GENERAL BIOLOGY TEXTBOOK PDF
TEXT-BOOKS OF ANIMAL BIOLOGY A General Zoology of the Invertebrates Vertebrate ASSESSMENT STUDENT RESOURCE BOOK High School Biology. PDF | Life is unique to Earth. It is Earth-bound. It is complex. Thus, this book shows that Earth is alive; that biology is alive. The first part. This book is organized to help you learn biology. Core Principles of Biology. The first half of this text is devoted to general principles that apply to all.
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General Biology page , since this book and/or parts of it may or may not be licensed under one or PDF file, we recommend the use of. COURSE DESCRIPTION: General Biology I is the first of a two semester general your biology textbook and will coincide with what we will be studying in the. General textbooks. Multi-volume treatises. [Not to be used indiscriminately]. A . Mathematics and statistical methods for biology / medicine / life sciences.
The most plausible reason for this change would be the strong humanistic focus of the curriculum, which considered sciences and mathematics weak cultural components. The need to make room for these topics, as well as the class time needed to reincorporate the Catholic religion and introduce patriotic indoctrination as a compulsory subject, were all acting together in an environment hostile to sciences that also aimed to build a strong humanistic education.
This represents a suitable combination of factors that may explain the decreased importance of the sciences and mathematics during this time. Despite the peculiar characteristics of the curriculum, the remaining data in Figure 1 seem quite stable, with minor variations.
Thereafter, the recovery of these subjects to former levels of dedication is noteworthy. For biology the case was different, however. Level of dedication to biology after the war showed a recovery lower than that of other science and mathematics categories, and biology never again reached the pre-war level.
This is a clear verification of the controversial character attrib- uted to much of the content of biology by some of the powerful social groups in Spain — which, unfortunately, seems to represent a worldwide phenomenon. This matter will be examined later.
Book: General Biology (OpenStax)
It is also of interest to note, in Figure 2, the decline of sciences in the new Spanish national curriculum. Except for geology, the rest of the sciences have shown a decrease in time dedicated to them, particularly because more time has been required to make room for new subjects such as the first languages of some Spanish autonomous communities, music, health, environmental education, etc. Some critics of this last reform are arguing that this implementation will severely decrease learning standards in science, and they may be right.
However, a solution for this problem would not be merely to allocate more time for sciences in the timetables. A more serious problem involves the vast extension of science topics in the new national curriculum.
We very much welcome the new status of all native languages in schools and the introduction of new interdisciplinary subjects such as health or environmental education, to mention only two.
We are also aware that it is difficult to make room for all potentially interesting topics in a sensible timetable. Furthermore, in the case of students that choose a science orientation, they will have only 3 hours per week in their timetable for all four science subjects in the last year of compulsory schooling at age It is necessary to contemplate a more egalitarian treatment for science subjects in the current national curriculum by considering the sciences an integral part of contempo- rary Western culture.
It should be recalled that this graph was con- structed considering the timetables for students of year 10 until university with a science orientation, the most favorable case for scientific education in schools.
Therefore, a more sensible status for sciences in the curriculum, both in time and in a reduction of coverage of topics, is needed. A serious discussion about this issue will greatly enhance future scientific standards of Spanish students.
The treatment of biology in the national curricula Fig. Social pressures over some biological topics are well documented in the data that allowed us to construct this graph. The most characteristic target of these pressures have been evolutionary issues. Evolution and evolutionary theory never have been covered adequately in Spanish curricula, even in the newest curriculum, but what is remarkable is their absolute disappearance in the curriculum, and that they were not reintro- duced until nearly 40 years later.
In fact, when they were reintroduced in the cur- riculum, the coverage was very timid, not only with respect to the brief time allocated, but also in terms of the issues surrounding the explanatory power of evolutionary theory.
This has been a common practice with evolutionary issues in several countries Swarts et al. Stephen Jay Gould wrote in one of his essays that when he had a look at the biology textbook of one of his sons, he found, on its first page about evolution, the following: The theory of evolution is the most widely accepted scientific explanation of the origin of life and changes in living things.
