing scales using planetary distances.

The tone-zodiac has come to refer to an inner world, no longer unconsciously projected. However, as Jeremy Naydler argues: In antiquity the psychic life of human beings was wide open to the influence of the gods, and less belonged to, than was participated in by, the human individuality. Now the psychic sphere is claimed by each person as their own. From one point of view this could be regarded as something of a vain illusion. Naydler , p.

The tone-zodiac may be a door to that lost world, or to a New Age. History has produced a small number of tone-zodiacs. In the other chapters I explore the underlying realms of astrology, cosmology, music and the circle, adding to the depth of the tone-zodiac as symbol. What does the tone-zodiac stands for? There is no final answer to that question; in fact, the more I looked into possible meanings, the more diffuse the symbol started to appear.

Circle of stars This chapter addresses the origins and meaning of the star signs in the tone-zodiac. Their names are: Zodiac by Francesco Barozzi, The visible planets Venus - Mercury - Mars - Jupiter - Saturn and the moon also travel the sky close to the ecliptic.

The complete set of the twelve zodiacal signs took a long time to crystallise and becomes recognizable at the end of the second millennium BC in ancient Babylonia Powell , p.

Sun Signs (Linda Goodman)

The oldest zodiacal constellations were established in Sumer: All the planets became identified with the gods, but less so the constellations. In the second millennium BCE the following Babylonian zodiacal images can be recognized in a quick scan: As it was easier to follow the moon across the night sky than the sun, the earliest star maps have a lunar zodiac. It is possible that looking at the moon facilitates imagination.

The moon needs The Mul Apin, a star catalogue of the Babylonians from ca. Somewhere between the Mul Apin and the fifth century BCE a lunar zodiac was replaced by a solar zodiac, with an equal division of the solar ecliptic in twelve parts, identified by their constellation.

Greek astrology developed a system of stellar influences within a cosmological framework, which was a clear departure from Babylonian celestial divination and horoscopy. Rochberg , p. The Greek gods gave their name and identity to the planets but the animal-like constellations largely kept their Babylonian form. The towering figure of ancient Greek astronomy and astrology is the Alexandrian Ptolemy c.

The glyphs representing the zodiac, though probably ancient in origin, were only firmly established in the Byzantine Empire in medieval times. See McClain The Sun rules the positive sign of Leo, the Moon the negative sign of Cancer.

The ancients assumed the semi -circle from Leo to Capricorn to be solar and that from Aquarius to Cancer to be lunar, so that in each of the semi -circles one sign might be assigned to each of the five planets as its own, one bearing aspect to the sun and the other to the moon, consistently with the spheres of their motion and the peculiarities of their nature. This was based on the observation of the stars of that time. In the tropical zodiac the spring equinox is fixed to Aries.

North celestial pole circle. Today the sun is seen to appear at the spring equinox in Pisces and enters Aries on April 15 Powell , p. The Babylonian sky was home to omnipotent living beings, on which the fate of human life depended. It is clear from the discrepancy between the observed phenomena and the ideas to which they gave rise that the night sky inspired much more than just measuring and calculating. When the zodiac originated there was no split between sense perception and psychic reality.

In fact, to the ancient world it was without question that the stars were gods. In modern terms, the images that the ancients saw in the sky are taken to be projections of unconscious ideas with a collective appeal, which Carl Jung has called the archetypes of the collective unconscious. Since the time of Ptolemy there is sometimes a distinction between astronomy and astrology, between the observed phenomena and their meaning, but the two domains were not really differentiated until well into the Middle Ages Rochberg , p.

At the beginning of the first century CE the first example of a horoscope in the form of a circle is found Campion , pp. The horoscopic circle is a map of the sky at the moment of divination and a tool to read the signs. In Ptolemy we find the first reference to a circular tone-zodiac. The development of the so-called aspects in astrology, the angle between two planets or other factors measured in arcs of zodiacal longitude from earth centre, presupposes a circle.

The traditional major aspects are sometimes called Ptolemaic aspects since they were defined and used by Ptolemy. Figure 3: Aspects and the Zodiac Sextile, square, trine, opposition. Rochberg , pp.

Although harmonic astrology greatly extends and differentiates the theory of aspects it does not directly connect astrology and music, it merely imports a quality of acoustics into astrology. Historically the division of the zodiac by twelve can be traced back to Babylon, but it is unclear why it was introduced.

Early astronomy often counted 30 days in a month and days in a year. Keith Critchlow points out that you can surround a spherical object, for instance a ball, with just twelve others of the same size, the so-called Kepler conjecture.

With a circle that will give you six surrounding 5 There are few astrologers connecting the zodiac with music; even the eminent astrologer and composer Dane Rudhyar does not do so in The Magic of Tone and the Art of Music Rudhyar Multiply this 6 with 60, the number of the Babylonian sexagesimal counting system, and you get , the degrees of the Zodiac circle Critchlow , p.

