Laws The Foucault Effect Pdf


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The Foucault effect: studies in governmentality: with two lectures by and an interview with Michel Foucault I edited by Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter. Request PDF on ResearchGate | The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality | Based on Michel Foucault's and lectures at the Collège de. PDF | As Jacques Donzelot, a one-time collaborator of Foucault, notes, the Foucault effect has been particularly strong in the Anglo-phone.

The Foucault Effect Pdf

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The Foucault effect in Organization. Studies. Article (Accepted version). ( Refereed). Original citation: Raffnsøe, Sverre and Mennicken, Andrea and Miller, Peter. Foucault coins the concept of "governmentality" as a "guideline" for the analysis he . levelled against the destructive effects of neo-liberalism on individuals. The Foucault effect described above represents just one form of encounter field of 'governmentality studies', another Foucault effect is the integration of.

Dean's main contribution to the definition of the term, however, comes from the way he breaks the term up into 'govern' 'mentality', or mentalities of governing—mentality being a mental disposition or outlook.

This means that the concept of governmentality is not just a tool for thinking about government and governing but also incorporates how and what people who are governed think about the way they are governed. He defines thinking as a "collective activity" [], that is, the sum of the knowledge, beliefs and opinions held by those who are governed.

He also raises the point that a mentality is not usually "examined by those who inhabit it" []. This raises the interesting point that those who are governed may not understand the unnaturalness of both the way they live and the fact that they take this way of life for granted—that the same activity in which they engage in "can be regarded as a different form of practice depending on the mentalities that invest it" [].

Dean highlights another important feature of the concept of governmentality—its reflexivity. He explains: On the one hand, we govern others and ourselves according to what we take to be true about who we are, what aspects of our existence should be worked upon, how, with what means, and to what ends. On the other hand, the ways in which we govern and conduct ourselves give rise to different ways of producing truth.

According to Dean any definition of governmentality should incorporate all of Foucault's intended ideas. A complete definition of the term governmentality must include not only government in terms of the state, but government in terms of any "conduct of conduct" [Dean, ].

It must incorporate the idea of mentalities and the associations that go with that concept: that it is an attitude towards something, and that it is not usually understood "from within its own perspective" [], and that these mentalities are collective and part of a society's culture.

It must also include an understanding of the ways in which conduct is governed, not just by governments, but also by ourselves and others. The semantic linking of governing and mentalities in governmentality indicates that it is not possible to study technologies of power without an analysis of the mentality of rule underpinning them.

The practice of going to the gym, expounded below, is a useful example because it shows how our choices, desires, aspirations, needs, wants and lifestyles have been mobilised and shaped by various technologies of power. Mentality of rule[ edit ] A mentality of rule is any relatively systematic way of thinking about government. It delineates a discursive field in which the exercise of power is 'rationalised' [Lemke, ].

Thus Neo-liberalism is a mentality of rule because it represents a method of rationalising the exercise of government, a rationalisation that obeys the internal rule of maximum economy [Foucault, ].

Fukuyama [in Rose, 63] writes "a liberal State is ultimately a limited State, with governmental activity strictly bounded by the sphere of individual liberty". However, only a certain type of liberty, a certain way of understanding and exercising freedom is compatible with Neo-liberalism.

If Neo-liberalist government is to fully realize its goals, individuals must come to recognize and act upon themselves as both free and responsible [Rose, ].

Thus Neo-liberalism must work to create the social reality that it proposes already exists. For as Lemke states, a mentality of government "is not pure, neutral knowledge that simply re-presents the governing reality" [Lemke, ] instead, Neo-liberalism constitutes an attempt to link a reduction in state welfare services and security systems to the increasing call for subjects to become free, enterprising, autonomous individuals.

It can then begin to govern its subjects, not through intrusive state bureaucracies backed with legal powers, the imposition of moral standards under a religious mandate, but through structuring the possible field of action in which they govern themselves, to govern them through their freedom. Through the transformation of subjects with duties and obligations, into individuals, with rights and freedoms, modern individuals are not merely 'free to choose' but obliged to be free, "to understand and enact their lives in terms of choice" [Rose, ].

This freedom is a different freedom to that offered in the past.

It is a freedom to realize our potential and our dreams through reshaping the way in which we conduct our lives. From governmentality to neoliberal governmentality: cartography[ edit ] Governmentality and cartography[ edit ] Cartographic mapping has historically been a key strategy of governmentality.

Typically, State-led mapping conforms to Bentham 's concept of a panopticon , in which 'the one views the many'. From a Foucauldian vantage point, this was the blueprint for disciplinary power.

Joyce [25] challenges Foucauldian notions of Panopticism, contending that neoliberal governmentality is more adequately conceptualised by an omniopticon - 'the many surveilling the many'. These capabilities are enterprise and autonomy. Enterprise here designates an array of rules for the conduct of one's everyday existence: energy, initiative, ambition, calculation, and personal responsibility.

The enterprising self will make an enterprise of its life, seek to maximize its own human capital, project itself a future, and seek to shape life in order to become what it wishes to be. The enterprising self is thus both an active self and a calculating self, a self that calculates about itself and that acts upon itself in order to better itself [Rose, ]. Autonomy is about taking control of our undertakings, defining our goals, and planning to achieve our needs through our own powers [Rose, ].

The autonomy of the self is thus not the eternal antithesis of political power , but one of the objectives and instruments of modern mentalities for the conduct of conduct [Rose, ]. These three qualities: freedom, enterprise and autonomy are embodied in the practice of going to the gym.


