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WORLD TRANSISTOR EQUIVALENT BOOK

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Symbols, Pins, and Construction Transistors are fundamentally three-terminal devices. Transistor Construction Transistors rely on semiconductors to work their magic.

A semiconductor is a material that's not quite a pure conductor like copper wire but also not an insulator like air. The conductivity of a semiconductor -- how easily it allows electrons to flow -- depends on variables like temperature or the presence of more or less electrons.

Let's look briefly under the hood of a transistor. Don't worry, we won't dig too deeply into quantum physics. A Transistor as Two Diodes Transistors are kind of like an extension of another semiconductor component: diodes.

In a way transistors are just two diodes with their cathodes or anodes tied together: The diode connecting base to emitter is the important one here; it matches the direction of the arrow on the schematic symbol, and shows you which way current is intended to flow through the transistor.

The diode representation is a good place to start, but it's far from accurate. Don't base your understanding of a transistor's operation on that model and definitely don't try to replicate it on a breadboard, it won't work.

There's a whole lot of weird quantum physics level stuff controlling the interactions between the three terminals. This model is useful if you need to test a transistor.

Using the diode or resistance test function on a multimeter , you can measure across the BE and BC terminals to check for the presence of those "diodes".

Transistor Structure and Operation Transistors are built by stacking three different layers of semiconductor material together.

Some of those layers have extra electrons added to them a process called "doping" , and others have electrons removed doped with "holes" -- the absence of electrons. A semiconductor material with extra electrons is called an n-type n for negative because electrons have a negative charge and a material with electrons removed is called a p-type for positive. Transistors are created by either stacking an n on top of a p on top of an n, or p over n over p.

Simplified diagram of the structure of an NPN. Notice the origin of any acronyms? With some hand waving, we can say electrons can easily flow from n regions to p regions, as long as they have a little force voltage to push them.

But flowing from a p region to an n region is really hard requires a lot of voltage. But the special thing about a transistor -- the part that makes our two-diode model obsolete -- is the fact that electrons can easily flow from the p-type base to the n-type collector as long as the base-emitter junction is forward biased meaning the base is at a higher voltage than the emitter.

The NPN transistor is designed to pass electrons from the emitter to the collector so conventional current flows from collector to emitter.

The emitter "emits" electrons into the base, which controls the number of electrons the emitter emits. Most of the electrons emitted are "collected" by the collector, which sends them along to the next part of the circuit. A PNP works in a same but opposite fashion.

The base still controls current flow, but that current flows in the opposite direction -- from emitter to collector.

Instead of electrons, the emitter emits "holes" a conceptual absence of electrons which are collected by the collector. The transistor is kind of like an electron valve.

The base pin is like a handle you might adjust to allow more or less electrons to flow from emitter to collector.

Let's investigate this analogy further Extending the Water Analogy If you've been reading a lot of electricity concept tutorials lately, you're probably used to water analogies. We say that current is analogous to the flow rate of water, voltage is the pressure pushing that water through a pipe, and resistance is the width of the pipe.

Unsurprisingly, the water analogy can be extended to transistors as well: a transistor is like a water valve -- a mechanism we can use to control the flow rate.

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There are three states we can use a valve in, each of which has a different effect on the flow rate in a system. Likewise, under the right circumstances, a transistor can look like a short circuit between the collector and emitter pins. Current is free to flow through the collector, and out the emitter.

In the same way, a transistor can be used to create an open circuit between the collector and emitter pins. A transistor can do the same thing -- linearly controlling the current through a circuit at some point between fully off an open circuit and fully on a short circuit.

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From our water analogy, the width of a pipe is similar to the resistance in a circuit. If a valve can finely adjust the width of a pipe, then a transistor can finely adjust the resistance between collector and emitter. So, in a way, a transistor is like a variable, adjustable resistor.

Amplifying Power There's another analogy we can wrench into this. Imagine if, with the slight turn of a valve, you could control the flow rate of the Hoover Dam's flow gates. The measly amount of force you might put into twisting that knob has the potential to create a force thousands of times stronger. We're stretching the analogy to its limits, but this idea carries over to transistors too.