The signs of the zodiac meant something different to the Greeks than to the Babylonians. To the Chaldean diviners the signs pointed to divine forces and omens. Pythagoras, Plato and other philosophers introduced stellar divinity to the Greeks. In his dialogue Laws, Plato rejects the opinion which once prevailed among men, that the sun and stars are without soul. Even in those days men wondered about them, and that which is now ascertained was then conjectured by some who had a more exact knowledge of them-that if they had been things without soul, and had no mind, they could never have moved with numerical exactness so wonderful; and even at that time some ventured to hazard the conjecture that mind was the orderer of the universe.

But these same persons again mistaking the nature of the soul, which they conceived to be younger and not older than the body, once more overturned the world, or rather, I should say, themselves; for the bodies which they saw moving in heaven all appeared to be full of stones, and earth, and many other lifeless substances, and to these they assigned the causes of all things.

Such studies gave rise to much atheism and perplexity, and the poets took occasion to be abusive - comparing the philosophers to she-dogs uttering vain howlings, and talking other nonsense of the same sort.

But now, as I said, the case is reversed. Athenian stranger: No man can be a true worshipper of the Gods who does not know these two principles - that the soul is the eldest of all things which are born, and is immortal and rules over all bodies; moreover, as I have now said several times, he who has not contemplated the mind of nature which is said to exist in the stars, and gone through the previous training, and seen the connection of music with these things, and harmonized them all with laws and institutions, is not able to give a reason of such things as have a reason Plato Laws XII c; , II p.

This passage is of crucial importance as it connects the tone-zodiac with the Pythagorean- Platonic cosmology. In Babylonian times astrology was divination. In Hellenistic thought astrology acquired the orderliness of something we might call science. As such it survived as an element of nature in the medieval Christian world. In the Italian Renaissance it was Marsilio Ficino who pointed out that the faculty of foreknowledge was more a dos animae, a gift of the soul, than judgment.

This can be taken as signalling a return from a deterministic to a magical- religious conception of astrology in the following ages Cornelius , pp. The divinatory attitude of the astrologer presupposes an openness to an inner world, which may The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. For the purpose of this essay it is the Hellenistic approach that matters, as the connection between music and the stars comes from Pythagoras and Plato, and is not documented in Babylonian astronomy.

However, before we move on to the world of Greek philosophy, we should ask what the images of the zodiac might mean to us. For this I borrow from the analytical psychology of Carl Jung, who took the zodiacal signs as archetypal images from the collective unconscious. This he applied on both an individual and a collective level. Jung used birth horoscopes of his patients in his psychotherapeutic practice and he studied the astrological symbols as archetypes of the collective unconscious.

On the sign of Aquarius Jung writes: The Water Bearer seems to represent the self. With a sovereign gesture he pours the contents of his jug into the mouth of Piscis austrinus, which symbolises a son, a still unconscious content. This vision implies a slow-changing form of the godhead, in a meaningful way connected to the progression of the equinox through all the constellations of the zodiac. Plato refers to this complete circle in his dialogue the Timaeus 39c-d; , p.

In his philosophical creation myth God orders the spheres of the heavens. The circle of stars is ultimately pointing to eternity: When the father who had begotten it perceived that the universe was alive and in motion, a shrine for the eternal gods, he was glad, and in his delight planned to make it still more like its pattern; The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p.

The nature of the Living Being was eternal, and it was not possible to bestow this attribute fully on the created universe; but he determined to make a moving image of eternity, and so when he ordered the heavens he made in that which we call time an eternal moving image of the eternity which remains for ever at one Plato Timaeus 37d; , p. Figure 4: Zodiac of Dendera. Egypt, 50 BCE.

Heavenly harmony This chapter addresses the Greek philosophy of heavenly harmony as the soil out of which the tone-zodiac grew. In accordance with the appearance of tone-zodiacs through history the focus of this chapter will be on antiquity, the Renaissance and the Romantic age, presenting Pythagoras, Plato, Iamblichus, Ficino, Steiner and some other thinkers.

Pythagoras BCE was the first to connect music with the heavens, so Aristotle tells us. The Pythagoreans, as they are called, devoted themselves to mathematics; they were the first to advance this study, and having been brought up in it they thought its principles were the principles of all things. Since of these principles numbers are by nature the first, and in numbers they seemed to see many resemblances to the things that exist and come into being- more than in fire and earth and water such and such a modification of numbers being justice, another being soul and reason, another being opportunity-and similarly almost all other things being numerically expressible ; since, again, they saw that the modifications and the ratios of the musical scales were expressible in numbers; since, then, all other things seemed in their whole nature to be modelled on numbers, and numbers seemed to be the first things in the whole of nature, they supposed the elements of numbers to be the elements of all things, and the whole heaven to be a musical scale and a number Aristotle Metaphysics I.

II, p. Pythagoras thought that as the mathematical ratios of the musical consonances are the same as the distances between the planets, there must be harmony in the heavens.

We cannot hear it, because it is in our ears from the very moment of birth, but Pythagoras himself was said to be able to hear it James , pp. The idea of heavenly harmony had several dimensions; it gave the stars imaginal music; it gave music a heavenly image; it implied a beautifully ordered universe, a cosmos; and it turned music into an instrument of care for the soul.

Pythagoras was born on the island of Samos around BCE, travelled through the ancient world, probably to Egypt and possibly to Mesopotamia, learning mathematics, music, astronomy, medicine and divination.

He was believed to be a son of Apollo. What he is still The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. But the movement he founded is unique in history. Around BCE he settled in Croton in southern Italy and established a closed community of followers, men and women. They practised mathematics, geometry, philosophy, music, meditation and gymnastics; they were vegetarians and believed in reincarnation. Pythagoras is said to have cured emotional sickness through music therapy induced by playing his lyre Joost-Gaugier , p.

Pythagoras himself did not write anything but his followers did, attributing anything of importance to the master. Numbers were not just parameters expressing quantities but they had qualities, the ability to make geometric forms, the possession of philosophical attributes and more. The first ten numbers, symbolized by the figure of the Tetractys, represented cosmic principles, including the Monad as singularity and wholeness, completeness, the All.

The numbers were also gods and planets, which was not a common Greek belief at the time. Because the circle has no perceivable beginning or end, it stood for the purest divine and eternal continuity Joost-Gaugier , p. There were two sides to Pythagorean thought, one mystical and religious, the other scientific and mathematical.

Yet these two aspects are linked by a unifying vision, a vision that is summed up in the word Harmonia Strohmeier , p. Harmonia is crucial to ancient thought. As Wayne Bowman writes: The Pythagoreans were mainly interested in the mathematical aspects of the movements of the stars and less in the images of the constellations.

The planetary chord may seem irrelevant to the tone-zodiac. However, at the basis of the connection between music and the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. This essay does not present a history of the idea of the Harmony of the Spheres 6 but does look at the heavenly Harmonia as an idea that brings music and stars together. In fact, the planet chord and the tone-zodiac are not exclusive. While the fixed stars are incorporated in the set of spheres, the planets are incorporated in the zodiac as wandering stars, ruling signs and providing aspects.

I suppose the planetary chord took the lead as the result of the focus of Greek cosmology on the planets, associated with the gods, and their spatial positions. Plato was a prolific writer and the most widely read philosopher of antiquity. In his dialogue Timaeus he introduces a Pythagorean philosopher from Locris in southern Italy, who tells the story of the creation of the world, including the heavens.

It was very influential in antiquity and survived in part into the Middle Ages. For Plato, the order of the heavens mirrored divine reason. In the Timaeus Plato tells a myth, a likely story.

It probably borrowed extensively from Pythagorean doctrine. The universe is made by the Demiurge, God as craftsman. He has before his eyes the unchanging and eternal model, the Intellect. From a pre-existing chaos he makes an ordered universe, a cosmos. It is the best of all possible worlds. By understanding this world, man can restore his soul to the ideal state it was in before embodiment.

For the purpose of this essay the Timaeus makes three important claims: The World Soul, which includes the structure of the heavens, is mixed by the Demiurge from primary material in the ratios 2: There is abundant scholarly debate on the Timaeus, of which I give some examples.

Plato, in short, teaches that the eyes and the ears are to be directed to the heavenly harmony to restore the soul to its origin. This idea is central to the circular tone-zodiac. The key passage in the Timaeus reads: There is of course only one way to look after anything and that is to give it its proper food and motions. And the motions that are akin to the divine in us are the thoughts and revolutions of the universe. We should each therefore attend to these motions and by learning about the harmonious circuits of the universe repair the damage done at birth to the circuits in our head, and so restore understanding and what is understood to their original likeness to each other.

When that is done we shall have achieved the goal set us by the gods, the life that is best for this present time and for all time to come Plato Timaeus 90; , p. Is the Demiurge the God of Heavenly Harmony? Perhaps, but Plato, in his dialogue Cratylus EA, , pp. The discussion links music, prophecy, medicine, and archery, as the four attributes of Apollo, and also points to harmony as the unifying factor Lippman , p.

In the Greek-speaking world it was Ptolemy who exercised a great influence on cosmology in the first century CE. In Hellenistic times the attitude of philosophers changed, alongside a rising popular interest in religion, magic, initiation, astrology and individual salvation Dodds , pp. The concept of a harmonic cosmos took a magical turn. It suggested a rich network of sympathies that might be exploited by human operations Tomlinson , p.

In the first two centuries CE a revival of the Pythagorean brotherhood, later labelled Neo-Pythagoreanism, stressed a mystical element, a longing for an experience of the divine. The outstanding writer of this movement is Nicomachus of Gerasa. Platonism eventually gave rise to theurgy, a word invented in the second century CE to stress the difference with theology: It was started by Chaldean magicians who engaged in evocations of the gods, spells and ritual and was taken up by Platonic philosophers, notably Iamblichus CE Dodds , p.

Iamblichus saw himself as the heir to Plato, Pythagoras and Egyptian wisdom Iamblichus As a champion of ritual he stands slightly apart from the Platonic or Neoplatonic tradition. His ideas are known primarily through a book later called On the Mysteries, which presents theurgic ritual in detail Iamblichus Iamblichus considered Egyptian wisdom the source of wisdom, the Pythagorean life the source of practice Shaw , p.

Musical theurgy gave the soul direct contact with the gods, because the soul would remember the divine harmony it had heard before being born into a body. According to Iamblichus, Pythagoras was the first composer of this anagogic music. The first part of the Timaeus survived in a Latin translation by Calcidius. The sixth century philosopher Boethius composed a textbook on music, largely based on the Neo-Pythagorean Nicomachus, which became the foundation of Western music theory until the sixteenth century.

Boethius wrote that there are three kinds of music: This secured the survival of the idea of heavenly harmony through the Middle Ages in Western Europe. As the quadrivium became established in Christian education, the idea was accepted by the clergy, who were also in charge of organized music.

In the twelfth century the cathedral school of Chartres became the centre of a renewed interest in the Timaeus, heavenly harmony and astrology. The main rediscovery of Greek thought on music and the stars took place in the fifteenth century, after the fall of Constantinople in , through the translations and works of the Italian philosopher Marsilio Ficino Ficino stands out in comparison to any thinker before or after him, because he not only embraced the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmos and the role of music in it, but he actually applied it to his own life.

He lived the lifestyle of ancient Pythagoreans who were associated with vegetarianism, frugality, and the sharing of earthly goods. His Pythagoreanism reached the point of religious devotion in his zeal for playing the Orphic lyre and practising the healing arts Joost-Gaugier , p.

The rebirth of Platonic philosophy took place in a circle of thinkers around Ficino. However, Ficino went far beyond the customary acoustical experiments with the monochord by practising musical magic in a ritual context. Voss argues: Contrary to the Platonic and general Western tradition, Ficino ranked the auditory arts over the visual arts when it came to divine revelation Tomlinson , p. The music spirit arises through the direct combination of three factors, which we can see as the summation of all operative magic: As described by Castiglione, a courtier should have a detached, cool, nonchalant attitude, speak well, sing, recite poetry, have proper bearing, be athletic, know the humanities and classics, paint, draw and possess many other skills.

Mirroring this courtly self-image the concept of the artist as intellectual is born Joost-Gaugier , p. Perhaps there was a parallel development of the new self-perception in the arts: The typical Renaissance man was a genius, scientist and artist, breaking through with new ideas.

It was the time of the Copernican revolution, establishing the rational mind as a Solar Logos Campion , p. With Johannes Kepler the idea of the Harmony of the Spheres reached its full development in astronomy.

Kepler found the planets to move in ellipses around the sun instead of circles around the earth. Kepler recognized the proportions of the five Platonic solids in the planetary orbits producing the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. The division of the ecliptic in twelve parts and the five consonances of music were according to him also due to the proportions of the platonic solids Kepler Mysterium Cosmographicum, chapter 12; in Godwin , p.

To match the consonances with the solids he proposed imagining the string of the monochord to be a circle, which suggests a correspondence with astrological aspects. But here Kepler abandoned the Pythagorean-Platonic esoteric tradition of spiritual reality and turned to modern science, saying the zodiac exist in the imagination rather than in reality. He also concluded that the division of the string is not made on a circle, leaving it to the industry of others to investigate concords and aspects.

Godwin takes this as wisdom not to compare the arithmetically divided circle of the zodiac with the logarithmically divided string Godwin , pp. Upon publication of his Harmonices Mundi in Kepler clashed with the prominent alchemist Robert Fludd , resulting in years of polemics.

Interestingly, the Kepler- Fludd controversy has been the subject of a study by the quantum physicist Wolfgang Pauli in , advancing the familiar image of Kepler as a great modern scientist trapped in a backward age of superstition James , p.

Pauli does not argue that Kepler was right and Fludd wrong, but that both were gripped by their ideas. After Kepler the heavenly harmony of the planets in terms of astronomy was expressed by Galileo and was common to a generation of scientists, music theoreticians and artists for instance Martin Mersenne: Harmonie universelle; Athanasius Kirchner: Musurgia universalis; John Heydon: The harmony of the world but the link to astrology and magic had fewer followers.

This well-ordered picture of the world saw the light of day in the years ; Isaac Newton was one of its principal founders Proust , p. For the purpose of this essay it is important to note that the mysterious connections between planets, stars, gods and zodiac had disappeared from the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p.

The world view that dominated the Age of Enlightenment valued proof and clockwork, and had little sympathy for divination or enchantment. The mysterious aspect of astrology and music found shelter in such movements as the Hermetic tradition, the Freemasons, and in the works of individual researchers, poets, artists, and musicians.

There was a subtle change in the attitude of the Age of Enlightenment scholar to number: For our subject this means heavenly harmony was no longer an aspect of the soul that moves the world, but a quality of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Research was directed towards understanding matter itself, not its cause. One could argue the Enlightenment had thereby left the domain of the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmology. They all wrote on the Harmony of the Spheres, but did not express it as a tone-zodiac.

The heavenly harmony reappeared in the romantic and modern era in the Theosophical and Anthroposophical movements, where astrology also made a sort of come-back.

In and Rudolf Steiner gave lectures on the nature of music. Each time the human being falls asleep and loses consciousness, his astral body emerges from his physical body. In this state man is certainly unconscious but living in the spiritual world. The spiritual sounds make an impression on his soul. The human being awakens each morning from a world of the music of the spheres, and from this region of harmony he re-enters the physical world Steiner , p. When man has passed through the portal of death, he passes at the same time from the earthly world into the world of the stars.

