NATIONAL INTEGRATION PDF
PDF | This study examines whether there are changes in the levels of integration of people in the state of Selangor (Malaysia). Data was collected from PDF | On Jan 1, , Rina Okonkwo and others published National Integration in Nigeria. NATIONAL INTEGRATION. 9. NATIONAL INTEGRATION. Man is a social being. He cannot even think of having an independent existence. What Aristotle said.
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our nation. In fact, national unity and integrity, i.e. national integration has been one understand the meaning and the importance of national integration;. CHAPTER-II. NATIONAL INTEGRATION. Integration is an inter-group activity which is never complete. No society can be totally homogeneous. The problem. National integration is an emotional attachment to nation (Etzimi. ): a process as well as an end product. (Angel. ); a condition achiev,able bya nation.
It is the responsibility with the state governments to implement constitutional provisions with regards to the use of local major and minor languages in different domains. Each state has to assign different roles to a dominant regional or official language and other local minor or minority languages at various levels of administration, education and mass-media. No single Indian state claims to be absolutely monolingual.
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The choice is, therefore, to be made regarding the roles to be assigned to other minor or minority languages in different domains. The Constitution of India provides opportunities for growth and development of diverse cultures, and languages within broad national goals.
During the Post- independence period, a number of steps have been taken by various governments in order to maintain various linguistic identities, and provide for interaction between languages and cultures: The first major step taken in this direction was the reorganization of states on linguistic basis in However, there still remain some border areas which have becomes a focus of linguistic controversy.
Some Western scholars believe that multilingualism results in loss of effective communication. Therefore, the multilingual societies tend to remain static. Existence of diverse languages has never been an obstacle in the mobility of people or in any social intercourse along the length and breadth of India. It is important to understand the difference in ethos of predominantly monolingual and predominantly multilingual countries.
The dynamics as well as economics of planning must be viewed differently in these two situations. As pointed out by Pattanayak in a predominantly monolingual point of view, many languages are nuisance as their acquisition is considered a burden.
They are considered economically and politically untenable. In the case of multilingual countries, the reverse is the case. For them, restriction in the choice of languages is nuisance, and one language is not only uneconomic, but is politically untenable and socially absurd.
Any effort at standardization or cultural universalism through reduction of multiplicity could give the impression of limitation on the cultural alternatives available to a country. After independence, the committees and commissions on the reorganization of states focused on four basic principles of administrative convenience: language, culture, development, and unity. The principle of reorganization of States on linguistic basis has over the years given rise to various political movements.
The linguistic and cultural identity is a strong unifying force behind these movements.
The dominance of the so-called major regional or official language and non-implementation of the recommendation for the protection of rights of linguistic minorities are primarily responsible for rise of political movements on linguistic basis. Tribal languages The Census of India lists 96 non-scheduled languages which include 90 tribal languages. Most of these languages are non-literate languages. During the British period the missionaries translated Bible and other religious texts in tribal languages using Roman script.
After independence of the country, some tribal languages were written in regional or state scripts. Now various revealed scripts, discovered scripts and constructed scripts are proposed for some of these languages. It is important to save the tribal languages from extinction.
There are others with less number of speakers which are labeled as endangered languages. For example, in the tribal languages of the Andaman and Nicober Islands, Andanamese has just 43 speakers, Onge 95, Shompen , Jarwa and no reliable information is available for Sentanalese.
They are biologically endangered. This would inevitably lead to its death in due course, unless the language gets revitalised as a result of new circumstances or successful application for some efforts maintaining it. Every tribal language clearly exhibits all the native wisdom of the ethnic community that it has gathered through ages and its unique world view which the community has evolved. This is preserved in the linguistic tradition they inherit.
The development of tribal languages necessitates their use in different domains such as administration, education and mass media. The steps taken up so far do help in maintaining the ethos of multilingualism across the country. The language planning has to be a continuous process and it has to adopt a holistic approach in resolving problems at different levels.
The Constitution of India provides adequate safeguards for the preservation of linguistic and cultural identities. Steps Taken Towards National Integration After attains independence, the Government of India has taken various steps towards the national integration.
Some significant steps taken in this direction are mentioned below. All-India services All-India services have played a very important role in promoting the unity of India and nationhood in which the national resources and talent in administration is used in the development and protection of different regions and states.
