HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS PDF
How the Brain Learns Fifth Edition. Other Books From Corwin and David A. Sousa. The Leadership Brain: How to Lead Today's Schools More Effectively, Learning How the Brain Learns The world is changing at an unprecedented rate and the ability to learn is the single most important capacity we can gift to. Editorial Reviews. Review. “I have found this book to be quite useful for doctoral- level students How the Brain Learns 4th Edition, Kindle Edition. by.
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Author: David A. Sousa Pages: Publication Date Release Date ISBN: Product Group:Book [PDF] Download. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | History It is known that brains use networks of neurons to learn and that neuroscientists are studying where different things are learned in. How the Brain. Learns: New and Exciting. Findings. ASAIHL Conference. Nanyang Technological University. Singapore. Thursday.
Math teachers will apply these critical lessons immediately in their classes, and I'd urge every mathematics teacher and every elementary teacher to get this book! He has produced a highly-relevant, exceptionally practically, research focused book that will build better mathematics brains in classrooms and schools.
Almarode, Assistant Professor of Education "David Sousa's How the Brain Learns Mathematics, Second Edition is a wonderfully readable presentation of how neuroscience and cognitive psychology can inform the teaching of mathematics in elementary and secondary schools. Sousa engages his readers intellectually with recent research on the brain and mathematics learning, and avoids pat answers where the evidence is suggestive rather than conclusive.
The book should be a valuable text for teachers who want a deeper insight into thinking processes behind the learning and teaching of math. Slavin, Director "Teaching mathematics without having read How the Brain Learns Mathematics is like trying to master tennis without a coach. Sousa's book is a tour de force: It builds a solid bridge from cognitive neuroscience to daily classroom practice. Every teacher of mathematics will benefit from this well-researched, well-organized, thoughtful, and practical approach to making math instruction align with how brains learn.
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Be the first. Hemoglobin contains iron, which is magnetic. The fMRI uses a large magnet to compare the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin entering brain cells with the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin leaving the cells.
The computer colors in the brain regions receiving more oxygenated blood and can locate the activated brain region to within one centimeter less than a half-inch. This technology involves the same equipment as fMRI but uses different computer software to record levels of various chemicals in the brain while the subject is thinking.
Like the fMRI, fMRS can precisely pinpoint the area of activity, but it can also identify whether certain key chemicals are present at the activation site. Researchers are also learning much more about several dozen brain chemicals called neurotransmitters. These substances bathe the brain cells and either permit signals to pass between them or inhibit them. Wide fluctuations in the concentration of neurotransmitters in certain brain areas can change our mood, affect our movement, diminish or enhance our alertness, and interfere with our ability to learn.
To determine which parts of the brain control various functions, neurosurgeons use tiny electrodes to stimulate individual nerve cells and record their reactions. Besides the information collected by these techniques, the growing body of case studies of individuals recovering from various types of brain damage is giving us new evidence about and insights into how the brain develops, changes, learns, remembers, and recovers from injury.
Implications for Teaching As we examine the clues that this research is yielding about learning, we recognize its importance to the teaching profession. Every day teachers enter their classrooms with lesson plans, experience, and the hope that what they are about to present will be understood, remembered, and useful to their students. The extent that this hope is realized depends largely on the knowledge base that these teachers use in designing those plans and, perhaps more important, on the instructional techniques they select during the lessons.
Teachers try to change the human brain every day. The more they know about how it learns, the more successful they can be. Educators in recent years have become much more aware that neuroscience is finding out a lot about how the brain works, and that some of the discoveries have implications for what happens in schools and classrooms.
More teacher training institutions are incorporating brain research into their courses. Professional development programs are also devoting more time to this area, more books about the brain are available, brain-compatible teaching units are sprouting up, and the journals of most major educational organizations have devoted special issues to the topic.
These are all good signs. Some Important Findings As research continues to provide a deeper understanding of the workings of the human brain, educators need to be cautious about how they apply these findings to practice.