Transistors are special because they can amplify electrical signals, turning a low-power signal into a similar signal of much higher power.

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Kind of. There's a lot more to it, but that's a good place to start! Check out the next section for a more detailed explanation of the operation of a transistor. Operation Modes Unlike resistors , which enforce a linear relationship between voltage and current, transistors are non-linear devices.

They have four distinct modes of operation, which describe the current flowing through them. When we talk about current flow through a transistor, we usually mean current flowing from collector to emitter of an NPN.

The four transistor operation modes are: Saturation -- The transistor acts like a short circuit. Current freely flows from collector to emitter.

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Cut-off -- The transistor acts like an open circuit. No current flows from collector to emitter. Active -- The current from collector to emitter is proportional to the current flowing into the base. Picking a replacement transistor When choosing a suitable replacement transistor for use within an electronic circuit, there are several stages that must be considered when making the choice. These can be progressed in a logical order to narrow down the choice and enable the best alternative for the replacement transistor to be made.

As bias voltages and other features are different it is necessary to select a replacement transistor with the same material. The replacement should have the same application if possible.

Ensuring with pin-out is the same most but not all transistors have their leads in order - EBC will save many problems with fitting. Current gain values normally vary widely even for transistors of the same type so some variation will be acceptable.

Don't go for a transistor with a much higher Ft as this may increase the risk of oscillation. Choosing a replacement transistor with a similar can style will often mean that both transistors have a similar power dissipation. These are normally required when transistors are used in specialist applications.

Once the choice of replacement transistor has been made, then it can be installed in the circuit, and the performance checked.

In most cases it will operate satisfactorily, but occasionally there may be a problem. If this is the case, it is necessary to re-visit the way in which the choice of the replacement transistor was made and see if any mistakes were made or look for other parameters that may affect the operation of the transistor circuit.

What if I can't find the original transistor details? Sometimes it is very easy to find out the parameters of a particular transistor as it may be possible to find them on the Internet or in a transistor data book. If this is not possible, either because the markings are not visible, or the data cannot be found, then not all is lost. It is still possible to find out a lot about the transistor from its package and also the circuit in which it is being used.

In this way it is usually possible to find a suitable replacement transistor. The step by step instructions below should help the essential parameters of the transistor to be discovered. Step by step instructions: These instructions are set out in an approximate order of the most significant parameters first followed by the less significant ones: Is it a transistor?

This may appear to be an obvious question, but occasionally some devices may appear to be a transistor at first sight. It may be a field effect transistor, a Darlington transistor or even some other form of device. Alternatively, sometimes small voltage regulators are contained in packages similar to that of a transistor. Other devices may also appear in what may appear to be transistor packages at first sight.

Careful examination of the application will enable this to be verified. It may be possible to discover this in a number of ways.

If the original transistor is still working then this can be discovered by measuring the voltage across the base emitter junction when it is forward biased. This should be about 0.

Alternatively it may be possible to ascertain the type by looking at other transistors in the circuit. Often the same technology will be used throughout the equipment. This is not always true so beware!

Look at the specifications for other transistors in the same packages and this will give a good guide. Those packages designed for mounting on heatsinks will be more variable because they can often dissipate more power dependent upon the heatsink. It is best to be more cautious with these packages. High power transistors often offer lower gains - older power transistor types may be as low as 20 - 50, whereas the smaller transistors may offer gains anywhere between 50 and Look at the components in the circuit and the function of the circuit.Physical verification software.

The program's installer file is commonly found as Bipolar Transistors. The step by step instructions below should help the essential parameters of the transistor to be discovered.

It is often necessary to match the replacement transistor package as closely as possible to enable the transistor to physically fit. High quality semiconductors Original parts-never rebrands Broad selection Competitive pricing Hard to find items Customer support One year warranty Parts listed in computer sort order If MCM is not able to supply an item, a guaranteed substitute may be sent.

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