myavr.info Laws British Museum Book

BRITISH MUSEUM BOOK

Wednesday, July 3, 2019


Items 1 - 30 of The British Museum and British Museum Shop use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience, to improve functionality and to. Exhibition book. Playing With Money Add to Compare. Rembrandt: Britain's discovery of the master The world exists to be put on a postcard book. The world. Edvard Munch: love and angst (British Museum) Ladan Akbarnia, Venetia Porter, Fahmida Suleman, William Greenwood, Zeina Klink-Hoppe, Amandine Mérat. Rodin and the art of ancient Greece (British Museum).


Author:MARVELLA LEBLANE
Language:English, Spanish, Japanese
Country:United States
Genre:Children & Youth
Pages:710
Published (Last):12.02.2015
ISBN:557-3-75919-611-7
ePub File Size:24.73 MB
PDF File Size:11.11 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Downloads:50009
Uploaded by: SALLIE

Browse our collection of exhibition catalogues from current and past shows at the British Museum together with collection catalogues and children's books. The Museum houses a vast collection of world art and artefacts and is free to all visitors. Find information Find out what's on, book your tickets in advance or. Scholarly publications. Award-winning illustrated books for academics and students. All academic publications · Exhibition books · More about the British.

They were joined in by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts , assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library [13] including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf.

The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum — national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace , on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location.

With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January In , the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson , employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus , Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.

During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick 's library of 1, printed plays.

From , a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of previously unknown lands. The bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems , coins, prints and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in did much to raise the museum's reputation; but Montagu House became increasingly crowded and decrepit and it was apparent that it would be unable to cope with further expansion.

The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton — , British Ambassador to Naples , who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to the museum in together with a number of other antiquities and natural history specimens.

A list of donations to the museum, dated 31 January , refers to the Hamilton bequest of a "Colossal Foot of an Apollo in Marble". It was one of two antiquities of Hamilton's collection drawn for him by Francesco Progenie, a pupil of Pietro Fabris, who also contributed a number of drawings of Mount Vesuvius sent by Hamilton to the Royal Society in London.

In the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek, Roman and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. In , Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin , ambassador to the Ottoman Empire from to removed the large collection of marble sculptures from the Parthenon , on the Acropolis in Athens and transferred them to the UK.

In these masterpieces of western art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament and deposited in the museum thereafter. The Ancient Near Eastern collection also had its beginnings in with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich.

In a buildings committee was set up to plan for expansion of the museum, and further highlighted by the donation in of the King's Library , personal library of King George III's, comprising 65, volumes, 19, pamphlets , maps, charts and topographical drawings.

The extension, the East Wing, was completed by However, following the founding of the National Gallery, London in , [e] the proposed Picture Gallery was no longer needed, and the space on the upper floor was given over to the Natural history collections. The museum became a construction site as Sir Robert Smirke 's grand neo-classical building gradually arose.

The King's Library , on the ground floor of the East Wing, was handed over in , and was described as one of the finest rooms in London.

Although it was not fully open to the general public until , special openings were arranged during The Great Exhibition of In spite of dirt and disruption the collections grew, outpacing the new building.

In , the museum became involved in its first overseas excavations , Charles Fellows 's expedition to Xanthos , in Asia Minor , whence came remains of the tombs of the rulers of ancient Lycia , among them the Nereid and Payava monuments. In the s and s the museum supported excavations in Assyria by A.

Layard and others at sites such as Nimrud and Nineveh. Of particular interest to curators was the eventual discovery of Ashurbanipal 's great library of cuneiform tablets , which helped to make the museum a focus for Assyrian studies. Sir Thomas Grenville — , a trustee of the British Museum from , assembled a library of 20, volumes, which he left to the museum in his will.

The books arrived in January in twenty-one horse-drawn vans. The only vacant space for this large library was a room originally intended for manuscripts, between the Front Entrance Hall and the Manuscript Saloon.

The books remained here until the British Library moved to St Pancras in The opening of the forecourt in marked the completion of Robert Smirke 's plan, but already adjustments were having to be made to cope with the unforeseen growth of the collections. Infill galleries were constructed for Assyrian sculptures and Sydney Smirke 's Round Reading Room , with space for a million books, opened in Because of continued pressure on space the decision was taken to move natural history to a new building in South Kensington , which would later become the British Museum of Natural History.

Roughly contemporary with the construction of the new building was the career of a man sometimes called the "second founder" of the British Museum, the Italian librarian Anthony Panizzi. Under his supervision, the British Museum Library now part of the British Library quintupled in size and became a well-organised institution worthy of being called a national library, the largest library in the world after the National Library of Paris. Until the midth century, the museum's collections were relatively circumscribed but, in , with the appointment to the staff of Augustus Wollaston Franks to curate the collections, the museum began for the first time to collect British and European medieval antiquities, prehistory , branching out into Asia and diversifying its holdings of ethnography.

A real coup for the museum was the purchase in , over French objections, of the Duke of Blacas 's wide-ranging and valuable collection of antiquities. The natural history collections were an integral part of the British Museum until their removal to the new British Museum of Natural History in , nowadays the Natural History Museum.