You may wish to investigate other theories. One good illustration of this is given by one of the textbooks we studied Taboas, A closely related example is the coverage of human physiology and anatomy in post — Civil War textbooks.
All organs and systems were introduced in human models except those of reproduction. For male and female reproductive systems, some textbook authors chose as models the bull and the cow, animals that have, in old Spanish tradition, a strong ideological meaning, the bull being an ideal of powerful masculinity and the cow an ideal of docile femininity.
Of course, as it can be assumed, this choice was not explicitly included in the national curricula, but textbook writers probably thought this choice could facilitate the required official approval to publish the books, which actually happened.
None of the books in this period had, among their pages, human models to explain the reproductive organs. Figure 3 also shows the impact of the development of biology as a discipline. The biology curriculum has changed from an old fusion of human anatomy and physiology, botany, and zoology courses known as natural history into a new curriculum, with a strong focus on the molecular level, ecology, and human biology.
Book: General Biology (OpenStax)
Taxonomy and the description of animal and plant taxa have almost disappeared in the new curricula, replaced by an ecological focus, a unitary view of life phenomena, and by the study of factors responsible for the diversity of organisms, abandoning the past tendency for in-depth study of diversity through description. This tendency seems to represent the global experience, such as in England Jenkins, and the U. DeHart Hurd, ; nonetheless, this process of fusion, which, over the past years has resulted in shaping school biology as a subject with comparable value to the other sciences, has taken somewhat longer in Spain.
The influence of scientific advances in biology teaching are well documented in s textbooks. For example, the arrival of electronic microscopy deeply altered the knowledge of cellular and subcellular morphology, and the number of textbook pages devoted to cell morphology increased greatly. For the dictatorial regime and its religious and social ideology, a biology directly heir to the natural history of the nineteenth century was much less problematic, ideologically speaking.
Forty years of strongly biased biology curricula is a heavy weight to bear, and some of its pernicious effects are still felt today, even if in an unconscious way. As we look to the new curricula in biology, we very much welcome statements in official publications such as:.
CEC, , p. It is true that this pronouncement is not very emphatic it says can be instead simply is ; however, it is probably due more to the carefully planned nonprescriptive style in which the new curriculum has been written than to sustain any real doubt about the actual value of evolutionary theory in biology and biology teaching.
Nevertheless, while welcoming this new official behavior, we are disappointed when we look closer at the implementation of these issues in the curriculum.
In compulsory secondary education, evolutionary issues are included in only one of the blocks of content — the last one — and it has been scheduled for the last compulsory year, when science subjects are optional.
Furthermore, if students choose this subject as one of the 11 they must pass that year, there will be only 3 hours per week for it in the timetable, and it will be shared with the other three science subjects chemistry, geology, and physics. It is therefore very difficult to warrant adequate knowledge in evolutionary biology for students. Moreover, students who do not choose this subject in this year, nor who follow a scientific orientation in the next noncompulsory level, will never have in their school years the opportunity to learn about one of the most important ideas in the history of human thought.
In noncompulsory secondary education, things are no better.
Evolution is only included as a part of first-year biology, sharing the scheduled 70 hours per year with geology. This is the only noncompulsory education time devoted in part for the study of evolution, because biology in the last noncompulsory year is focused entirely on the molecular level, and surprisingly without any reference to evolutionary issues.
This unfortunate treatment is due to complex and jointly present factors, one of them surely being the careless treatment of biological theories in biology teaching in Spain during the most recent decades. The pressures over biology curricula in Spain have been identified as political and social ideals and religious beliefs held by some powerful groups, and these beliefs have been imposed on the Spanish population during dictatorial regimes.
These forces are of the same kinds as those described in other countries worldwide. We hold the conviction that, to enhance the future standards in biology education in Spain, it is necessary to be aware of these past practices regarding curriculum development and to draw some knowledge from them.