The Pythagoreans were mainly interested in the mathematical aspects of the movements of the stars and less in the images of the constellations.

The planetary chord may seem irrelevant to the tone-zodiac. However, at the basis of the connection between music and the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. This essay does not present a history of the idea of the Harmony of the Spheres 6 but does look at the heavenly Harmonia as an idea that brings music and stars together. In fact, the planet chord and the tone-zodiac are not exclusive.

While the fixed stars are incorporated in the set of spheres, the planets are incorporated in the zodiac as wandering stars, ruling signs and providing aspects. I suppose the planetary chord took the lead as the result of the focus of Greek cosmology on the planets, associated with the gods, and their spatial positions. Plato was a prolific writer and the most widely read philosopher of antiquity. In his dialogue Timaeus he introduces a Pythagorean philosopher from Locris in southern Italy, who tells the story of the creation of the world, including the heavens.

It was very influential in antiquity and survived in part into the Middle Ages. For Plato, the order of the heavens mirrored divine reason. In the Timaeus Plato tells a myth, a likely story.

It probably borrowed extensively from Pythagorean doctrine. The universe is made by the Demiurge, God as craftsman. He has before his eyes the unchanging and eternal model, the Intellect. From a pre-existing chaos he makes an ordered universe, a cosmos. It is the best of all possible worlds. By understanding this world, man can restore his soul to the ideal state it was in before embodiment. For the purpose of this essay the Timaeus makes three important claims: The World Soul, which includes the structure of the heavens, is mixed by the Demiurge from primary material in the ratios 2: There is abundant scholarly debate on the Timaeus, of which I give some examples.

Plato, in short, teaches that the eyes and the ears are to be directed to the heavenly harmony to restore the soul to its origin. This idea is central to the circular tone-zodiac. The key passage in the Timaeus reads: There is of course only one way to look after anything and that is to give it its proper food and motions.

And the motions that are akin to the divine in us are the thoughts and revolutions of the universe. We should each therefore attend to these motions and by learning about the harmonious circuits of the universe repair the damage done at birth to the circuits in our head, and so restore understanding and what is understood to their original likeness to each other. When that is done we shall have achieved the goal set us by the gods, the life that is best for this present time and for all time to come Plato Timaeus 90; , p.

Is the Demiurge the God of Heavenly Harmony? Perhaps, but Plato, in his dialogue Cratylus EA, , pp. The discussion links music, prophecy, medicine, and archery, as the four attributes of Apollo, and also points to harmony as the unifying factor Lippman , p. In the Greek-speaking world it was Ptolemy who exercised a great influence on cosmology in the first century CE.

In Hellenistic times the attitude of philosophers changed, alongside a rising popular interest in religion, magic, initiation, astrology and individual salvation Dodds , pp. The concept of a harmonic cosmos took a magical turn. It suggested a rich network of sympathies that might be exploited by human operations Tomlinson , p.

In the first two centuries CE a revival of the Pythagorean brotherhood, later labelled Neo-Pythagoreanism, stressed a mystical element, a longing for an experience of the divine. The outstanding writer of this movement is Nicomachus of Gerasa. Platonism eventually gave rise to theurgy, a word invented in the second century CE to stress the difference with theology: It was started by Chaldean magicians who engaged in evocations of the gods, spells and ritual and was taken up by Platonic philosophers, notably Iamblichus CE Dodds , p.

Iamblichus saw himself as the heir to Plato, Pythagoras and Egyptian wisdom Iamblichus As a champion of ritual he stands slightly apart from the Platonic or Neoplatonic tradition. His ideas are known primarily through a book later called On the Mysteries, which presents theurgic ritual in detail Iamblichus Iamblichus considered Egyptian wisdom the source of wisdom, the Pythagorean life the source of practice Shaw , p. Musical theurgy gave the soul direct contact with the gods, because the soul would remember the divine harmony it had heard before being born into a body.

According to Iamblichus, Pythagoras was the first composer of this anagogic music. The first part of the Timaeus survived in a Latin translation by Calcidius. The sixth century philosopher Boethius composed a textbook on music, largely based on the Neo-Pythagorean Nicomachus, which became the foundation of Western music theory until the sixteenth century. Boethius wrote that there are three kinds of music: This secured the survival of the idea of heavenly harmony through the Middle Ages in Western Europe.

As the quadrivium became established in Christian education, the idea was accepted by the clergy, who were also in charge of organized music. In the twelfth century the cathedral school of Chartres became the centre of a renewed interest in the Timaeus, heavenly harmony and astrology.

The main rediscovery of Greek thought on music and the stars took place in the fifteenth century, after the fall of Constantinople in , through the translations and works of the Italian philosopher Marsilio Ficino Ficino stands out in comparison to any thinker before or after him, because he not only embraced the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmos and the role of music in it, but he actually applied it to his own life.

He lived the lifestyle of ancient Pythagoreans who were associated with vegetarianism, frugality, and the sharing of earthly goods. His Pythagoreanism reached the point of religious devotion in his zeal for playing the Orphic lyre and practising the healing arts Joost-Gaugier , p. The rebirth of Platonic philosophy took place in a circle of thinkers around Ficino. However, Ficino went far beyond the customary acoustical experiments with the monochord by practising musical magic in a ritual context.

