BSNL SUMMER TRAINING REPORT PDF
BSNL Training Report - Sarthak Gupta - Read online. work conducted in the industry. This report is thus prepared for the training done at Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (B.S.N.L). .. summer training report on bsnl -ocb naini exchange allahabad. Uploaded by . myavr.info Uploaded by. Bsnl Training Report - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. summer training report on bsnl -ocb naini exchange allahabad. Uploaded by. BSNL Training Report for myavr.info ECE final yr students. 1 Summer Training Report On Basic Telecom Submitted in partial fulfillment of the.
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A PRACTICAL TRAINING SEMINAR REPORT ON BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM If people require IRS as well, here's a myavr.info In view of such benefits, imparting of vocational training has been made an. Training Report oF BSNL. Acknowledgement I acknowledge my gratitude and thank to all the well knowledge persons for giving me opportunity. 4 INTRODUCTION Today, BSNL is the No. 1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes.
Basic Objective of this training is that is to know how the work is performed in the company. Theoritical Knowledge is not sufficient for understanding in better way.
BSNL Summer Training Presentation
Practical Knowledge is also essential.. Please see the attached file along with this in order to view the whole content. Similar Threads: Attached Files for Direct Download.
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Electronics Engineering. Newer versions of. GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity.
GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. The rarer and MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries, notably Scandinavia, where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems. GSM uses MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station uplink and MHz for the other direction downlink , providing RF channels channel numbers 1 to spaced at kHz.
Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used.
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT Held At BSNL
In some countries the GSM band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. MHz downlink , adding 50 channels channel numbers to and 0 to the original GSM band. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel.
There are eight radio timeslots giving eight burst periods grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot.
The channel data rate is GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called Half Rate 5. These used a system based upon linear predictive coding LPC.
In addition to being efficient with bit rates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM networkmacro, micro, pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level.
Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Picocells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femtocells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service providers network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers 22 mi. There are also several. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system.
These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors, for example in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels adjacent channel interference.
The network behind the GSM system seen by the customer is large and complicated in order to provide all of the services which are required. It is divided into a number of sections and these are each covered in separate articles. The Network and Switching Subsystem the part of the network most similar to a fixed network. This is sometimes also just called the core network.
The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries.
Many operators lock the mobiles they sell. This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidized with revenue from subscriptions, and operators want to try to avoid subsidizing competitor's mobiles. In some countries such as India, all phones are sold unlocked. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted.
The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user whereas GSM only authenticated the user to the network and not vice versa. The security model therefore offers confidentiality and.
GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security.
Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. It may also have equipments for encrypting and decrypting communications, spectrum filtering tools band pass filters etc. Typically a BTS will have several transceivers TRXs which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell in the case of sectorised base stations.
The basic structure and functions of the BTS remains the same regardless of the wireless technologies. BROADBAND Broadband in telecommunications refers to a signaling method that includes or handles a relatively wide range of frequencies, which may be divided into channels or frequency bins.
Broadband is always a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth, the greater the information-carrying capacity.
In radio, for example, a very narrow-band signal will carry Morse code; a broader band will carry speech; a still broader band is required to carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction. A television antenna described as "normal" may be capable of receiving a certain range of channels; one described as "broadband" will receive more channels.
In data communications. Broadband in data communications can refer to broadband networks or broadband Internet and may have the same meaning as above, so that data transmission over a fiber optic cable would be referred to as broadband as compared to a telephone modem operating at 56, bits per second.
However, broadband in data communications is frequently used in a more technical sense to refer to data transmission where multiple pieces of data are sent simultaneously to increase the effective rate of transmission, regardless of actual data rate. In network engineering this term is used for methods where two or more signals share a medium.
Presentation on theme: "SUMMER TRAINING REPORT Held At BSNL"— Presentation transcript:
In video Broadband in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies. In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video, typically in composite form with an audio subcarrier.
The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. However, broadband video in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bitrates high enough to require broadband Internet access in order to view them.
In DSL The various forms of Digital Subscriber Line DSL services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over a highbandwidth channel above the baseband voice channel on a single pair of wires.
Ethernet, however, is the common interface to broadband modems such as DSL data links, and has a high data rate itself, so is sometimes referred to as broadband. Ethernet provisioned over cable modem is a common alternative to DSL. The Broadband service. The services that would be supported includes always-on broadband access to the Internet for residential and business customers, Content based services, Video multicasting, Videoon-demand and Interactive gaming, Audio and Video conferencing, IP Telephony, Distance learning, Messaging: To provide multicast video services, video-on-demand, etc.
To provide a means to bill for the aforesaid services by either timebased or volume-based billing.
It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server. Layer 1 of the network will consist of a high speed Backbone comprising of 24 powerful Core Routers connected with high speed 2. The routers are. High speed Internet Access: This is the always-on Internet access service with speed ranging from kbps to 8 Mbps. Bandwidth on Demand: For example a customer with kbps can change to 1 Mbps during the video Conferencing session.
This is to provide video multicast services for application in distance education, telemedicine etc. Dial VPN Service: This service allows remote users to access their private network securely over the NIB-II infrastructure. Video and Audio Conferencing: Content based Services: Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Sartha k Gupta B. Owner s: Equipment's required in customer premises are Filter: A high speed digital communication line Has several advantages over other high speed communication solutions.
Environmental requirement is not very stringent. The Base Station Subsystem the base stations and their controllers. The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no nonrepudiation.
It shall provide the customer with the option to select the services through web server To provide both pre-paid and post paid broadband services. Services available through Broadband High speed Internet Access: This is to provide video multicast services for application in distance education, telemedicine etc Dial VPN Service: Prashant Kumar.
Vijay Raj Punia. Aditya Dandotia. Amrutha Kashinath.
Parul Pareek. Abhay Shankar Jha. Sumit Kaushik. Prashant chaudhary. Rohit Narain. To Become The. Ishaan Gupta.DA from Jul 2. The system for WLL services can be divided in to following parts: Charging advice - The system is capable of providing charging advice either in real time or at the end of the call.
Trek through dense jungle trails right from. Above more than 3 laces employees, officer and engineers working in BSNL at present.
They are: The technologies are grouped by generation. The rarer and MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries, notably Scandinavia, where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems.