EXAM REF 70-341 PDF
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This reduces round trips to remote locations that might be connected with slower wide area network WAN links and can introduce excessive delays, resulting in a poor Outlook client behavior and user experience. When deploying public folder mailboxes in close proximity to user locations, also consider changing the DefaultPublicFolderMailbox property on user mailboxes, so users can use their closest public folder mailbox to retrieve the public folder hierarchy.
When migrating from Exchange or Exchange , the recommendation is not to create any modern public folder mailboxes on Exchange until after all the user mailboxes are migrated to Exchange Migration from older versions of Exchange server to new public folder mailboxes is a one- way process in the sense that you can roll back to legacy public folders by deleting all public folder mailboxes on Exchange , setting the PublicFolderMigrationComplete parameter to false on a previous version of Exchange server.
This is an important consideration during the migration planning process from legacy public folders to new public folder mailboxes on Exchange With new public-folder mailbox functionality, you can easily move a rapidly growing public folder and its contents to a different public folder mailbox. Because of the separation that can happen from using different mailboxes for different public folders, it becomes complex to account for all of the subfolders that belong to the public folder being moved.
If you need to keep the data of all subfolders with the parent public folder being moved, you need to use the Move-PublicFolderBranch. You must carefully evaluate mailbox sizes, including warning, send, and receive quotas that a public folder mailbox might inherit and change it for a public folder mailbox, if necessary.
This is important when you deine goals for meeting auditing requirements for each of the messaging components being deployed. It is also important to distinguish mailbox audit logging from public-folder access permis- sions auditing.
Assigning permissions is an administrative action that moved to role based access control RBAC in Exchange This allows for auditing administrative actions when permissions on public folders are changed. If the provided user proile information and other test parameters are incorrect, the passing result might not be an accurate relection of your production requirements and a failing result might not mean much in reality.
The installation of Jetstress is dependent on ESE libraries that are going to be used on production Exchange server. Also, Jetstress is run before Exchange server is installed on the server to be tested. This means, required ESE libraries must be obtained manually from installation media of Exchange server version that are going to be used to install Exchange on a given server.
Jetstress should never be run on a server that has Exchange already installed. When validating storage using Jetstress, all of the factors affecting the given storage should be considered. If multiple databases are planned to be located on the same volume, the test should account for it. When testing RAID subsystems, accounting for disk failures is also important. When a disk in a RAID array fails, access to the data stored on the array is uninterrupted.
Performance of the RAID array is degraded until the failed disk is replaced and rebuild process is complete. Jetstress tests should account for both healthy operation and performance degradation during the rebuild operation. Virtual- ized environments might mean a shared logical unit number LUN hosting virtual disks for many VMs.
When host-based failovers are conigured, a failed host might mean additional resource usage on surviving hosts due to additional VMs now running on it. When testing virtualized Exchange servers for storage system performance with Jetstress, accounting for these additional factors is important.
When running Jetstress, how much time you allocate for testing is an important factor to ensure that test results are accurate. The tuning of test parameters might be required before running extended tests, so the recommendation is to run initial short minute tests to determine the number of simultaneous threads an underlying storage system can support. Once the appropriate level of disk latency and IOPs are achieved using tuned parameters in short tests, longer tests should be carried out.
Strict mode tests should be carried out for durations from up to six hours, and lenient mode tests should be carried out for durations greater than six hours. The strict mode tests storage for stricter maximum read and write latencies of ms. The lenient mode, in contrast, tests the storage against the maximum read and write latency target of ms. Before performing any testing, you should also ensure that the test systems are conigured optimally for an underlying storage subsystem.
Factors such as server BIOS, storage control- ler irmware and driver levels, and hard disk irmware have a direct impact on the outcome of Jetstress and should be at manufacture-recommended and -supported levels. When Jetstress tests result in a failure, it usually means one of two factors. A natural tendency is to look at a storage subsystem and tune or reconigure it to ensure the tests pass. But it might also be the result of misconiguration of Jetstress test parameters.
If further tests still fail, this almost always means the storage has failed to meet the test requirements and must be remediated. For the test to be successful, all three criteria being evaluated must pass. Thought experiment Exchange design considerations In this thought experiment, apply what you have learned about this objective. You are an Exchange administrator for Contoso, Ltd. Contoso currently uses Microsoft Hyper-V as its virtualization platform.
The Virtualization administrator states his goal of achieving a consolidation ratio of VMs per virtualization host.
The Storage administrator prefers to create large RAID arrays con- sisting of multiple disks and creates multiple volumes from the existing array as needed.
Contoso also plans to deploy public folders for collaboration. Contoso has multiple locations connected with slower WAN links and wants to ensure the best possible user experience when accessing public folder content. What would be your recommendations for virtualization platform coniguration to ensure Exchange deployment is supported? Do you agree with the proposed storage coniguration? Do you have any con- cerns to discuss? How would you plan public folder deployment to address the requirement?