Voss argues: Contrary to the Platonic and general Western tradition, Ficino ranked the auditory arts over the visual arts when it came to divine revelation Tomlinson , p. The music spirit arises through the direct combination of three factors, which we can see as the summation of all operative magic: As described by Castiglione, a courtier should have a detached, cool, nonchalant attitude, speak well, sing, recite poetry, have proper bearing, be athletic, know the humanities and classics, paint, draw and possess many other skills.

Mirroring this courtly self-image the concept of the artist as intellectual is born Joost-Gaugier , p. Perhaps there was a parallel development of the new self-perception in the arts: The typical Renaissance man was a genius, scientist and artist, breaking through with new ideas.

It was the time of the Copernican revolution, establishing the rational mind as a Solar Logos Campion , p. With Johannes Kepler the idea of the Harmony of the Spheres reached its full development in astronomy.

Kepler found the planets to move in ellipses around the sun instead of circles around the earth. Kepler recognized the proportions of the five Platonic solids in the planetary orbits producing the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p.

The division of the ecliptic in twelve parts and the five consonances of music were according to him also due to the proportions of the platonic solids Kepler Mysterium Cosmographicum, chapter 12; in Godwin , p. To match the consonances with the solids he proposed imagining the string of the monochord to be a circle, which suggests a correspondence with astrological aspects.

But here Kepler abandoned the Pythagorean-Platonic esoteric tradition of spiritual reality and turned to modern science, saying the zodiac exist in the imagination rather than in reality. He also concluded that the division of the string is not made on a circle, leaving it to the industry of others to investigate concords and aspects.

Godwin takes this as wisdom not to compare the arithmetically divided circle of the zodiac with the logarithmically divided string Godwin , pp. Upon publication of his Harmonices Mundi in Kepler clashed with the prominent alchemist Robert Fludd , resulting in years of polemics.

Interestingly, the Kepler- Fludd controversy has been the subject of a study by the quantum physicist Wolfgang Pauli in , advancing the familiar image of Kepler as a great modern scientist trapped in a backward age of superstition James , p.

Pauli does not argue that Kepler was right and Fludd wrong, but that both were gripped by their ideas. After Kepler the heavenly harmony of the planets in terms of astronomy was expressed by Galileo and was common to a generation of scientists, music theoreticians and artists for instance Martin Mersenne: Harmonie universelle; Athanasius Kirchner: Musurgia universalis; John Heydon: The harmony of the world but the link to astrology and magic had fewer followers.

This well-ordered picture of the world saw the light of day in the years ; Isaac Newton was one of its principal founders Proust , p. For the purpose of this essay it is important to note that the mysterious connections between planets, stars, gods and zodiac had disappeared from the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p.

The world view that dominated the Age of Enlightenment valued proof and clockwork, and had little sympathy for divination or enchantment. The mysterious aspect of astrology and music found shelter in such movements as the Hermetic tradition, the Freemasons, and in the works of individual researchers, poets, artists, and musicians.

There was a subtle change in the attitude of the Age of Enlightenment scholar to number: For our subject this means heavenly harmony was no longer an aspect of the soul that moves the world, but a quality of the movements of the heavenly bodies.

Research was directed towards understanding matter itself, not its cause. One could argue the Enlightenment had thereby left the domain of the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmology.

They all wrote on the Harmony of the Spheres, but did not express it as a tone-zodiac. The heavenly harmony reappeared in the romantic and modern era in the Theosophical and Anthroposophical movements, where astrology also made a sort of come-back. In and Rudolf Steiner gave lectures on the nature of music. Each time the human being falls asleep and loses consciousness, his astral body emerges from his physical body.

In this state man is certainly unconscious but living in the spiritual world. The spiritual sounds make an impression on his soul.

The human being awakens each morning from a world of the music of the spheres, and from this region of harmony he re-enters the physical world Steiner , p. When man has passed through the portal of death, he passes at the same time from the earthly world into the world of the stars. Though it appears that I am speaking figuratively, this description is a reality. Imagine the earth, surrounding it the planets, and beyond them the fixed stars, which are traditionally pictured, for good reason, as the Zodiac.

When you look toward the constellation of Aries you have a soul-consonant impression. Perhaps you behold Saturn behind Aries: In this soul-vowel element, which radiates from Saturn into cosmic space, there lives the soul-spiritual consonant element of Aries or Taurus. You therefore have the planetary sphere that sings in vowels into cosmic space, and you have the fixed stars that ensoul this song of the planetary sphere with consonant elements.

Vividly picture the more serene sphere of the fixed stars and behind it the wandering planets. As a wandering planet passes a constellation of fixed stars, not just one tone but a whole world of tones resounds, and another tone world sounds forth as the planet moves from Aries to Taurus.

Each planet, however, causes a constellation to resound differently. You have in the fixed stars a wonderful cosmic instrument, and the players of this instrument of the Zodiac and fixed stars are the gods of the planets beyond Steiner , pp. Here we have one of the very few people who — as the text implies — may have actually heard the heavenly harmony. In absence of a testimony of Pythagoras this text may be considered to be the most important statement considering the reality of the heavenly music.

