ELEMENTS OF ENGINEERING ELECTROMAGNETICS 6TH EDITION PDF
Nannapaneni Narayana Rao's sixth edition of the book Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics is being brought out as an Indian edition. Prof. Narayana Rao. Sixth Edition. William H. McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering edition was used in my first electromagnetics course as a junior during the early. '70's. . Application of Gauss' Law: Differential Volume Element. Title: Solutions of engineering electromagnetics 6th edition william h hayt, john a buck pdf, Author: Erwin Aguilar, Name: Solutions of engineering.
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Elements of Engineering. Electromagnetics. Sixth Edition. Nannapaneni Narayana Rao. Edward C. Jordan Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics Sixth Solutions Manual - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Elements of Engineering. Engineering Electromagnetics (6th Edition, ) - Hayt & Buck + Solution Manual [Solutions Manual] Elements of Electromagnetics - Sadiku - myavr.info
Numerous examples, drill problems usually having multiple parts , and end-of-chapter problems are provided to facilitate this. Answers to the drill problems are given below each problem. Answers to selected end-of-chapter problems can be found on the internet at www.
A solutions manual is also available. The book contains more than enough material for a one-semester course. As is evident, statics concepts are emphasized and occur first in the presentation. In a course that places more emphasis on dynamics, the later chapters can be reached earlier by omitting some or all of the material in Chapters 6 and 7, as well as the later sections of Chapter 8.
The transmission line treatment Chapter 13 relies heavily on the plane wave development in Chapters 11 and A more streamlined presentation of plane waves, leading to an earlier arrival at transmis- sion lines, can be accomplished by omitting sections It may also serve as a bridge between the basic course and more advanced courses that follow it. I am deeply indebted to several people who provided much-needed feed- back and assistance on the work. Glenn S. Smith, Georgia Tech, reviewed parts of the manuscript and had many suggestions on the content and the philosophy of the revision.
Saraswathi namasthubhyam Varadey kaamarupinii! Vidyaarambham karishyaami, Siddhirbhavathu me sadaa!! Oh, Goddess Saraswathi, humble prostrations unto Thee You are the fulfiller of my wishes!
I start my studies with the request that Thou shall bestow Thy blessings on me!! With science, I have gone far. With science and spirituality, I have gone farther. With science, spirituality, and service, I shall go even farther. Abdul Kalam, a fellow alumnus of the Madras Institute of Technology. Contents Message from A. Abdul Kalam xiii Foreword by Richard H.
Herman xv Foreword by Linda P. Katehi xvii Foreword by Nick Holonyak, Jr. Why Study Electromagnetics? Basic Procedures 7. Applications 7. Complex Numbers and Phasor Technique B. Narayana Rao, a fellow alumnus of the Madras Institute of Technology and an eminent teacher, sent me a copy of the U.
I have found the book to be an excellent effort, to be read by all students and teachers of electrical and computer engi- neering. I was particularly impressed to find that the author has applied the finite element method, normally used by structural engineers, for solving prob- lems of applied electromagnetic field. It is admirable that with forty-one years of dedicated service at the University of Illinois in the United States, Prof.
Narayana Rao has thought of serving the needs of the students of various parts of the world in a significant way through the publication of this Indian edition. The unique method of pre- sentation of the book will enable the students to understand the intricacies of electromagnetics, which is the foundation for the technologies of electrical and computer engineering.
I convey my greetings and best wishes on the occasion of the publication of this Indian edition. Herman Textbooks are integral to learning, an essential tool students must have to succeed in their studies.
Excellent textbooks, such as this one, endure, undergoing periodic revisions to keep step with advances in knowledge. Since its introduction in , the six editions of Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics have served engi- neering students well, clarifying the principles and applications of electromag- netic theory.