There are critics who believe that brain research should not be used at this time in schools and classrooms. Some critics say it will be years before this has any application to educational practice. The concerns are understandable but should not prevent educators from learning what they need to know to decide whether research findings have application to their practice.
For those who wonder how recent discoveries about the brain can affect teaching and learning, we can tell them that this research has done the following: Reaffirmed that the human brain continually reorganizes itself on the basis of input. This process, called neuroplasticity, continues throughout our life but is exceptionally rapid in the early years. Thus, the experiences the young brain has in the home and at school help shape the neural circuits that will determine how and what that brain learns in school and later.
Startled the scientific world with evidence that neurons in the brain do slowly regenerate, thereby enhancing learning and memory. Challenged the notion that the brain can multitask.
Revealed more about how the brain acquires spoken language. Developed scientifically based computer programs that dramatically help young children with reading problems. Shown how emotions affect learning, memory, and recall. Suggested that movement and exercise improve mood, increase brain mass, and enhance cognitive processing.
Tracked the growth and development of the teenage brain to better understand the unpredictability of adolescent behavior. Developed a deeper understanding of circadian cycles to explain why teaching and learning can be more difficult at certain times of day.
Studied the effects of sleep deprivation and stress on learning and memory. Recognized that intelligence and creativity are separate abilities, and that both can be modified by the environment and schooling. Updated our understandings about working memory. Added to our knowledge of how the arts develop the brain.
Other researchers strongly disagree with the critics and support the increased attention that educators are giving to neuroscience.
Several universities here and abroad have established dedicated research centers to examine how discoveries in neuroscience can affect educational practice. As a result, educational theory and practice will become much more research based, similar to the medical model. In fact, the body of knowledge that represents this application of brain research to classroom practice has grown so much in the past two decades that it is now recognized as a separate area of study.
Known as mind, brain, and education or educational neuroscience, this field of inquiry looks at how what we are learning about the human brain can affect the curricular, instructional, and assessment decisions that teachers make every day.
Rather, the goal of educational neuroscience is to reflect on this research and decide whether it should have an impact on educational practices. There is, of course, no panacea that will make teaching and learning a perfect process—and that includes brain research. It is a long leap from making a research finding in a laboratory to the changing of schools and practice because of that finding.
Why This Book Can Help Improve Teaching and Learning What I have tried to do here is report on research from neuroscience as well as the behavioral and cognitive sciences that is sufficiently reliable that it can inform educational practice. This is hardly a novel idea. Madeline Hunter in the late s introduced the notion of teachers using what science was learning about learning and modifying traditional classroom procedures and instructional techniques accordingly.
Readers familiar with that model will recognize some of Dr. I had the privilege of working periodically with her for nine years, and I firmly believe that she was the major force that awakened educators to the importance of continually updating their knowledge base and focusing on research-based strategies and the developing science of learning.
This book will help answer questions such as these: When do students remember best in a learning episode? To what extent is technology changing the brain?
How can I help students understand and remember more of what I teach? Why is focus so important, and why is it so difficult to get? How can I teach motor skills effectively?
How can humor and music help the teaching-learning process? How can I get students to find meaning in what they are learning? Why is transfer such a powerful principle of learning, and how can it destroy a lesson without my realizing it?
What important questions should I be asking myself as I plan daily and unit lessons?
How the Brain Learns Best
Chapter 1. Basic Brain Facts.
Because we are going to talk a lot about the brain, we should be familiar with some of its anatomy. This chapter discusses some of the major structures of the human brain and their functions.
It explores how the young brain grows and develops, focusing on those important windows of opportunity for learning in the early years. Chapter 2.
How the Brain Processes Information. Trying to develop a simple model to describe the complex process of learning is not easy. The components of the model are discussed in detail and updated from previous editions. Also included is an instrument to help you determine your modality preferences.
Chapter 3. Memory, Retention, and Learning.
