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May 15, BOOK REVIEWS. Muscles and meridians: the manipulation of shape. Edited by Phillip Beach. Published by Churchill Livingstone,. Edinburgh. Downloaded from on May 7, - Published by com Book reviews BOOK REVIEWS Muscles and meridians: the manipulation of . Request PDF on ResearchGate | Muscles and meridians: the manipulation of shape | Edited by Phillip Beach. Published by Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

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Muscles and Meridians: The Manipulation of Shape: Medicine & Health Science Books @ Muscles and Meridians is a unique book that breaks new conceptual ground in the realm of human movement. Exploring the connection between evolutionary. Ebook Muscles And Meridians The Manipulation Of Shape 1e currently available at. for review only, if you need complete ebook Muscles And.

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Acupoints Initiate the Healing Process

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Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. It investigates how an organism, such as a primate, can maintain a longer life span through evolution of the supporting-storing system from the mesoderm. Therefore, fascia anatomy helps scientists better understand the biological essence of an organism by reminding them to study anatomy in a dynamic perspective; that is, all cells and organs maintain their normal structures and functions through the interaction between the supporting-storing system and the functional system.

When the wax is depleted, the flame will extinguish, as with the human body. The Relationship between Meridians and Fascia The theory of meridians and collaterals is a fundamental pillar of TCM, particularly in the areas of acupuncture, moxibustion, and massage, as well as of traditional martial arts such as Tai Chi Chuan. Meridians are essentially strings of acupoints, which may be visualized as passageways through which energy flows throughout the body.

The anatomical basis of acupuncture stimulation is the fascia like intermuscular septum and intermuscular space , which can generate strong biological information upon rotation of the needles [ 26 ].

Muscles and Meridians: The Manipulation of Shape

There is only a quantitative, but not qualitative, difference between the acupoints and nonacupoints in the biological information they produce [ 27 ].

Similarly, the Chinese herbal medicine regulates the regeneration and activity of the functional cells by improving the microcirculation and permeability of epithelial basement membrane in the fascia. Fascia has specific cells, ground substance, and fiber types that make it a form of connective tissue proper.

A better understanding of fascia at the cellular level gives insight into its functional properties.

The cells within fascia include fibrocytes fibroblasts, myofibroblasts , adipocytes, and various migrating white blood cells [ 28 ]. The fascia network of collagen and ground substance is maintained by fibrocytes. Fibrocytes regulate interstitial fluid volume and pressure as well as the extracellular molecular components [ 6 ].

It also responds to mechanical stretch through mechanotransduction.

Langevin verified the mechanism of mechanotransduction in vivo that applied mechanical stress induces a change in cell morphology. Barnes notes that when performing myofascial release the response is felt in 90— s, and therefore any matrix adaptations initiated by a change in mechanical stress apparently take too long to occur to explain the observed immediate benefits of mechanical therapies.

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Fibrocytes may further transform themselves into myofibroblasts through this mechanical tension, as observed in wound healing [ 29 ]. However, myofibroblasts also appear to be a normal component of fascia and importantly they are also observed additionally in epimysium and perimysium. The contractile nature of these cells appears to give them ability to alter tissue tension, through contraction and relaxation, in the short timescales observed in practice.

Steven Finando reconsiders acupuncture, positing that the fascia is the mechanism of action of acupuncture therapy. The fascia has also been conceived as a complex communication network that influences and is influenced by every muscle, organ, blood vessel and nerve. Langevin suggests the fascia to be a metasystem, connecting and influencing all other systems. Incorporating this view would change our core understanding of human physiology.

The cytoskeleton of fascia cellular under continuous tension is capable of transmitting mechanical forces through the fascia system. Forces applied to the cytoskeleton can produce biochemical changes on the cellular level by mechanochemical transduction [ 30 ].

Guimberteau demonstrates the complex fractal structure of the tissue and how it allows for movement, adaptation, lubrication, and repair. The fascia as our richest sensory organ permeated with four types of sensory receptors.