This edition is unique, for it is addressed to the students and faculty of India, the birth nation of its author, N. Narayana Rao. For four decades, Professor Rao has been an accomplished professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
It is a crucial addition, one that students will find most beneficial in broadening their thinking about electromagnetics. As a public research university with a long history of service to the interna- tional community, Illinois has played an important part in the growth of higher education in India. In the s and s, the university applied its longstanding expertise in agriculture and technology to assisting India develop its own aca- demic pursuits and applications of knowledge. Illinois was instrumental in setting up the first Indian Institute of Technology in Kharagpur, which planted the seeds for the high technology revolution driving India today.
Today, the Indian edition of Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics con- tinues that tradition in the high-speed era of the Internet and e-learning, a time marked by unbounded academic exploration and rapid transfer of newly acquired knowledge.
I commend Professor Rao for his steadfast concern that he continue to pro- vide engineering students with the most current and accessible textbook in electromagnetics. Herman the implementation of the Indo-US Inter-University Collaborative Initiative in Higher Education and Research, for it is a welcome contribution to the pursuit and sharing of knowledge that Illinois and its counterparts in India have long enjoyed.
Elements Of Electromagnetics 6th Edition - eklioployerasadewazea.gq
Katehi Through its six editions, the first one appearing in , Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics has provided students with an updated and comprehensive introduction to a major field of electrical engineering. In it, N. Narayana Rao has helped thousands of engineering students master the basic principles and applications of electromagnetic theory. It is most fitting that Professor Rao, who has long been professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has addressed this new edition to the students and faculty of his birth nation, India.
For decades, engineering at Illinois has benefited greatly from the contributions of students and faculty from India. This new edition both grows out of and complements a tradition that has strengthened the study of engineering in both Illinois and India.
Textbook Table of Contents
I expect the Indian edition of Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics to become a valuable resource in engineering education in India. I am talking about the areas of science and learning that have been at the heart of what we know and what we do, that which has supported and guided us and which is fundamental to our thinking. It is electromagnetism EM in all its many forms that has been so basic, that haunts us and guides us.
EM in its many guises is where we first look, and continue to look, to deal with the quantum physics of matter, in our case semiconductors, and to invent a transistor and transistor electronics—not only integrated circuits ICs and power devices but also light-emitting diodes LEDs and lasers, and now even a transistor laser. My knowledge of EM would be deeper and my life in learning semiconductor device physics would have been smoother, easier, and I think richer. His experience and perspective show in his knowledge of EM and how he has been able to bring it all so conveniently to us, from beginner to seasoned expert.
He has served all of us by assembling his considerable thought and knowl- edge, and making EM so clear and so conveniently available.
I congratulate Professor Rao for this Indian edition of the book, particularly for the young people entering the study of electronics, dare I say, semiconductor device physics and electronics. But its usefulness in science and engineering makes it an indispensable tool in virtually any area of technology or physical research.
Swenson, Jr. I am grateful to many people, beginning with my parents, and for many things. They are the spell that is cast to dissolve hatred, hurt and sadness, the medicine which heals the subjective states of mind, restoring self-respect, confidence and security. In this preface, I would like to reconstruct the trail of this gratitude beginning in the s. One day during the academic year —58, I had the pleasure of having afternoon refreshments with William L.
William L. Physics from the University of Madras, having attended the Presidency College. Mani, was leaving to take a new job in Delhi, for which we gave him a send-off party. After the send-off party, we all went to the Chromepet Railway Station to bid a final good-bye to him on the platform. Mani said, with his great characteristic style, I did not go on to even work in a company. Eastman, a contemporary of Edward Jordan.
There, I pursued my graduate study in electrical engineering and received my Ph. Eastman gave me the opportunity of teaching courses just like a faculty member, as an instructor, because of my teaching experience at MIT, and the good word of Ryland Hill. Never did I envision during those years that in , after completing my Ph. Never did I envision that I would be spending my entire professional career since in the hallowed halls of the William L.
Never did I envision that not only would I be writing books for teaching electromagnetics, following the tradition of Jordan, but also holding a professorship bearing his name. I believe that gratitude is something you can neither express adequately in words, nor demonstrate adequately in deeds. Nevertheless, I have tried on certain occasions to express it in words, and demonstrate it in deeds, which I would like to share with you here: Ramamohan Rao, a classmate of mine while in Presidency College: At the conclusion of the response speech on the occasion of the investiture as the Edward C.