Teachers want their students to remember forever what they are taught, but that does not happen too often. The third chapter focuses on the different types of memory systems and how they work. Those factors that affect retention of learning are discussed here along with ideas of how to plan lessons that result in greater remembering.
Also included are some cautions about commercial brain-training programs. Chapter 4. The Power of Transfer. Transfer is one of the most powerful and least understood principles of learning. Yet a major goal of education is to enable students to transfer what they learn in school to solve future problems. The nature and power of transfer are examined in this chapter, including how to use past knowledge to enhance present and future learning. Chapter 5. Brain Organization and Learning.
This chapter explores how areas of the brain are specialized to perform certain tasks. It examines the latest research on how we learn to speak and read, and learn mathematics, along with the implications of this research for classroom instruction and for the curriculum and structure of schools.
How the Brain Learns Mathematics
Chapter 6. The Brain and the Arts. Despite strong evidence that the arts enhance cognitive development, they run the risk of being abandoned so more time can be devoted to preparing for mandated high-stakes testing.
Public support for keeping the arts is growing. This chapter presents the latest evidence of how the arts in themselves contribute to the growth of neural networks as well as enhance the skills needed for mastering other academic subjects, including in the STEM areas.
Chapter 7. Thinking Skills and Learning. Are we challenging our students enough to do higher-level thinking? This chapter discusses some of the characteristics and dimensions of human thinking. Chapter 8. Putting It All Together. So how do we use these important findings in daily practice?
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This chapter emphasizes how to use the research presented in this book to plan lessons. It discusses different types of teaching methods, including the flipped classroom, and suggests guidelines and a format for lesson design. Because neuroscience continues to reveal new information about learning, the chapter describes support systems to help educators maintain expertise in brain-compatible techniques and move toward continuous professional growth.
Some include activities that check for understanding of the major concepts and research presented in the chapter. Others offer my interpretation of how this research might translate into effective classroom strategies that improve the teaching-learning process. Readers are invited to critically review my suggestions and rationale to determine if they have value for their work.
Main thoughts are highlighted in boxes throughout the book. At the very end of each chapter, you will find a page called Key Points to Ponder, an organizing tool to help you remember important ideas, strategies, and resources you may wish to consider later.
Where appropriate, I have explained some of the chemical and biological processes occurring within the brain. However, I have intentionally omitted complex chemical formulas and reactions and have avoided side issues that would distract from the main purpose of this book. My intent is to present just enough science to help the average reader understand the research and the rationale for any suggestions I offer. Who Should Use This Book? This book will be useful to classroom teachers because it presents a research- based rationale for why and when certain instructional strategies should be considered.
It focuses on the brain as the organ of thinking and learning, and takes the approach that the more teachers know about how the brain learns, the greater the number of instructional options that become available. Increasing the options that teachers have during the dynamic process of instruction also increases the likelihood that successful learning will occur.
The book should also help professional developers who continually need to update their own knowledge base and include research and research-based strategies and support systems as part of their repertoire. Chapter 8 offers some suggestions to help professional developers implement and maintain the knowledge and strategies suggested here. Principals and head teachers should find here a substantial source of topics for discussion at faculty meetings, which should include, after all, instructional as well as informational items.
In doing so, they support the attitude that professional growth is an ongoing school responsibility and not an occasional event. College and university instructors should also find merit in the research and applications presented here, as both suggestions to improve their own teaching and information to be passed on to prospective teachers.
Indeed, the ideas in this book provide the research support for a variety of initiatives, such as cooperative learning groups, differentiated instruction, integrated thematic units, and the interdisciplinary approach to curriculum. Those who are familiar with constructivism will recognize many similarities in the ideas presented here.
Much of this occurs through elaborative rehearsal and transfer and is discussed in several chapters.
This book can help teachers, professional developers, principals, college instructors, and parents. Try It Yourself—Do Action Research Benefits of Action Research One of the best ways to assess the value of the strategies suggested in this book is to try them out in your own classroom or in any other location where you are teaching.