Optimal storage design for Exchange requires striking a careful balance of price, performance, and capacity. This applies to storage, as well as virtualization. Cen- tralized deployments may work for a small company with a highly mobile workforce, but it might not be the best option for a large company with multiple international locations, each governed by different rules and compliance requirements.
Objective 1. Objective review Answer the following questions to test your knowledge of the information in this objective. Select supported disk coniguration for Exchange deployment.
The deployment must provide the best possible cost beneits for design consisting of large mailboxes for every user. The planned minimum mailbox size is 5 GB per user. You need to determine the user proile for the existing Exchange environment that will be used to determine server and storage sizing for planned Exchange deployment.
Which tool should you use to minimize administrative effort and meet the requirement? Exchange Proile Analyzer B. Performance Counters C. Transaction Log Files D. Exchange Log Analyzer 3. What should you do? Create a new public folder mailbox using the New-Mailbox cmdlet. Exclude the new public folder from the serving hierarchy using the IsExcludedFromServingHeirarchy parameter.
Create a new public folder mailbox using the New-Publicfolder cmdlet. Conigure and manage the mailbox role Exchange setup is now greatly simpliied, and it also accounts for installing operating system component prerequisites as a part of the setup, if selected. In this section, you learn the details of how to conigure and manage mailbox role and related components. Starting with authentication provider, you must be certain that at least one writeable domain controller exists in each Active Directory site where you plan to deploy an Exchange server.
The supported operating system running on the Active Directory controller is Windows Server or later.
Referencing mail-enabled objects is critical for Exchange server roles. For Exchange server to function properly, you must deploy at least one global catalog server in each Active Directory site where you plan to deploy an Exchange server. The network infrastructure using the IPv6 protocol is supported only when IPv4 is also installed and enabled. While it is a supported to install Exchange on a domain controller, for security and performance reasons, the recommendation is to install Exchange server on a member server in a domain.
Exchange supports storing database iles, transaction log iles, and content index iles on partitions formatted with ReFS. But partitions storing Exchange binary iles and diagnostics logging data generated by Exchange server must be formatted using the NTFS ile system.
Windows Server Core installations reduce the management overhead and increase the security proile of the server by reducing the attack surface.
But if you have a Windows R2 Core installation, you must reinstall the operating system using the Full installation option. Preparing the organization is one of the irst steps that needs to be run before installing any Exchange server roles.
In an environment where role separation is required, the Exchange administrator might not have the ability to modify the Active Directory schema. In such cases, the Active Directory administrator with Schema Admins and Enterprise Admins privileges needs to run the preparation steps before the Exchange administrator can install Exchange servers.
Because this irst step requires access to Active Directory, tools that enable you to administer Active Directory are required on the server where the setup is being run. Remote Tools Administration Pack RSAT includes all of the required tools and must be installed if the computer is not a domain controller; it can be installed via server manager interface or by using PowerShell.
While the difference is subtle, note the cmdlet, which is different between the two versions, while the component being installed is the same. When using setup. No abbreviated aliases exist for the switch. When preparing a schema, you must allow for the replication to complete from a schema master to all of the domain controllers in all of the domains of the forest. You need to do this before you can proceed to the next steps of preparing Active Directory and preparing domains where Exchange servers and Exchange server users are to be located.
When extending the Active Directory schema, Exchange server setup adds and updates classes, attributes, and other items. In simple terms, this is how Active Directory is made aware of what Exchange objects are going to be made up of.
When preparing Active Directory, in new environments, an Exchange Organization is created using the name provided by the administrator. In existing environments, an existing Exchange organization is updated to include Exchange containers, objects, and attributes. During this step, Exchange-related containers and security groups are created. Setup also assigns permissions to the containers, so the Exchange server can access them. If the Exchange administrator also has required Active Directory permissions, the Exchange Setup Wizard can run all three Active Directory preparation steps automatically.
After the successful installation of Exchange servers, Exchange administrators with permissions to create objects can create new security principals, such as a user in Active Directory, before creating an Exchange mailbox if needed.
This model of security might not be preferred in organizations with strict role separation requirements. In such environ- ments, Active Directory administrators are unable to manage Exchange objects, such as mailbox creation, distribution group creation, and so on.
To achieve such role separation, Exchange setup provides the capability to create Active Directory split permissions. This can be achieved during the setup or after Exchange servers are set up, by running setup. When using the Setup Wizard, the Apply Active Directory split permission security model to the Exchange organization option is only available if you are setting up the irst Exchange server in a new organization.
In an existing organization, you must use setup. An Exchange administrator with the proper Active Directory permissions can run setup. When permissions are involved, larger environments tend to have separation of roles and duties that extend beyond just separation between Exchange and Active Directory administrators. For example, you can have an Exchange architect who is responsible for setting objectives for the Exchange server design and deployment.
They might also serve as a subject matter expert and a point of escalation when needed. Daily management tasks might be further delegated to other Exchange administrators. Similarly, an organization might hire temporary staff to assist with time- bound, short-term needs where hiring a new person might not be warranted or possible.
Exchange setup accounts for such requirements where the person setting up an Exchange server might not be responsible for managing an entire Exchange organization and might only need limited permissions that enable them to successfully install new Exchange server roles.
For delegated setup to work, you must have at least one Exchange server installed in the organization. Next, the organization administrator must provision a new Exchange server in Active Directory. This can be achieved by running setup. After provisioning a new server, the user who is performing an installation of Exchange server needs to be added to the Delegated Setup role group.
You need to be an Exchange administrator to successfully uninstall Exchange server from a computer. Creating and coniguring Ofline Address Book Address books are part of the functionality Exchange server offers to enable users to ind other users easily.
Address books are created and maintained by mailbox servers. Address lists are a building block of OAB. When Exchange is installed, it automatically creates multiple default address lists that contain contacts, distribution lists, rooms, users, and public folders. The default Global Address List GAL , which contains all mailbox-enabled or mail-enabled objects from the Active Directory forest where Exchange is installed, is also created.
You can also create custom address lists to contain mail-enabled objects from certain departments, geography, or any other organizational entity that can help users identify which address list is most likely to contain a user they want to ind. Custom address lists tend to be a subset of objects contained in a global address list.
When creating a new address list, you can restrict which recipients should be included in the new address list by using built-in ilter parameters, such as the ConditionalDepartment.
This only selects users with a department attribute that matches a deined value of the param- eter. To address the requirement, you need to create additional global address lists and provide separation using Address Book policies.
For example, you can create two separate address lists, each containing employees and contacts from the Finance department and the Sales department, respectively.
You also create separate room address lists to contain rooms and resources that should only be available to one department. When this procedure is complete, you will have two Address Book policies separating two department Address Books.
In the following example, we create an empty room list to meet the requirement. The example assumes that no conference room mailboxes exist in the environment. Notice how we only changed one mailbox for each department in the previous example.
Obviously, in the real world, you have to change all of the mailboxes of each department to apply the correct ABPs to each. When a user from Outlook types a name in the address bar, Outlook provides the capability to resolve the name from GAL. Despite the separation created using ABPs, name resolution continues to work across logical boundaries created by ABPs. This is because name resolution is an organizational function and, despite logical separation, the objects from both departments continue to exist in a single Exchange organization.
To address this problem, two departments, when using ABPs, must be considered external to each other. The Address Book Policy routing agent provides this function. The ABP routing agent must be manually installed and enabled to provide name resolu- tion separation. Take a look at the process. Figure 1—3 provides an example of a Sales user trying to resolve the display name of a Finance user inuser1 while ABP separation is in place and the ABP routing agent is conigured.
Exchange supports and produces OAB v4 iles only. OAB v4 Unicode format allows client computers to receive differential updates, instead of full OAB downloads, as well as a reduction in ile size. Exchange uses web-based distribution, which Outlook clients use to download OAB iles. In contrast to public folder-based distribution in previous versions, web-based distribution provides distinct advantages, such as the ability to support more concurrent clients for OAB distribution, a reduction in bandwidth usage, and more control over the distribution end point.
Clients use Autodiscover to locate the OAB distribution point they should connect to, which, in turn, can be load-balanced end points providing better resiliency. Another change in Exchange regarding OAB is generation. OAB generation is no longer associated with a particular mailbox server like in previous versions. The OAB generation functionality is now associated with a specialized mailbox called the arbitration mailbox.
When Exchange server is installed, multiple arbitration mailboxes are automatically created and are associated with different persisted capabilities, which deine the purpose and function of an arbitration mailbox.
The new functionality can now beneit from higher availability provided by a DAG when a mailbox is located on a database protected by DAG. If a mailbox is located on a database copy protected by DAG, you can simply activate a different copy of the database on a different server to move the arbitration mailbox to a different server.
To provide close proximity to an OAB generation mailbox in a distributed environment, you can create additional arbitration mailboxes as needed. When creating an arbitration mailbox, specify the Arbitration parameter to the New-Mailbox cmdlet. When an OAB download request is received by a client access server, it proxies the request to the mailbox server hosting an active arbitration mailbox in the same Active Directory site.
If more than one mailbox server contains an active arbitration mailbox with an OAB generation capability, the client access server sends the requests using round-robin distribution. Detailed documentation about this change can be found on the Exchange team blog at http: The default values of these attributes are set to one day, resulting in the OAB generation taking place once every day.
Values of these parameters can be changed using the Set-MailboxServer cmdlet. The hierarchical address book HAB enables end users to look for recipients using an organizational hierarchy, thus providing an eficient method for locating internal recipients. You also need to create more distribution groups, each corresponding to the hierarchy of the company. For example, HQ, designating company headquarters, locations, and depart- ments. The hierarchy is created by using a distribution group nesting.