To Edward C. To the EE Department at the University of Washington From this grateful alumnus who received from you his graduate education Not just graduate education but seven years of solid academic foundation For my successful career at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign During which I have written six editions of this book on electromagnetics Besides engaging in the variety of all the other academic activities I present to you this book with utmost appreciation On the occasion of your centennial celebration!
And when you are grateful in life, things will continue to happen to you to allow you to be even more grateful. It came about as a consequence of the signing of a memorandum of understanding MOU in December , between a number of U. As a result, I came up with this poem: Here is a little poem for Mother My mother, your mother, our mother The mother of a billion people on her land The mother of millions of people outside her land Mother India, my citizenship is American But the blood you sent me with is Indian So, as they say, am I an Indian American?
Or, am I an American of Indian origin? In this Indian edition, I also bring to you for the first time in an electromagnetics textbook, or in any textbook that I know, a write-up that addresses an often troublesome matter to the students on why they should study a certain subject.
This question is particularly prevalent when it comes to studying electromagnetics. You will find among them teachers, former teachers, engineers, entrepreneurs, inventors, and even a medical doctor, spanning the gamut of the field of electrical and computer engineering. I am grateful to them all, who by their contributions have done a great service to the academic community.
I also express my thanks to James Hutchinson, Editor, Publications, ECE Department, for assisting me in putting together these contributions in a short span of time. Matrudevo bhava! Pitrudevo bhava! Acharydevo bhava! Atithidevo bhava!
And to the land of my work, the United States of America the land where I pursued the guiding equations of this book: Everitt Laboratory of Electrical and Computer Engineering—a facility that provided education to numerous presidents of companies—located at the northeast corner of the intersection of Wright and Green Streets in Urbana, Illinois, on the Campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, halfway around the world from you!
Introductory textbooks on engineering electromagnetics can be classified broadly into three categories: Two-semester textbooks, with the first half or more covering electrostatics and magnetostatics, as in category 1, and the remainder devoted to topics associated with electromagnetic waves. One- or two-semester textbooks that deviate from the traditional approach, with the degree and nature of the deviation dependent on the author.
Most textbooks fall into categories 1 and 2, and only a small minority, including this book, belong to category 3. This enhanced its utility for the one-semester student of engineering electromagnetics, while enabling students who planned to take further elective courses in electromagnetics to learn many of the same field concepts and mathematical tools provided by the traditional treatment.
In preparing the second edition, a major revision of the first edition was undertaken by expanding the text for one- or two-semester usage to provide flexibility, while preserving the basic philosophy of the first edition, which arose from the assertion that, as a prerequisite to the first EE course in fields, most schools have an engineering physics course in which the students are exposed to the historical treatment of electricity and magnetism.
Subsequent editions have further enhanced the usage by incorporating changes and adding material to satisfy the prerequisite needs pertinent to emerging technologies. For example, the substantial changes leading to the fourth edition were prompted by the increasing need for introductory-level coverage to extend beyond the microwave region and into the optical region of the electromagnetic spectrum, in recognition of the advent of the era of photonics, overlapping with that of electronics.
In the fifth edition, the deviation from the traditional approach was carried further by reorganizing the material and adding topics to associate chapters or parts of chapters with electromagnetic technologies.
An important factor guiding the revisions has been the organization of topics for a first course in electrical engineering, as well as in computer engineering, followed by one or more required or elective courses for electrical engineering students that build on the first course. When the first edition was written for a one- semester course to meet the needs of both groups of students, most of the students were electrical engineering majors, a situation that continued for many years.
In recent years, the ratio has changed dramatically, and at present, the numbers for computer engineering majors are comparable to those for electrical engineering majors.
Recognizing this development, and to make the intended usage of the book even more explicit than before, I have carried the organization of the topics even further in the sixth edition and hence in this Indian edition by dividing the book into two parts.