It is our choice to go the gym, our choice which gym to go to. By going to the gym we are working on ourselves, on our body shape and our physical fitness. We are giving ourselves qualities to help us perform better than others in life, whether to attract a better mate than others, or to be able to work more efficiently, more effectively and for longer without running out of steam to give us an advantage over our competitors. When we go to the gym, we go through our own discipline, on our own timetable, to reach our own goals.

We design and act out our routine by ourselves. We do not need the ideas or support of a team, it is our self that makes it possible. The practice of going to the gym, of being free, enterprising, autonomous, is imbued with particular technologies of power.

Technologies of power[ edit ] Technologies of power are those "technologies imbued with aspirations for the shaping of conduct in the hope of producing certain desired effects and averting certain undesired ones" [Rose, ]. The two main groups of technologies of power are technologies of the self, and technologies of the market.

Foucault defined technologies of the self as techniques that allow individuals to effect by their own means a certain number of operations on their own bodies, minds, souls, and lifestyle, so as to transform themselves in order to attain a certain state of happiness, and quality of life.

Technologies of the market are those technologies based around the buying and selling of goods that enable us to define who we are, or want to be.

The domestication of Foucault

These two technologies are not always completely distinct, as both borrow bits of each other from time to time. Technologies of the self[ edit ] Technologies of the self refer to the practices and strategies by which individuals represent to themselves their own ethical self-understanding.

One of the main features of technologies of self is that of expertise. Expertise has three important aspects. First, its grounding of authority in a claim to scientificity and objectivity creates distance between self-regulation and the state that is necessary with liberal democracies. Second, expertise can "mobilise and be mobilised within political argument in distinctive ways, producing a new relationship between knowledge and government.

Expertise comes to be accorded a particular role in the formulation of programs of government and in the technologies that seek to give them effect" [Rose, ].

Third, expertise operates through a relationship with the self-regulating abilities of individuals. The plausibility inherent in a claim to scientificity binds "subjectivity to truth and subjects to experts" [Rose, ]. Expertise works through a logic of choice, through a transformation of the ways in which individuals constitute themselves, through "inculcating desires for self-development that expertise itself can guide and through claims to be able to allay the anxieties generated when the actuality of life fails to live up to its image [Rose, ].

The technologies of the self involved in the practice of, for example, going to the gym are the: technology of responsibilisation, technology of healthism, technology of normalisation and technology of self-esteem. Responsibilisation[ edit ] In line with its desire to reduce the scope of government e.

The main mechanism is through the technology of responsibilisation. This entails subjects becoming responsibilised by making them see social risks such as illness, unemployment, poverty, etc.

This technology somewhat overlaps with the technology of healthism. Healthism[ edit ] Healthism links the "public objectives for the good health and good order of the social body with the desire of individuals for health and well-being" [Rose, ]. Healthy bodies and hygienic homes may still be objectives of the state, but it no longer seeks to discipline, instruct, moralise or threaten us into compliance. Rather "individuals are addressed on the assumption that they want to be healthy and enjoined to freely seek out the ways of living most likely to promote their own health" [Rose, ] such as going to the gym.

However while the technology of responsibilisation may be argued to be a calculated technique of the state, the wave of Healthism is less likely to be a consequence of state planning, but arising out of the newer social sciences such as nutrition and human movement. Healthism assigns, as do most technologies of the self, a key role to experts. For it is experts who can tell us how to conduct ourselves in terms of safe, precise techniques to improve cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and overall health.

The borrowing from technologies of the market by technologies of the self can be clearly seen in the area of healthism. The idea of health, the goal of being healthy, the joys brought by good health and the ways of achieving it are advertised to us in the same manner as goods and services are marketed by sales people. By adhering to the principles of healthism, our personal goals are aligned with political goals and we are thus rendered governable.

Normalisation[ edit ] Another technology of power arising from the social sciences is that of normalisation. The technology of norms was given a push by the new methods of measuring population. A norm is that "which is socially worthy, statistically average, scientifically healthy and personally desirable".

Norms are enforced through the calculated administration of shame. Shame entails an anxiety over the exterior behaviour and appearance of the self, linked to an injunction to care for oneself in the name of achieving quality of life [Rose, ].

Norms are usually aligned with political goals, thus the norm would be fit, virile, energetic individuals, able to work, earn money, and spend it and thus sustain the economy.

For instance, the practice of going to the gym allows one to achieve this 'normality'. Through shame we are governed into conforming with the goals of Neo-liberalism. Self-esteem[ edit ] Self-esteem is a practical and productive technology linked to the technology of norms, which produces of certain kinds of selves. Self-esteem is a technology in the sense that it is a specialised knowledge of how to esteem ourselves to estimate, calculate, measure, evaluate, discipline, and to judge our selves.

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Paperback Verified Purchase. As Expected. Met all my expectations. An excelent contribution to the governmentality studies. All the important authors in the field are included. Good articles extension, better price. This is a key text for any of us wrestling with the epistemological change which Foucault created in his own, earlier writing. The work on "governmentality",for example, expanded here into intelligible and practical context allows each researcher to use Foucault's vision to generate the methodological tools which he had deliberately avoided.

Castel's analysis of 'normal' by itself makes this book worth owning because it is both a guide to Foucault's own philosophical progress and a set of practical extensions of his unrolling vision. Buy it! See all 4 reviews.

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Marx interprets popular revolts in France as among other things revolts of civil society against the state. Perhaps that is not their job. Les assurances.

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