You need to add subordi- nate distribution groups to their parents as a member. For example, distribution group HQ is added to the root distribution group, and department distribution groups HR and Accounting are added to the distribution group HQ to represent a hierarchy.
Individual recipients show up in the HAB based on their distribution group membership. You also need to repeat this step for all of the distribution groups that are members of the HAB.
When you have multiple members for a given location, such as HQ, in the HAB display, they are organized alphabetically in ascending order. It might be more desirable to show the members based on their seniority. HAB enables you to achieve that by setting the value of the SeniorityIndex attribute on the recipient or the distribution group. In HAB, objects are organized based on seniority index values from higher to lower. HQ also has HR and Accounting sub groups.
We also set the seniority index of a few recipients and add them to the appropriate distribu- tion groups in the hierarchy. Because we also assigned seniority to Ray, he is displayed before Peter in the list, overriding the default alphabetical ordering.
The same also applies to the HR department, which displays before Accounting in the hierarchy. Figure 1—5 represents the example HAB. However, Ray is displayed before Peter and HQ is displayed before Accounting as deined by the seniority index. The Name List tab still provides you with a nonhierarchical reference to all recipient ob- jects, as shown in Figure 1—6.
In such an organization, you might need to create many distribution groups representing each leaf of hierarchy and then add DLs as needed. Creating and coniguring public folders Creating public folders in Exchange is a different process compared to previous versions. This is because public folders are now stored in public folder mailboxes. In a new installation where no public folders exist, the irst step is to create a public folder mailbox. Because this is the irst public folder mailbox in the organization, it contains public folder hierarchy information and becomes the primary hierarchy mailbox.
The public folder mailbox can also contain public folder content. The primary hierarchy mailbox is the only writeable copy of the hierarchy in the organization. All other public folder mailboxes created contain a read-only copy of the public folder hierarchy. You can create a public folder mailbox using EAC or the Shell.
Similar to any other mailbox, the cmdlet you use to create the public folder mailbox is New-Mailbox. To des- ignate a mailbox as a public folder mailbox, use the PublicFolder parameter. There is no difference in the syntax for creating the irst public folder mailbox containing the primary public folder hierarchy and secondary public folder mailboxes.
Exchange server automati- cally creates the public folder with an appropriate copy of the hierarchy. After creating a public folder mailbox, you can now create a public folder that users see in the hierarchy and can store content in. You can specify a name for the folder being created, the path in the hierarchy where the folder is created and, optionally, the public folder mailbox where the content for the folder is stored.
When you create a public folder, it inherits the settings of its parent folder, which includes the permissions assigned to the parent public folder. You can either choose to assign permissions such as ability to read, create or delete items, or assign a role, such as owner, editor, or author. Each role represents a combination of permissions on the public folder. For example, the Reviewer role enables the assignee permissions to see the public folder and its contents, but it has no ability to edit or delete them.
Public folders also allow the ability to submit content via email. To do so, you must mail- enable a public folder. You can, however, change the primary email address or assign additional email addresses to a mail- enabled public folder, if needed. If you use the Shell, you can use the Set-MailPublicFolder cmdlet to update an email address and other mailbox properties, such as the mailbox quota. Another important consideration for when you mail-enable a public folder mailbox, is to ensure that only authorized users can submit content via email.
You can choose to accept emails from individual recipients or members of a distribution group. Ensure that the public folder mailbox is located on a database copy protected by DAG and has multiple database copies located in appropriate locations to provide protection against local and site failures. The same protection should also be applied to all public folder mailboxes that store critical public folder content.
If public folders are accessed by users located across multiple locations and regions connected via WAN or slower network links, you can improve the user experience when accessing a public folder hierarchy.
You can also provide uninterrupted access in case of network failures between a client location and other sites. You do this by creating a public folder mailbox in close proximity to the client location where network connectiv- ity between client and Exchange server is robust. After creating a public folder mailbox in such a location, you need to change all user mailboxes for a given ofice or regions to use the new public folder mailbox as their default access location for the public folder hierar- chy.
While this provides users with uninterrupted access to the public folder hierarchy, uninterrupted access to the content can only be guaranteed if the public folder content is also stored on public folder mailboxes that are locally accessible. That is why locating public folder content requires careful planning and an understanding of the usage of public folders and the factors affecting it, such as a public folder containing regional data or a public folder containing company data that might be applicable to all public folder users.
Moving a public folder mailbox may be necessary due to organizational or infrastructure changes. If you need to move a public folder mailbox, you can do so by issuing a mailbox move request, similar to moving a regular mailbox. This enables you to move the public folder mailbox, including all of its content, including the primary or read-only copy of a public folder hierarchy, to a different database located on the same or a different server, which may or may not be a part of DAG.
When you need to provide high availability to a public folder mailbox, you should move it to a database conigured with multiple copies protected by DAG. You might need to move a public folder to a different public folder mailbox to provide close proximity access to its primary user base. Or, you might need to move a public folder that exceeds the assigned mailbox storage quota.
Before creating another public folder move request, you must remove the completed public folder move requests, using the Remove-PublicFolderMoveRequest cmdlet. To move the entire branch of a public folder, you must use the Move-PublicFolderBranch. The process of creating public folders in a new environment might seem relatively simple. Migrating public folders from a previous version of Exchange servers requires careful plan- ning.
Migrating from a previous version of public folders is a multi-step process. The irst step in the migration process is to use public-folder migration scripts to create the public folder name to size mapping and the public folder to the proposed new public-folder mailbox mapping. The collection of statistics enables you to understand the impact on new Exchange servers. It also enables you to create the required public folder mailboxes according to the appropriate folder size mapping created by the scripts.
Before you proceed with migration, ensure that no public folder mailboxes exist on Exchange and that no public folder migration requests exist. You can verify any existing public-folder migration requests by running the Get-PublicFolderMigrationRequest cmdlet.
If a migration request exists, you need to make sure no migration is in progress or you risk losing data when you remove the migration request to start the new migration. After ensuring that starting a new public folder migration is appropriate, start the pro- cess by creating public folder mailboxes. The time it takes to migrate the public folder data depends on the amount of data being migrated, the load on the source and destination servers, and other environmental factors, such as the network infrastructure.
When the migration is started, Exchange servers synchronize public folder data from a previous version of Exchange servers to the new public folder mailboxes created earlier. How- ever, during the initial data synchronization process, users can continue using legacy public folders and make changes. When the migration process reaches the status of autosuspended, you can lock the public folders on a legacy exchange server for inal migration. If public folder databases are distributed across multiple locations, it might take several hours for the change to converge.
You can verify the status of public folder databases by verifying the PublicFoldersLockedForMigration lag. This action allows the inal synchronization of public folder data to take place. You also need to resume the public folder migration request by issuing the Resume-PublicFolderMigrationRequest cmdlet. The amount of time required for the inal synchronization depends on the amount of changes made by users to the public folder data after the migration process reaches the autosus- pended status, and before the legacy public folders are locked for migration.
Before you can enable public folders on Exchange , you need to ensure that the mi- gration is complete, which you can verify by running the Get-PublicFolderMigrationRequest cmdlet and ensuring that the status is Completed.
Users can access data from migrated public folders on Exchange after the success- ful completion of the previously shown process. This can happen because of a user action, a failed public folder, or a public folder mailbox move. Because the public folder mailboxes are now similar to user mailboxes, restor- ing a deleted public folder mailbox is similar to restoring a deleted mailbox. If the public folder mailbox is intact, but a public folder is deleted instead, you can restore the public folder by using a similar process to the one previ- ously mentioned.
You also need to include the IncludeFolders parameter with the public folder path of the folder that needs restoring. The process gets more involved when a deleted public folder or the public folder mailbox is past its retention period as deined on the mailbox and mailbox database properties.
The process to restore a public folder mailbox and public folders past their retention period requires recovering data using a recovery database. For more information on this topic, see Develop backup and recovery solutions for the mailbox role and public folders in Objective 1. The process applies to both regular and public folder mailboxes.
At a high level, the process involves creating a recovery database, restoring data from backups, mounting restored databases, and extracting the data from the recovery database. Extracted data can then be exported to a folder or merged into an existing mailbox.
Exam Ref 70-341 Core Solutions of Microsoft Exchange Server 2013
You are an Exchange administrator for Litware, Inc. Litware is migrating from Exchange and has deployed Exchange servers. Litware frequently acquires small companies that complement its products. Litware also requires that public folders be available during single server failures.
The company requires that users can browse the public folder structure without lengthy delays, regardless of their location and their connectivity to the centralized datacenter where all Exchange servers are located. What is the impact of public folder requirements proposed by Litware? Plan for schema update dependencies, including OS com- ponents required, such as the Remote Tools Administration Toolkit to make schema updates.
Roll- back is possible, but it might involve data loss because no backward synchronization exists from Exchange public folders to legacy public folders. Contoso, Ltd. The empty forest root domain is called consoto. What should you do before enabling recipient objects in the domain London. Run setup. You need to move the OAB generation to a different server.
Run Move-OflineAddressBook cmdlet. Run Set-OflineAddressBook cmdlet. Run Move-Mailbox cmdlet. Run Set-DistributionGroup to change the seniority index. Run Set-AddressList cmdlet. Deploy and manage high availability solutions for the mailbox role When deploying a critical platform such as messaging, the assumption is that such systems are going to be available without interruptions.