Steiner himself explains this spiritual musical world in terms of the Pythagorean music of the spheres Steiner , p. This idea would imply change in the tone-zodiacs over time. As Steiner was the founder of the worldwide Anthroposophical movement he inspired a number of scholars who 8 It is possible to consider all Anthroposophical music philosophy as belonging to the Pythagorean -Platonic tradition in its general outlines, but I am inclined to see it as a new tradition, as it is based on the authority of Steiner.

Another scholar who claims to have actually encountered the heavenly harmony is the Swiss mathematician Hans Cousto born In , he experienced a personal revelation of the Music of the Spheres Cousto , p.

Ever since he has been researching the planetary sounds, paying his respects to Kepler. In his publications however he never mentions any sounds connected with the constellations of the zodiac. It is of course Pythagoras who stands at the source of this idea. Copernican System. Andreas Cellarius: Harmonia Macrocosmica See http: World on a scale This chapter addresses different properties of music in relation to the tone-zodiac.

Just as the stars are grouped together to form constellations, man makes scales from tones. In nature, there are no scales. Sound in general is made up of waves with different frequencies, but a tone has a single frequency that can be identified as the fundamental pitch plus overtones. When that pitch is doubled, it results in an octave, tripled an octave plus fifth, and so on, resulting in this series: The Pythagoreans knew this and were thrilled by the fact that whole numbers integers produced consonances, pleasant combinations of tones.

Harmonics have been the basis for an esoteric approach to music, for instance overtone-singing, in many ages and cultures But harmonics also present a problem.

When pictured as a spiral, the first 16 harmonics show a beautiful Figure 6: Harmonics as spiral. The first 16 harmonics as a spiral with the intervals.

With each octave the www. From this image it appears that harmonics are the building blocks of music. The Pythagoreans based their musical system on integers and especially on the first 10 An excellent overview is presented in Jonathan Goldman Healing Sounds. To complete the scale with other harmonics they have to be transposed one or more octaves down. Unfortunately, some do not fit into the Pythagorean scale.

They sound slightly out-of-tune, as explained below. Musicians are familiar with the so-called circle of fifths figure 7. It comprises twelve steps of a fifth apart along a circle, which should bring the series round after seven octaves. Musically the problem is solved by reducing all the Figure 7: Circle of Fifths. The difference between perfect fifths and tempered fifths is hard to notice. However, the resulting positions of the tones in the scale are no longer based on integers and so do not correspond to the Pythagorean idea of heavenly harmony.

Apart from octaves, all intervals in equal temperament are slightly out of tune. Equal temperament was developed in Western Europe with the rise of a new triadic style in the 16th century CE and became general in the 18th century. It consists of only twelve notes, which can be transposed indefinitely and therefore makes it possible to make music in all keys without retuning an instrument.

The deviation of the tempered scale to the first 16 harmonics is given below in cents figure 8. Harmonics as notes. The first 16 harmonics as notes of a tempered scale and the deviation in rounded cents. Sibelius Academy - www2. Two notes an octave apart are normally called the same note.

This may stem from men and women singing together. The cyclic structure of the octave is common to all systems of tuning McClain , p. It seems likely that the octave was recognized in India, Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, and Palestine well before the cycles of sun, moon, and planets were coordinated with even modest accuracy McClain , p.

In most of the tone-zodiacs the octave is represented as a twelve part circle. In fact the circle is not an accurate image as the beginning and end note are not the same but an octave apart; a helix of octaves spinning out of sight might do better. But even the helix may be questionable; we call notes low and high, but slow and fast would be more appropriate to represent frequencies. What is low about slow frequencies anyway?

Perhaps a spiral, suggesting speed, would be a better representation figure 5. The circle symbol does not seems to point at the mathematics, but at the movement of music. Music is often poetically described as flowing like a river, suggesting emotion, or floating like a cloud. When this movement is considered to be not linear but circular, that supposes a distant centre, like the centre of the earth, just as the planets and fixed stars circle the earth making the Harmony of the Spheres.

The World Soul is modelled on the intervals of a Pythagorean scale. By contemplation the soul may return to its origins. This suggests that listening to anagogic music is a way to reconnect to the World Soul.

Is the twelvefold division of the heavenly circle connected to music? The harmonic series does not suggest a twelve-note scale and so in non-western cultures we find scales with a different number of steps, notably five pentatonic or multiple numbers based on microtone steps. In the history of western music the scale has slowly evolved towards a set of twelve chromatic notes within the octave, called equal temperament.

Twelve steps seem to have a persistent attraction for western musicians, even beyond traditional tonality. As equal temperament with its twelve interchangeable notes was firmly established, there was no longer any reason to assign importance to specific intervals or consonances, which is called atonality. Atonality was not a break with the past but an inevitable and necessary step, as tonality had reached the end of its useful life in romantic- classical music Fauvel , p.

Traditional tonality was perceived as limiting creativity and it was time for a new set of rules allowing more freedom. It appears the twentieth century featured a permanent struggle to liberate western music from all its traditional forms, in classical music as well as in jazz and popular styles.