These chapters contain essentially the material in Chapters 1—6 and 8 of the fifth edition, except that the organization and treatment of topics is tilted more toward time-varying fields, compared with the fifth edition. Chapters 7, 8, 9, and 10 are the same as Chapters 7, 9, 10, and 11, respectively, in the fifth edition, except that I have added the topic of pulses on lossy lines in Chapter 7. Chapter 11, an expanded version of Chapter 12 in the fifth edition, includes the analytical technique of separation of variables and the geometrical method of field mapping, in addition to the four numerical techniques in that chapter.
Introduce basic concepts of vectors and fields for static as well as time- varying cases at the outset and bring in vector calculus concepts later as needed. Introduce waves and associated concepts by obtaining uniform plane wave solutions from the infinite plane current sheet source, first in free space and then in a material medium.
Introduce electromagnetic potentials and cover topics pertinent to devices, circuits, and systems, beginning with p-n junction and circuit elements, and progressing through electric- and magnetic-field systems to other topics pertinent to electromechanical systems. Introduce the transmission line concept and develop transmission line time-domain analysis, essential for digital electronics, in a progressive manner, beginning with the case of a resistive load to interconnections between logic gates and culminating in crosstalk on transmission lines.
Present sinusoidal steady-state analysis of transmission lines comprising the topics of standing waves, resonance, power transfer, and matching, with emphasis on computer and graphical solutions. Develop principles of guided waves for both electronics and optoelectronics, by confining the treatment to one-dimensional waveguides comprising parallel-plate metallic waveguides and dielectric slab waveguides.
Devote a chapter to several topics pertinent to electronics and photonics, including two-dimensional metallic waveguides and optical fibers, pulse broadening due to dispersion, interference and diffraction, and wave propagation in an anisotropic medium.
Introduce radiation by obtaining the complete field solution to the Hertzian dipole field through the magnetic vector potential, and then develop the basic concepts of antennas. Devote a chapter to solution techniques, comprising primarily the numerical techniques of the finite-difference method, the method of moments, the finite-element method, and the finite-difference time-domain method, but also including the analytical technique of separation of variables and the geometrical method based on field mapping.
As in the previous editions, a number of teaching and learning aids are employed: I wish to express my appreciation to the more than sixty colleagues at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign who have taught from the six editions of the book during the year period from to Thanks are also due to the numerous users at other schools.
Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics Sixth Solutions Manual
The evolution of this book would not have been possible without the many opportunities provided to me by the many administrators at the University of Washington and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from to Many individuals in the department have provided support over the years.
As always, I am deeply indebted to my wife Sarojini for her continued understanding and patience. He completed high school in Nidubrolu in , and received the B. At the University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign, Professor Rao car- ried out research in the general area of ionospheric propagation and authored the undergraduate textbook Basic Electromagnetics with Applications Prentice Hall, , prior to the six editions , , , , , and of this book.
Documents Similar To Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics Sixth Solutions Manual
The fifth edition was translated into Bahasa Indonesia, the language of Indonesia, by a professor of physics at the Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung. Professor Rao has received numerous awards and honors for his teaching and curricular activities. In some cases, the influence can be profound. Edward C. Jordan has had such profound influence on my long professional career at Illinois.
Jordan was born in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, on December 31, He received the B. Upon completing his doctoral degree, he served for one year as instructor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. He returned to Ohio State University in , where he was on the faculty until In , he followed his mentor, William L.
Everitt, to the University of Illinois. At the University of Illinois, Dr. Jordan served as associate professor from to , and professor from to In , he was named Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering, in which capacity he served for 25 years until his retirement in Jordan passed away on October 18, A second edition, co-authored with K.
Balmain, was published in He was regarded as the most revered department head, for his commitment to building a broad-based department of national repute and for his skillful administration. The Illinois Way encompasses more than textbooks. Early curricula in the department then called Electrical Engineering included courses in military drills, drafting, and surveying.