Exchange not only continues to provide native functionality, but it also has improved features providing high availability for the mailbox role. Improvements such as support for multiple databases per disk provide for better utilization of disk space, as well as disk IOPS by allowing to store active, passive, and lagged copies of different databases on the same disk. Enhancements, such as automatic log replay, ensure data integrity by allowing page patching on lagged copies. DAG is a group of up to 16 mailbox servers that hosts mailbox database copies and provides automatic database level recovery from failures.
You must ensure that at least two copies of a database are hosted on separate DAG members to provide high availability. DAG is a boundary for mailbox database replication. Exchange makes deploying DAG easy because it leverages the concept of incremental deployment. You can create DAG with a single Exchange server, and then add more Exchange servers when they are provisioned at a later date.
DAG is created as an empty Active Directory object. When the irst mailbox server is added as a DAG member, the directory object is used to store server membership information and DAG coniguration settings.
If you need to pre-state a CNO for creating a new DAG, the process requires permissions in Active Directory to be able to create a computer object and assign necessary permissions to it. First, you must create a computer in Active Directory.
Next, when you create the computer object, ensure the object name is the name of the DAG you plan to create. Then, for additional security, the recommendation is that you disable the CNO computer object.
The failover cluster-core resource group contains an IP address resource and a network name resource in the cluster core group. When creating a DAG, one of the design considerations is the coniguration of a witness server. When using failover cluster, the decision of when to consider a node of cluster out of service relies on the number of votes.
Each member of the DAG is considered one vote. When you have a DAG with an even number of nodes, this creates the possibility of a split number of votes, where half the DAG members might vote a node to be out of service and the other half might vote for it to be in service. This can happen when network connectivity between locations is affected and nodes are located across the affected link evenly. In such situations, a tie-breaker mechanism becomes essential.
File witness provides that mechanism. When a DAG is created, a ile witness is required. If one is found, it automatically creates a default directory and shares on that server to be used as a witness ile share. If you specify a witness server and the directory, the task tries to create a speciied directory and share automatically. This can succeed if the server is Exchange server because the Exchange Trusted Subsystem object has required permission to create the directory and share on the server.
If the witness server is the Active Directory domain controller, the Administrators group permissions equate to permissions assigned to domain administrators.
It is, however, a supported coniguration. The witness server is required to be a Windows Server running any version of Windows Server or later. File witness location also plays an important role in ensuring availability of DAG members. In a single-site DAG conigured to provide high availability to all users hosted on database copies protected by a given DAG, the ile witness needs to be located into the same physical site location and Active Directory site.
When a DAG is designed to provide site resiliency in a coniguration where all active users are located in a primary location, the ile witness should be located at the primary site. If you have more than two locations available, Exchange also supports a locating ile witness in a third location. Even with VPN links from each datacen- ter to Azure, this coniguration is currently not supported by Exchange When extending DAG across multiple datacenters, you must account for outages and its effect on active users.
Exchange administrators often prefer to optimize the use of compute resources available to them. They consider hosting active users from two separate locations on mailbox servers that are part of same DAG. When a network outage occurs between two locations, mail- box servers in only one of the two datacenters can achieve quorum. This means the active databases in the datacenter with lost quorum are dismounted and users experience service interruption. Overall design considerations, such as ile share witness in the third datacenter, can affect the outcome as well.
This can ensure that a lost quorum at any site affects the least possible users. A new database copy can be created on any mailbox server within the same DAG. A mailbox server can host only one active or passive copy of a database.
Circular logging must be disabled before creating the irst copy of the database. You can enable circular logging after adding the irst copy of the database. Identifying failure domains Any solution is as strong as its weakest component. To provide the best possible availability using DAG, you must account for all the components that affect it and how to remove the points of failure by providing redundancy.
Another factor to consider when designing such highly available solutions is the cost. As you add more components and more redundancy Objective 1. Good designs always account for striking an optimal balance between availability and cost based on the available budget. Discussions of the cost beneit of a design is beyond the scope of this book.
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This section covers each failure domain and its impact on the high availability of Exchange When looking at possible failures, you need to look at software, hardware, and environmen- tal factors that can affect the operations of a component and the service itself.
For example, the failure of a disk might affect only a database, while Exchange continues to function. Whereas, the failure of the Top of the Rack ToR router might affect more than one server in a given rack. Starting at server level failures, the server hardware, such as the power supply, network, and disk, are the most common factors.
Most of the modern server class hardware now supports and commonly ships with redundant power supplies and network cards. But they still need to be conigured properly to provide resiliency against failures. If a power supply fails on a server equipped with two power supplies, the server continues to function. But what if both power supplies were connected to the same power feed? What if the feed itself fails? The same concept applies to the network and disks. For storage, a common practice is to protect against disk failures by using different RAID levels.
As you might have noticed, to protect against failures, adding more components to provide redundancy also raises the cost of the solution. Exchange is designed to provide the best cost eficiencies, while reducing the cost where possible. When DAG is conigured and databases have multiple copies conigured appropriately, a single power supply failure or a network card failure would affect the given server, but not the service to the user.
This provides the administrator with the lexibility to ix the failed component, while the end user is provided with uninterrupted service. With the use of spare disks and auto-reseed functionality, Exchange automates the process that the administrator would have to manually perform otherwise. When combined with at least three copies of a database, Exchange supports JBOD coniguration, eliminating the need for RAID and extra disks needed for the RAID coniguration, reducing the cost of the required hardware and providing automation with the automatic reseed functionality.
Another beneit of such a design is that, with proper capacity planning, Exchange admin- istrators can remove a mailbox server from a service to perform required maintenance without interrupting service. Alternat the witness server and directory, if preconigured, can only help speed site failovers, but not without manual intervention.
Core Solutions of Microsoft Exchange Server 2013
For environments where the interfaces for a speciied network MAPI or Replication network , were on multiple subnets, multiple redundant DAG networks were created and the administrator had to perform the procedure manually to collapse the networks into their appropriate function, such as MAPI or Replication network.
The process was many times overlooked, resulting in unexpected DAG behavior, such as incorrect network being used for replication. In Exchange , network management is automated. For automatic DAG network coniguration to work correctly, MAPI networks must be registered in DNS and, in a routed network with multiple subnets, must also have a default gateway assigned.
Replication net- works must not be registered in DNS and they must not have a default gateway assigned to the interface. If these prerequisites are met, DAG network coniguration is performed automatically and collapsing DAG networks is no longer necessary. DAG network management is also automatic in Exchange by default.
For any given database, you can have up to 15 maxi- mum passive copies due to the maximum of 16 servers limit per DAG. After adding a database copy, DAG starts the initial copy of the database from the active copy. This process is known as seeding. While this automated process works for most envi- ronments, you might want the seeding process not to start automatically.
This sus- pends the seeding operation on the creation of the database copy and you must explicitly seed the database copy.
EXAM TIP When creating a database copy, the mailbox server must not only be a member of the same DAG, but the database path used by the speciied database must also match on the server where the copy is hosted.
A database on DAG might have more than one copy. When a passive copy of the database needs to be activated, many factors are taken into account by the best copy selection BCS process. One of the factors is the activation preference parameter, which can be set by the administrator.
You can set the value of the ActivationPreference parameter on a database copy with the value of 1 or higher. When creating a database copy, you can also opt to create a lagged copy of the database. The maximum allowed lag time is 14 days. A lagged copy can be used as a backup.
Exchange also introduces logic to improve service availability. If the database has a bad page, Exchange plays forward the lagged database copy over the risk of losing data.
The play forward logic also applies to copies of the database, which might not have enough space to keep all the logs or be the only database copy available for activation. To account for this difference in the circular logging method, circular logging must be disabled on the database before creating another copy of the database.
After creating a second copy of the database, circular logging can be enabled, which then uses CRCL. After a database copy is created, over its lifecycle, it can have one of many states. For example, a newly created database copy can be in the Initializing state. While in this state, the system is verifying the database and log stream are in a consistent state. A database can also be in this state during the transition from one state to another.
Only an active copy of the database can have a copy status of Mounted. When a database copy fails to activate, Exchange provides the ability to test the replication health for the given database by running the Test-ReplicationHealth cmdlet.
This cmdlet performs tests against many components that can affect database replication health such as cluster service, replay service, and active manage.
The database switchover process dismounts the current active database and mounts the database copy on the speciied server. The operation succeeds if the database copy on the selected server is healthy and current. The following example moves the active database named DB1 to server Server2. These parameters allow the administrator to provide Objective 1.
Activate a lagged mailbox database copy Activating a lagged copy can be an operation preferred during times when a lagged copy is the only copy available, or a lagged copy can be activated when a point in time recovery is needed when other database copies are affected by database corruption.
If you want to activate a lagged copy simply to make it current, and activate it when all other database copies are unavailable, the operation is a simple process of replaying all the log iles to make the database copy current. One important factor that must be considered for this operation is the time it takes to replay all of the log iles into the database before the copy can be activated.
The number of log iles depends on the conigured lag for the copy. If the database copy is conigured for a day lag, it can have up to 14 days of logs for a given database that must be replayed before the copy can be activated. The log replay rate is dependent on the storage architecture and the server resource coniguration.
The process of activating a lagged copy and replaying all of the logs requires you to carry out the following steps. For example, a database copy is conigured for a day lag. In this case, the lagged copy only needs to account for four days of logs that need to be replayed. The process of activating lagged copy to a speciic point in time requires you to carry out the following steps.
Suspend replication for the lagged copy being activated: Make a copy of the database copy and log iles. Remove all log iles past the determined point of recovery all log iles past the irst four days in the previous example.