On the connection of the twelve tone system to the stars Stockhausen says in an interview: So serial thinking is something that's come into our consciousness and will be there forever: It just says: Use all the components of any given number of elements, don't leave out individual elements, use them all with equal importance and try to find an equidistant scale so that certain steps are no larger than others.

It's a s piritual and democratic attitude toward the world. The stars are organized in a serial way. Whenever you look at a certain star sign you find a limited number of elements with different intervals. If we more thoroughly studied the distances and proportions of the stars we'd probably find certain relationships of multiples based on some logarithmic scale or whatever the scale may be Cott , p.

Dodecaphony did not endure. The twentieth century has seen various systems for composing music including one using the chromatic circle of the tone-zodiac. It is the tone clock by the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. He fitted all possible triads11 and their four transpositions in chromatic circles and arranged them in the form of a clock figure 9.

Schat read Plato and saw the significance of his idea; surprisingly it is among jazz musicians that it found followers. Jazz musicians picked up the idea of heavenly harmony, notably John Coltrane , who studied Indian Figure 9: Tone Clock by Peter Schat. Specific music on the star signs has been composed by the jazz musicians Mary Lou Williams for her Zodiac Suite and Nat Adderley for his Soul Zodiac album In rock music it was Morton Garson who composed the music for the Zodiac album of There are many more compositions on the zodiac, in New Age, New Sacred Music and even electronic music.

Does music have a basis in nature? To consider this question, we have to go back to the fundamental and its harmonics, as this turns sound into tone. Just as the overtones extend upwards from the fundamental, there is a realm of frequencies below, involving sub- harmonics or undertones, difference tones and missing fundamentals. It seems man perceives much more than he is consciously aware of. Man knows this unconsciously as he can control harmonics, using the mouth and throat to vary the overtones of his vocal sound, thus producing the different vowels a-e-i-o-u.

There is no principal difference between speech and music in the use of the vocal cords; it just feels very different and has a different tradition. Obviously man has an unconscious knowledge of the building blocks of music, but using them in singing is a different mode of consciousness than speech.

Where they ever just one? How did music emerge? The book he wrote about it is titled The Singing Neanderthals, which says it all. Homo Sapiens differentiated communication into singing and spoken language around , years ago. The Neanderthaler never did and died out Mithen , p. The neurologist Ian McGilchrist is also convinced that mankind was singing before it started talking. The evidence of the fossil record is, says McGilchrist, that the control of voice and respiration needed for singing apparently came into being in primitive man long before they would ever have been required by language McGilchrist , p.

Observation of the development of language in children confirms that the musical aspects of language do indeed come first. The child begins to sing earlier than to speak.

Unlike speech, music builds on an element of repetition. Recent research has shown that whether we perceive words as speech or music does not depend on the characteristics of the sounds itself but on the attitude of the listener. Repetition can actually shift the perceptual circuitry such that a segment of speech is heard as music, following the rhythmic and melodic contours rather than the meaning and inviting anticipation and participation instead of separation see Margulis It looks as if the control of the harmonics of the voice has led to the development of speech, while the control of the fundamental has led to the development of music.

Both of these systems are rooted in nature but have clearly developed rules of their own, and drifted apart. Where speech has primarily become a tool for reasoning, music has become a means to experience emotion. In conclusion I would say that music is a natural human mode of behaviour, even if equal temperament perhaps is not.

It seems music belongs to a participatory state of consciousness just as the star signs belong to an animated worldview. Although only a dozen Greek melodies have been reconstructed and no Roman ones, we have extended information on Greek and Roman music from scholarly musicological treatises, mostly by Neo Pythagorean writers. However, Philolaus, Aristoxenos, Archytas, Nicomachus nor Boethius mention the zodiac in connection to music.

The only ancient authority to do so is the Alexandrian Ptolemy 1st century CE. Ptolemy explains the astrological aspects by invoking music as an analogy, following Pythagorean ideas about the role of the ratios Barton , p. He lays out a two-octave Pythagorean scale14 on a zodiac circle, noting that the rotating movements of the stars are all circular and regular and similar to the movements within the tone-system figure In this form of the tone-zodiac, the octave Figure Tone-Zodiac of Ptolemy Godwin, To the modern sense of consonance it seems strange to portray opposition by the octave and conjunction by the double octave.

McClain thinks Ptolemy selected this scale as a convenient approximation to a whole tone scale in equal-temperament, which fits the duodecimal circle.A reference guide to historical, mythological, and cultural associations.

The Influence of Tuning and Interval on Consciousness. The form of illuminated calendar manuscript was very wide, especially because the medieval calendar served as a map of the Church year, showing the when each saint was celebrated and when moveable feasts, such as Easter, occurred, but they could also depicted signs of the zodiac and the specific labors of each month. Interviews and Encounters. Because the circle has no perceivable beginning or end, it stood for the purest divine and eternal continuity Joost-Gaugier , p.

The common ground of astrology and music 15 See page In Hellenistic thought astrology acquired the orderliness of something we might call science.

CATHARINE from Washington
See my other articles. I'm keen on iaidō. I love reading books joyously .