The All-India officers are viewed as having a wider perspective and are not a part of narrow vested interests. There are, of course, certain issues related to the recruitment to the service which need to be resolved in immediate future. In order to ensure that the Union government is truly representative of all regions and cultures of the country, recruitment to service under the Union has to be conducted in all scheduled languages.
The proposals have been accepted in principle but are not implemented. Language Institutions The use of any language in administration, education and mass-media necessitates the development and standardization of appropriate registers of the language.
Towards this end, different steps have been taken at both Union and state levels. At the Union level, various commissions and boards have been formed for undertaking the work and for funding and monitoring the language development programmes taken-up by various states.
The CSTT has undertaken various projects for the development and standardization of technical terminology including the glossaries of administrative terms in Hindi and other regional languages. The Commission also monitors similar work taken-up by various states and provides academic collaboration for the development of technical terminology.
The CIH is engaged primarily in imparting training in Hindi to teachers as well as to officers to enable them to use Hindi in administration.
Most of the states have set up university and school level textbook boards for the preparation of instructional materials for the medium switch over into respective regional languages. Different states have also set up language departments, academies and also training institutions for imparting training to their officers in the use of their respective official languages in administration.
The Union also provides grants under various schemes for the language development programmes. However, there is no uniformity as far as the objectives and achievements of these institutions are concerned.
Some states have paid adequate attention towards it and have utilized the central grants for achieving the objectives, but there are others where even the grants have not been utilized. Most of the language departments and academies are vigorously engaged in the translation of standard textbooks, office manuals, rules and procedures in the regional languages.
The preparation of administrative terminology and manuals form the major part of their activities. In-service training institutions run by state governments, impart training to their officers in the use of state official languages. Some states do offer incentives to their officers and staff for using the regional languages in administration.
Media policy The media has been an important tool in helping to promote national integration and linguistic harmony. The first few decades involved mainly the use of radio and national newspapers. The radio has reached remote and inaccessible villages. It has provided a means to gain awareness of happenings in various parts of the country.
The introduction of the television has further strengthened this trend. This is much more powerful than the radio. The government has made a judicious use of this medium by taking a number of steps to promote cultural cohesiveness and linguistic harmony: i each state or region has a TV station to help develop local talent, themes and languages.
The Doordarshan has set up multi-channel network to cater to regional and cultural aspirations of the people providing them a wide choice. There is a strong competition with other international networks. Doordarshan is trying to improve its programmes and increase its telecast time.
Three-Language Formula The Three-language formula was specifically formulated by the government to help promote understanding of languages and cultures.
This formula involved learning the mother tongue, English and one other regional language. For non-Hindi speaking states, the third language is Hindi. This formula was adopted in the hope of promoting national integration and helping to understand and appreciate the varied cultures and people of India. However, due to its non-statutory character and opposition by some states, it has not been implemented in letter and spirit. The formula has helped in creating facilities for teaching and learning of different languages in both government and private schools.
Education Policy After Independence of the country, the government of India has made many efforts toward the improvement of education. Bonner, E. Journal of the American Institute of Planners , September, — Brownrigg, M. Scottish Academic Press. Duty, F. Bureau of Business Research.
Federal Republic of Nigeria. National Policy on Education Revised.
National Integration Council
Federal Government Press. Third National Developemnt Plan —80 , Vol. Ministry of Economic Development. Financial Times. Twenty Years of Independence. Spectrum Books Limited.
Ikejiani, O. Nigerian Education. Longmans of Nigeria Limited. JAMB; Google Scholar Federal Republic of Nigeria. National Policy on Education Revised. Lagos: Federal Government Press. Third National Developemnt Plan —80, Vol. Lagos: Ministry of Economic Development. Google Scholar Financial Times. Nigeria: Twenty Years of Independence.
Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited. Google Scholar Ikejiani, O.
Nigerian Education. Ikeja: Longmans of Nigeria Limited. Google Scholar Long, J. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 17, 5—6, — Google Scholar National Universities Commission.But, in spite of all this, people were one and we got Independence because of our national unity. Two features are apparent, both of which are counter-productive to national integration. Google Scholar Bonner, E. Raghu Kumar R December 30, at 1: Krati singh January 11, at The work recommends among others that federalism is the ultimate solution to the problems of national integration, so federal character and other related approaches should be effectively enforced.
Google Scholar Duty, F. More articles from Ramandeep Kaur:. Right now the fruits of the free economy are enjoyed by the elite class with high education.
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