Delete the checkpoint ile for the database. Perform the recovery using eseutil. This process replays the log iles into the database and can take a considerable amount of time. Many factors affect how long the process can take, such as the number of log iles to be replayed, the hardware coniguration of the server performing the replay operation, and the disk coniguration, which can determine the speed at which the logs can be replayed. In the following example, eXX should be replaced with the actual log generation preix, such as E After the log replay inishes successfully, the database is in a clean shutdown state, and it can be copied and used for a recovery purpose.
The best practice for the recovery of lost data is to mount the database iles in a recovery database created for the recovery purpose.
You can create a recovery database using the New-MailboxDatabase cmdlet with the Recovery parameter. You can extract recovered data by mounting the recovery database and using the mailbox restore request to export the data to a PST or merge into an existing mailbox.
After the recovery process is complete, resume replication for the database: This is similar—but improved—to the transport dumpster feature in Exchange By default, SafetyNet stores copies of the successfully processed messages for two days.
While the majority of steps to activate a lagged copy and request redelivery of messages from SafetyNet are similar to the previously mentioned process for point-in- time recovery, the following mentions certain differences. You can determine these required logs by run- ning eseutil and by inspecting the database header: The HighGeneration number indicates the last log ile required.
Move the mailbox database path After a database is created, if you need to move the database iles from their current location to a new location, the actual steps might seem as simple as editing the database path using EAC or the Move-DatabasePath cmdlet. But this is both a disruptive and a time-consuming operation. To move the database path of a replicated data- base, you must irst remove all copies of the database, essentially bringing the database down to a single copy, then perform the move operation, and then add copies of the database.
Only log iles generated after removing the database copies need to be replicated. You must irst disable circular logging before moving the database path. Update a mailbox database copy Updating a mailbox database copy is essentially a seeding operation. When creating a database copy, you can suspend the initial seeding operation. A database copy that had its seeding suspended is eventually required to be updated before it can be considered a healthy copy that can be used as a switchover or failover target.
Disk failure hosting a database copy is one such example where the database is unrecoverable and must be updated to create database baseline and resume replication. Before you can update a database copy, you must suspend it.
When starting an update, you can select which database copy should be used as a source. This is helpful in situations where a passive database copy is local to the copy being updated and might be a better option than seeding from the active copy, which could be hosted in a different datacenter. While passive copy can be used for seeding, after an update is complete, log replication always uses active copy as its source. If you use Server3, which has a healthy copy of the database as a source, the command to update the database copy is as follows.
When you manually copy the ofline database, you irst need to dismount the copy of the active database. This results for in-service interruption for users hosted on the database. The process for the manual copy method is as follows: The company plans to deploy DAG to provide high availability for all user mailboxes.
Two datacenters are connected with WAN links with suficient bandwidth to replicate all user mailbox data generated daily. What are the considerations when deciding among a single DAG across two datacenters: Which design would you recommend? Based on your recommendation for your DAG layout, where should the ile share witness be deployed? For example, if a mailbox server is designed for 5, active users and two servers in the DAG fail, resulting in two databases from other servers, each containing 3, users, can result in the mailbox server going over its designed limit of resource usage.
This can have adverse effects on the service levels from degraded performance and slow response times or worse. The best practice is to locate the majority of the mailbox servers on the primary site. If users are located across multiple sites evenly, you should separate DAGs for each major site.
You need to deploy a DAG without an administrative access point. Deploy mailbox servers on Windows Server R2. Deploy mailbox servers on Windows Server You need to move databases from the system drive to a new data drive.
Select the required steps to complete the task successfully. Enable circular logging on the database.
[Apr 2016] exam ref 70-341
Disable circular logging on the database. Run Dismount-Database cmdlet. Run Move-DatabasePath cmdlet. Which steps must you take?
Select all that apply. We know the technology is improving rapidly. Eventually, the IT professionals can stay updated with the latest technology. We add the quizzes for the latest certifications. We update our questions frequently. So, the Core Solutions of Microsoft Exchange Server candidates always get the latest questions. Our study material helps you to pass the Microsoft test on your first attempt. A few team members have worked on the multinational companies.
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Furthermore, the users get 90 days free updates.Truncation lag preserves the logs, but only after it has been replayed in the database. Deploy and manage high availability solutions for the mail- box role. Only the Microsoft exam team has access to the exam questions themselves and Microsoft regu- larly adds new questions to the exam, making it impossible to cover speciic questions. We know the technology is improving rapidly. A database on DAG might have more than one copy.
This script automatically moved mailboxes on legal hold from their mailbox server to a server designated for litigation; this server contained other similar mailboxes and had the additional storage required for such mailboxes.
The HighAvailability channel is also used by Active Manager to log events related to Active Manager role monitoring and database action events, such as database mount operations and log truncation. Each command may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
Migration from older versions of Exchange server to new public folder mailboxes is a one- way process in the sense that you can roll back to legacy public folders by deleting all public folder mailboxes on Exchange , setting the PublicFolderMigrationComplete parameter to false on a previous version of Exchange server.
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