Later, Illinois would be the first program in the nation offering a freshman introduction to concepts in circuits, electromagnetics, elec- tronics, control, and digital systems. Now, students all over the world take ECE courses using Web-based learning environments developed and used by our faculty. A century ago, facilities consisted of batteries, electrical machinery, and illumination equipment. Now, the department houses unsurpassed educational laboratories for integrated circuit fabrication, digital signal processing, control systems, computer architec- ture, and more.
Of course, popular and innovative textbooks have long been a part of the Illinois Way. Former department head and longtime engineering dean at Illinois, William L. Everitt, edited over titles for a series of engineering textbooks published by Prentice Hall in the middle of the last century. Everitt also wrote textbooks. His Communication Engineering, first published in and revised into the s with Illinois colleague G.
Anner, deserves credit for helping push the electrical engineering profession from its pre-World War II emphasis on power systems to its postwar emphasis on information technology and electronics. Jordan, head of the department from to , wrote Electromag- netic Waves and Radiating Systems, long a standard textbook in the field, first published by Prentice Hall in and revised in Additionally, M.
Professor Rao was hired to join the Illinois faculty in by Jordan. Prentice Hall published the first edition of Elements in ; by the time of its fifth edition, dedicated in to none other than Ed Jordan, the text had established an international reputation for its grounding in time-honored practices even as it evolved progressively from one edition to the next. That is the essence of the Illinois Way. The war also boosted the volume of research contracts handed out by the government, and when Everitt became head in he took advantage of the new circumstances and led the department to embrace research and teaching in a wide array of electrical engineering-related fields.
In the department was renamed the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
Today the department enjoys a longstanding, international reputation as one of the premier places in the world for the study of electrical and computer engi- neering. Fac- ulty, students, and alumni of the department have established state of the art in fields ranging from microelectronics and nanotechnology to telecommunications, photonics, signal processing, imaging, electromagnetics, bioengineering, circuits, computer engineering, control systems, and more.
A sampling of their achieve- ments follows. In , he was the first person in the world to demonstrate sound-on-film technology. Bardeen would go on to develop the theory of superconductivity at Illinois in He shared the Nobel Prize in physics for the invention of the transistor, and the same prize again in for the theory of superconductivity.
He remained on the ECE staff until his death in Kilby won the Nobel Prize in physics for his invention. Swenson established radio astronomy at the Uni- versity of Illinois in with construction of the Vermilion River Ob- servatory. Swenson would go on to serve as head of both the EE and Astronomy departments, chair the design group for the Very Large Ar- ray, and pioneer techniques and instrumentation in the field of animal telemetry.
Lo created antenna designs that improved the efficiency of giant radio telescopes, military and civilian radar, airborne and space vehicles, and ground-based communication systems during the Cold War. Sah, who was attracted to Illinois in by Bardeen, pioneered the development of complementary metal oxide semiconduc- tor CMOS technology and the theory of MOS transistors, which be- came the workhorses for chips used in computers as transistors evolved from junction-type integrated circuits to field-effect devices.
Holonyak and graduate student Ed Rezek demonstrated the first quantum-well laser in The Illinois ECE Series has been conceived with the aim of reintroducing electrical and computer engineering students worldwide to the Illinois Way.
Stu- dents who appreciate these books are encouraged to visit ECE-Illinois on the web at www. Electromagnetics EM is the subject having to do with electromagnetic fields. An electromagnetic field is made up of interdependent electric and magnetic fields, which is the case when the fields are varying with time, that is, they are dynamic. An electric field is a force field that acts upon material bodies by virtue of their property of charge, just as a gravitational field is a force field that acts upon them by virtue of their property of mass.
A magnetic field is a force field that acts upon charges in motion. EM is all around us. In simple terms, every time we turn a power switch on, every time we press a key on our computer keyboard, or every time we perform a similar action involving an everyday electrical device, EM comes into play. It is the foundation for the technologies of electrical and computer engineering, span- ning the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from dc to light, from the electrically and magnetically based elctromechanics technologies to the electronics tech- nologies to the photonics technologies.