If so, we will then be able to realize that nowadays new forces are acting over biology curricula. For example, the great economic power of new biotechnologies Beardsley, probably has been one of the main reasons for the strong focus on the molecular level in biology teaching in the last year of noncompulsory secondary education, just before the access to university where the next generation of biological researchers will come from. Also, the introduction in this same year of the study of molecular immunology can be seen as a political response to the social pressure of AIDS; or, the ecological approach, and the topics included about sustainable develop- ment as a way to deal with environmental degradation.
All these pressures distort the curricular view of biology teaching from the mirror image that supposedly corresponds to biology as a scientific discipline. Their agents and results could be more or less welcome for shaping curricula, but all groups involved in education teachers, textbooks editors, students, administrators, etc. Some teachers will be pleased with the new Spanish national curriculum, but surely not others. After a long and dark period of education in Spain, this is good news.
The knowledge context: Comparative perspectives on the distribution of knowledge. Valencia: Hijos de F. Vives Mora. Bambach, R.
Responses to creationism. Science, , — Baratas, L. Llull, 15, 7— Beardsley, T. Big-time biology.
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Scientific American, 72— Bizzo, N. From down house landlord to Brazilian high-school students: What has happened to evolutionary knowledge on the way?.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, — Searching for answers to questions requires a considerable amount of reading through numerous pages on Wayne's Word.
Although there are suggested deadlines for each exam to keep everyone on task, the only critical date is the final deadline at the end of the semester. The precise final deadline date and time will be announced each semester.
Students may submit the exam forms at their own pace; however, it is preferable to follow the suggested deadlines in order to avoid getting behind. There is minimal student-teacher interaction in this course.
Hint pages are provided for each exam that include useful hyperlinks and other helpful information. These pages are continuously updated by the instructor. Because of the substantial number of students enrolled in this on-line course, exam submissions cannot be extended beyond the final deadline.
Statistical analysis was performed using self-organizing map algorithms and conventional methods to identify clusters of terms and their relative position in the books.
General biology textbooks for both majors and nonmajors introduced genome-related content after text related to cell biology and biological chemistry, but before content describing higher-order biological processes. However, human biology textbooks most often introduced genomic content near the end of the books.
These results suggest that genomics is not yet positioned as a core concept in commonly used textbooks for first-year biology and raises questions about whether such textbooks, or courses based on the outline of these textbooks, provide an appropriate foundation for understanding contemporary biological science.
Biological thought is increasingly organized around the role of the genome in creating and regulating complex biological systems; explaining the diversity of life, evolution, and ecology; maintaining health; and contributing to disease.
In this paper, we consider whether the emerging understanding of genomics as a core principle of biological understanding is reflected in the positioning of genomics within introductory, undergraduate biology curricula.
It has been argued that in the post-genomic era, the genome occupies the same position in biology as the periodic table in chemistry 10 , 13 , In this context, understanding the genome becomes a predicate to understanding biological systems at the level of cells, organs, organisms, and even ecosystems in the same way that the periodic table paves the way to understanding molecules, chemical reactions, and materials.
In an educational context, the order of instruction impacts student learning. The constructivist approach to learning, for example, posits that learning builds not only on prior knowledge, but also on broad cognitive frameworks in which new concepts and observations can be anchored 4. Furthermore, the connections that students form between different concepts are fundamental to their learning and represent a key difference between meaningful and rote learning In this view, a student may achieve a subjectively different understanding of development, homeostasis, evolution, or health coming to these topics with a core foundation in areas other than genomics.
Recognizing the foundational role of genomics in our contemporary understanding of biology and medicine, and how the sequence of instruction in core scientific concepts can influence student learning of advanced science topics, this paper explores the positioning of genomics in undergraduate biology education.The study covers the secondary level of schooling age 10 up to university , and is based mainly on the data afforded by the official publications of the nine national curricula in twentieth-century Spain, and some of the main textbooks used for this schooling level.
Strong ished. Get access to the full version of this article. Most recently, text analysis of high school biology textbooks has been performed as part of AAAS Project Both together make us what we are" Catholic government. Spartan exposure or Nazi gas chambers, p. Based upon a survey of past students, the average time spent on one exam is hours. If so, we will then be able to realize that nowadays new forces are acting over biology curricula. For example, the first type animal in the book is the grasshopper.
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