Conducting this action research allows you to gather data to determine the effectiveness of new strategies and affirm those you already use, to acclaim and enhance the use of research in our profession, and to further your own professional development. Other benefits of action research are that it provides teachers with consistent feedback for self-evaluation, it introduces alternative forms of student assessment, and its results may lead to important changes in curriculum.
Action research can be the work of just one teacher, but its value grows immensely when it is the consistent effort of a teacher team, a department, a school staff, or even an entire district. Incorporating action research as a regular part of the K— 12 academic scene not only provides useful data but also enhances the integrity of the profession and gains much-needed respect from the broad community that schools serve. Teachers are often hesitant to engage in action research, concerned that it may take too much time or that it represents another accountability measure in an already test-saturated environment.
Yet, with all the programs and strategies emerging today in the name of reform, we need data to help determine their validity. The valuable results of cognitive neuroscience will continue to be ignored in schools unless there is reliable evidence to support their use.
Action research is a cost-effective means of assessing the effectiveness of brain- compatible strategies that are likely to result in greater student learning. Several studies in PreK schools have shown that action research has a positive effect on teacher confidence and practice e.
Using action research provides valuable data, affirms best practices, and enhances the integrity of the profession. The Outcomes of Action Research The classroom is a laboratory in which the teaching and learning processes meet and interact. Action research can provide continual feedback on the success of that interaction. Using a solution-oriented approach, action research includes identifying the problem, systematically collecting data, analyzing the data, taking action based on the data, evaluating and reflecting on the results of those actions, and, if needed, redefining the problem see Figure I.
The teacher is always in control of the type of data collected, the pace of assessment, and the analysis of the results. This process encourages teachers to reflect on their practices, to refine their skills as practitioners, and to direct their own professional development.
This is a new view of the profession, with the teacher as the main agent of change. Figure I. Building administrators have a special obligation to encourage action research among their teachers.
With so much responsibility and accountability being placed on schools and teachers, action research can quickly assess the effectiveness of instructional strategies. By supporting such a program, principals demonstrate by action that they are truly instructional leaders and not just building managers. Finally, this fifth edition of the book reflects what more I have gathered about the brain and learning at the time of publication. Because this is now an area of intense research and scrutiny, educators need to constantly read about new discoveries and adjust their understandings accordingly.
As we discover more about how the brain learns, we can devise strategies that can make the teaching- learning process more efficient, effective, and enjoyable.
As neuroscience advances, educators are realizing that some basic information about the brain must now become part of their knowledge base. Educators are not neuroscientists, but they are members of the only profession in which their job is to change the human brain every day.
How the Brain Learns
Therefore, the more they know about how it works, the more likely they are to be successful at changing it. Educators are in the only profession in which their job is to change the human brain every day. The value of this book can be measured in part by how it enhances your understanding of the brain and the way it learns. Take the following true-false test to assess your current knowledge of the brain. Decide whether the statements are generally true or false and circle T or F. Explanations for the answers are identified throughout the book in special boxes.
T F Learners who can perform a new learning task well are likely to retain it. T F Reviewing material just before a test is a good practice to determine how much has been retained.The important aspect is that memories are sequences, and once initiated the whole memory flows intuitively, without the need for conscious thinking processes. The fact that everyone that learns to drive does so at about the same rate, and that people we have previously labelled as more intelligent do not learn any quicker or better or have less accidents, gives us a working model for good learning pedagogical practices.
It is now a clear priority for us as educators to bring our practice in line with this model, to adopt technologies that allow an improvement in the Learning Process, provide learners with greater agency over their learning, develop their competencies and modify how we set out and manage classroom spaces … now for some detail! The capacity to delineate between when collaboration is an advantage and when working independently is required is also helpful. The intended learning outcomes for this resource are: To access an overview of the presentations Mark is available to speak on see http: Cancel Save.
Being able to build new ideas provides us with the raw material to create new concepts, just as knowledge provides the raw material for creating new ideas. That is why we find words so hard to remember.
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