As such, in the context of engineering education, it is fundamental to the study of electrical and computer engineering, as conveyed by the following PoEM, which I composed some years ago: ECE is the course at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign UIUC , which is required to be taken by undergraduate students, both in electri- cal engineering and in computer engineering. An amusing incident involving the late Edward C.
Jordan reveals the funda- mental nature of electromagnetics in a lighter vein. One of two research programs on the campus sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, it was intended as a basic research program. When the sponsor was asked by the research supervisor, Edward Jordan, what facets of the field might be of particular interest, the answer he received was: One of the outcomes of that program was research involving the Wullenweber Antenna Array, depicted in Figure 1.
Supporting research for more than 25 years from to , it existed at a field station near Bondville, west of Champaign. Coming now to the present, for instructional purposes, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at UIUC is divided into the following seven areas: I am grateful to the people, listed below in alphabetical order, along with their affiliations, from whom I have received contributions. Stephen A. Swenson Jr. Together, they repre- sent views from personalities covering the gamut of the field of electrical and computer engineering.
The study of EM is essential to understanding the properties of light, its propagation through tissue, scattering and absorption effects, and changes in the state of polarization. The spectroscopic wavelength-content of light pro- vides a new dimension of diagnostic information since many of the constituents of biological tissue, such as hemoglobin in blood, melanin in skin, and ubiquitous water, have wavelength-dependent optical properties over the visible and near- infrared EM spectrum.
Optical biomedical imaging relies on detecting differences in the properties of light after light has interacted with tissue or cells. In addition, novel optical imaging technologies are being developed to take advantage of the fundamental properties of light and EM principles. Optical coherence tomography OCT is one such biomedical imaging technology that is rapidly emerging and currently being translated from laboratory-research into clinical practice.
OCT relies on the principle of optical ranging in tissue, and is the optical analogue to ultrasound imaging except reflections of near-infrared na- nometers light are detected rather than sound.
Because the wavelength of light is smaller than sound, OCT enables high-resolution imaging that can identify indi- vidual cells in tissue to depths of several millimeters.
OCT can eliminate the need for removing tissue for examination and for diagnosis. Since light travels much faster than sound, detection of the reflected EM radiation is performed with interferometry.
The use of low-coherence light means that light in the two arms of the interferometer only interfere when their optical pathlengths are matched to within this coherence length. Hence, this enables depth- dependent localization and optical ranging into tissue. Figure 2 shows a basic Michelson-type interferometer, and the interferograms collected using a long-co- herence and a short-coherence length light source, assuming a mirror is placed at the focus in the sample arm.
By varying the position of the reference-arm mirror, a single depth-scan is acquired. To assemble two- or three-dimensional OCT im- ages, the beam position is translated laterally for subsequent adjacent depth-scans.
The figure also shows a cross-sectional OCT image of muscle tissue. The study of EM has direct relevance to understanding how light interacts with tissue, and novel technology for medical and biological imaging can be de- veloped based on these EM principles. Andreas C. What makes it intriguing is the fact that it is these concepts that every ECE student will rely upon as he tries to think through and comprehend the basic principles behind the operation of each and every electronic device, component, circuit or system that constitute the building blocks or the enabling force of the electrical power, communication and computing revolutions of the past century.
What makes it challenging is the short period of time over which an ECE student, on the average, is asked to commit to the study of the fundamentals of engineering EM. Relying upon their early exposure to these ideas through their undergraduate physics preparation, the students are asked to make effective use of the tools of calculus as they embark on the quantitative, applications-driven inquiry of EM fields and waves.
This textbook meets these requirements in a masterful way. The result is the hands-on learning of electric and magnetic fields and the quantitative understanding of what happens as charged particles move around un- der their influence.
For some this learning process is a feast for the intellect, enticing them to a deeper exploration into the fundamental building blocks of matter and, in doing so, enriching their knowledge and skills in physical sciences and mathematics. For others it is an inspirational journey into the understanding of some of the most important forces of nature that govern our existence. For most, it is the process through which they will become familiar with the unifying glue of all technological applications encompassed by what we call today electri- cal and computer engineering.
For all, it is an empowering educational experience on how the investigation, interpretation, appreciation and respectful exploitation of the physical world lead to engineering innovation and through it, to the ad- vancement of mankind.
Nicholas Carter, ECE Department, UIUC A Computer Systems Perspective Computer systems and digital electronics are based on a hierarchy of abstractions and approximations that manage the amount of complexity an engineer must consider at any given time. At first glance, these abstractions might seem to make understanding EM less important for a student or engineer whose interests lie in the digital domain.
However, this is not the case. While the fields, vectors, and mathematical expressions that describe EM struc- tures are somewhat removed from the Boolean logic, microprocessor instruction sets, and programming languages of computer systems, it is essential that com- puter engineers have both a qualitative and a quantitative understanding of EM in order to evaluate which approximations and abstractions are appropriate to any particular design.
One example of a situation in which a computer engineer must be familiar with EM is deciding which delay model to use for the wires in a design. Wire delays are a significant component of clock cycle times in modern digital systems, and an engineer must make trade-offs between the accuracy of the model used to predict the delay of each wire and the amount of computation required to evaluate the model.
When the rise and fall times of signals on a wire are long compared to the time it takes for an EM wave to travel along the wire, lumped- or distributed- capacitance models, which represent wires as networks of resistors and capacitors, can give accurate estimates of wire delay with relatively little computation. Therefore, wires as short as 1 centimeter may need to be modeled as transmission lines rather than lumped or distributed resistance-capacitance networks if Trf is less than picoseconds about half of the clock cycle time of a 3 GHz microprocessor , a situation that is becoming increasingly common as clock cycle times become shorter.
Another example comes from the spikes in power consumption and current flow that occur in digital systems at the start of each clock cycle. Over the course of the clock cycle, activity decreases as the outputs of more and more gates stabilize, with minimal activity occurring right at the end of the cycle.
Some circuits use clocking methodologies in which registers latch their inputs on both the rising and falling edges of the clock. These circuits see similar rhythms every half-cycle. Another effect is that changes in the amount of current flowing through a wire or the voltage of the wire can induce currents or voltages in other wires through inductive or capacitive coupling crosstalk. In purely-digital systems, these effects can generally be tolerated as long as the designer follows appropriate design rules, although a substantial understanding of EM is required to develop the design rules for a given integrated circuit fabrication process.
However, in mixed-signal systems, which combine digital and analog circuits, crosstalk be- tween wires carrying digital and analog signals is a much more significant issue, and one that must be considered at all stages in the design process. As devices that communicate through wired or wireless networks become more common, mixed- signal systems are becoming increasingly prevalent, making it essential that com- puter engineers have a solid grounding in EM. These are but two examples of cases where a computer engineer or digital system designer must be able to consider EM effects in order to build systems that meet their design requirements.
As technology advances, such cases will become more and more common, if for no other reason than the fact that designers are continually driven to push the limits of a given integrated circuit fabrication tech- nology in order to outperform their competition.
Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics Sixth Solutions Manual
To be successful, an engineer must be not only a master of his or her specialty, but an expert in all of the areas of electrical engineering that impact that specialty, including EM. EM theory is an essential basis for understanding the devices, methods, and systems used for electrical energy.
Both electric and magnetic fields are defined in terms of the forces they produce. A strong grasp of fields is essential to the study of electromechanics—the use of fields to create forces and motion to do useful work.
In electromechanics, engineers design and use magnetic field arrangements to create electric machines, transformers, inductors, and related devices that are cen- tral to electric power systems. In microelectromechanical systems MEMS , engi- neers use both magnetic and electric fields for motion control at size scales down to nanometers. At the opposite end of the size scale, electric fields must be man- aged carefully in the enormous power transmission grid that supplies energy to cities and towns around the world.