The vascular, nervous, and lymphatic systems all end in the ground substance, providing nutrients to the ground substance as well as information from the periphery. It is both interesting and highly significant to note that acupuncture is based upon the conception of a metasystem that links and influences every aspect of human physiology. The fascia system provides the anatomical basis of that metasystem. Acupuncture needle manipulation causes mechanical deformation of connective tissue, which in turn results in mechanical stimulation of fibroblasts, with active changes in cell shape and autocrine purinergic signaling [ 31 ].

The biomechanical behavior of connective tissue in response to stretching is generally attributed to the molecular composition and organization of its extracellular matrix. It also is becoming apparent that fibroblasts play an active role in regulating connective tissue tension. In response to static stretching of the tissue, fibroblasts expand within minutes by actively remodeling their cytoskeleton. This dynamic change in fibroblast shape contributes to the drop in tissue tension that occurs during viscoelastic relaxation.

Bong-Han Kim identified the novel anatomical vessels as meridian primo vessels and proposed that their distribution mirrored acupuncture meridians.

According to Dr. Because of the abundant connective tissue fibers, it could explain why excised vessels and nodes are very elastic in nature and have a tendency to coil spontaneously [ 32 ].

The connective tissue is the carrier of the mechanical stimulation induced by acupuncture. As reported, fibroblasts and leukocytes might be two kinds of cell types in PVS for both of infected and untreated rats [ 22 ]. The suggested functions of the PVS, in general, include a path for neurotransmitter hormones, a circulatory path for primo fluid-containing stem cell like microcells, and proteins related to stem cell differentiation. Evidence also exists for cancer metastasis through the primo vessel.

Moreover, PNs and PVS were related to acupuncture points and primo vascular system might be an extension of meridians. Only by establishing the functional connection of the exterior-interior PVS between the stimulus of acupoints and responses of organs could PVS be a basis for meridians.

Thus, a comparison between acupuncture meridians and PVS leaves nothing rigorous but a mist.

The data demonstrate that PVS is a novel and distinctive structure, but the criteria of it are still needed to develop. We pay more attention to the function of PVS related to meridians. The study with PVS on the organ surface showed that they are not involved with acupuncture stimulations, and further studies with skin PVS and extra PVS are required to find out the functional relation with acupuncture. The PVS is thought to originate from fascia connective tissue and be developmentally mesodermal in origin.

But the function of the PVS with respect to nerve regeneration and acupuncture is not yet studied. Conflict of Interests All authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Jun Wang and Lin Yuan contributed to the work equally and should be regarded as co-corresponding authors.

References J. Tesarz, U. Hoheisel, B. Yang, J. Dai, and L. View at Google Scholar C. Stecco, C. Tiengo, A. Stecco et al. Bai, J. Wang, J. Wu et al. Deising, B. Weinkauf, J. Blunk, O. Obreja, M. Schmelz, and R. View at Google Scholar E. Kwong and T. Findley and M.

Schleip, W. Klingler, and F. Abbott, C. Koptiuch, J. Iatridis, A. Howe, G. Badger, and H. Langevin, K. Storch, R. Snapp et al. Finando and D. Lee, W. Be the first to like this. No Downloads.

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Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Download muscles and meridians the manipulation of shape 1. The Manipulation of Shape 2. Book Details Author: Phillip Beach Pages: Churchill Livingstone Brand: English ISBN: Publication Date: Description Muscles and Meridians 4. The Manipulation of Shape, click button download in the last page 5.Electro-Therapeutics Res. There have been numerous descriptions of the primo vascular system which is comprised of primo nodes PN and primo vessels PV.

In light of this theory, the human body can be divided into two systems. Although he complex pathways of his thinking. The suggested functions of the PVS, in general, include a path for neurotransmitter hormones, a circulatory path for primo fluid-containing stem cell like microcells, and proteins related to stem cell differentiation.

Prior to mitosis of the fertilized egg, the chromatids, after being unpackaged from the chromosomes, link up to form a giant circular loop which is then folded upon itself into a wired-frame structure that embodies the architectural embryological developmental scheme.

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