The lines they carry can be millions of meters long. EM theory is a vital tool for the design and operation of these lines and the many devices needed to connect to them. All engineering study related to electrical energy and power relies on key concepts from EM theory. Several examples follow, showing how EM theory is used in electrical energy applications. The water supplies in our cities, the manufacturing processes in our industries, the data equipment in our banks, and a million other vital systems use electric machines as key working components.
Today, a typical house is likely to have hundreds of machines, ranging from computer disk drives and DVD players to large motors for appliances and space conditioning. A modern automobile has dozens of electric machines. Hybrid electric vehicles, sure to have a major impact on our economy and environment, use electric motors for propulsion, power steer- ing, cooling, and a host of other functions. Industrial automation and robotics rely on electric machines.
Electrical motors, generators, and actuators are energy conversion devices. The conversions between electrical and mechanical energy take place in coupling fields. Force is produced by interaction of fields with charge or current. The enormous electric generators used in power plants are essential to inexpensive, reliable electricity. Analysis and design of electric machines based on magnetic fields relies on the EM discoveries of Henry, Ampere, Biot, Savart, Faraday, and many famous physicists and engineers who have worked since then to transform experimental results and mathematical ideas into useful devices.
Machines based on electric fields, common in MEMS applications, are analyzed and designed based on the EM discoveries of Franklin, Coulomb, Gauss, and a host of other contributors. Power Conversion National and international electricity grids are enabled by transformers, which convert voltage and current to preferred levels.
Transformers enable the use of long-range high-voltage power transmission—a method that would be inefficient and limited without them.
They enable efficient production of low-voltage electricity for digital electronics and home appliances. Transformer design and operation requires a clear understanding of magnetics, including ef- fects such as eddy current and hysteresis loss that are related to fundamental laws of Ampere and Faraday.
More recently, power electronic circuits have become ubiquitous. These cir- cuits use silicon switching devices such as transistors and diodes to manage energy flow. Applications include computer power supplies, automotive systems, alterna- tive energy production, motor controllers, efficient lighting, and portable elec- tronics, to name just a few.
These circuits use high-frequency magnetic compo- nents, including transformers and inductors for energy storage. Magnetic compo- nents are often the largest and most expensive components in power converters. A thorough understanding of magnetic design is fundamental to their application.
In power converter circuit design, EM theory plays another role. Fast switch- ing of large currents and voltages radiates EM energy that interacts with nearby parts. The noise and interference that result are difficult to manage.
The concepts of coupling capacitance, mutual inductance, and signal transmission play impor- tant roles here. They can only be understood with a proper background in EM theory. Summary EM fields and forces are the basis of modern electrical systems. The engineering of electrical energy relies on a thorough understanding of EM. In the future, society needs more efficient energy processing, expanded use of alternative en- ergy resources, more sophisticated control capabilities in the power grid, and bet- ter industrial processes.
EM represents an essential and fundamental background that underlies future advances in energy systems. Hence, electromagnetics is the source of fundamental principles behind many branches of electrical engineering, and indirectly impacts many other branches. For example, many laws in circuit theory can be derived from laws of EM.
The increased clock rates of computers make the electrical signals in computer circuits and chips more electromagnetic in nature, meaning that mastering their manipulation requires a fundamental understanding of EM.
EM includes the study of antennas, wireless communication systems, and radar technologies. In turn, these technologies are supported by microwave engi- neering, which is an important branch of EM. Traditionally, the understanding of EM phenomena has been aided by mathematical modeling, where solutions to simplified models are sought for the understanding of complex phenomena.Note: Citations are based on reference standards.
Therefore, wires as short as 1 centimeter may need to be modeled as transmission lines rather than lumped or distributed resistance-capacitance networks if Trf is less than picoseconds about half of the clock cycle time of a 3 GHz microprocessor , a situation that is becoming increasingly common as clock cycle times become shorter. Do not have an account?
That requires the solid foundation of EM, as provided in this book, along with some semiconductor device physics in order to understand important device characteristics.
First convert A and B to cartesian: Coming now to the present, for instructional purposes, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at UIUC is divided into the following seven areas: In the study of optical communication systems, four important areas of devices are required:
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