With the departure and the completion of the new White Wing fronting Montague Street in , more space was available for antiquities and ethnography and the library could further expand.

This was a time of innovation as electric lighting was introduced in the Reading Room and exhibition galleries. The William Burges collection of armoury was bequeathed to the museum in In , the museum was involved in the establishment of the independent Egypt Exploration Fund now Society the first British body to carry out research in Egypt.

A bequest from Miss Emma Turner in financed excavations in Cyprus. In the death of the great collector and curator, A.

Franks , was followed by an immense bequest of 3, finger rings , drinking vessels, pieces of continental porcelain, 1, netsuke , inro , over 30, bookplates and miscellaneous items of jewellery and plate, among them the Oxus Treasure. This consisted of almost pieces of objets d'art et de vertu which included exquisite examples of jewellery, plate, enamel, carvings, glass and maiolica , among them the Holy Thorn Reliquary , probably created in the s in Paris for John, Duke of Berry.

The collection was in the tradition of a schatzkammer or treasure house such as those formed by the Renaissance princes of Europe. These terms are still observed, and the collection occupies room 45, although it moved to new quarters in By the last years of the 19th century, The British Museum's collections had increased to the extent that its building was no longer large enough.

In the trustees purchased the 69 houses surrounding the museum with the intention of demolishing them and building around the west, north and east sides of the museum. The first stage was the construction of the northern wing beginning All the while, the collections kept growing. Hogarth , Leonard Woolley and T. Lawrence excavated at Carchemish. Morgan had also acquired a major part of Sir John Evans 's coin collection, which was later sold to the museum by his son John Pierpont Morgan Junior in In , because of the threat of wartime bombing, some objects were evacuated via the London Post Office Railway to Holborn, the National Library of Wales Aberystwyth and a country house near Malvern.

Biodiversity Heritage Library

On the return of antiquities from wartime storage in some objects were found to have deteriorated. A conservation laboratory was set up in May and became a permanent department in It is today the oldest in continuous existence.

New mezzanine floors were constructed and book stacks rebuilt in an attempt to cope with the flood of books. In , the art dealer Sir Joseph Duveen offered funds to build a gallery for the Parthenon sculptures.

Designed by the American architect John Russell Pope , it was completed in The appearance of the exhibition galleries began to change as dark Victorian reds gave way to modern pastel shades. The evacuation was timely, for in the Duveen Gallery was severely damaged by bombing.

Gold, silver and garnet grave goods from the Anglo-Saxon ship burial at Sutton Hoo and late Roman silver tableware from Mildenhall , Suffolk The immediate post-war years were taken up with the return of the collections from protection and the restoration of the museum after the Blitz. Work also began on restoring the damaged Duveen Gallery. In , the museum celebrated its bicentenary. Many changes followed: In , a new Act of Parliament introduced administrative reforms.

It became easier to lend objects, the constitution of the board of trustees changed and the Natural History Museum became fully independent. By the Coins and Medals office suite, completely destroyed during the war, was rebuilt and re-opened, attention turned towards the gallery work with new tastes in design leading to the remodelling of Robert Smirke's Classical and Near Eastern galleries.

By the s the museum was again expanding. More services for the public were introduced; visitor numbers soared, with the temporary exhibition "Treasures of Tutankhamun " in , attracting 1,, visitors, the most successful in British history. In the same year the Act of Parliament establishing the British Library was passed, separating the collection of manuscripts and printed books from the British Museum. The Government suggested a site at St Pancras for the new British Library but the books did not leave the museum until The departure of the British Library to a new site at St Pancras, finally achieved in , provided the space needed for the books.

It also created the opportunity to redevelop the vacant space in Robert Smirke's 19th-century central quadrangle into the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court — the largest covered square in Europe — which opened in The ethnography collections, which had been housed in the short-lived Museum of Mankind at 6 Burlington Gardens from , were returned to new purpose-built galleries in the museum in The museum again readjusted its collecting policies as interest in "modern" objects: The Weston Gallery of Roman Britain, opened in , displayed a number of recently discovered hoards which demonstrated the richness of what had been considered an unimportant part of the Roman Empire.

The museum turned increasingly towards private funds for buildings, acquisitions and other purposes. Today the museum no longer houses collections of natural history , and the books and manuscripts it once held now form part of the independent British Library.

The museum nevertheless preserves its universality in its collections of artefacts representing the cultures of the world, ancient and modern. The original collection has grown to over thirteen million objects at the British Museum, 70 million at the Natural History Museum and million at the British Library. For almost years researchers came here to consult the museum's vast library.

Today it has been transformed into the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Centre. With the bookstacks in the central courtyard of the museum empty, the demolition for Lord Foster 's glass-roofed Great Court could begin.

The Great Court, opened in , while undoubtedly improving circulation around the museum, was criticised for having a lack of exhibition space at a time when the museum was in serious financial difficulties and many galleries were closed to the public. As part of its very large website, the museum has the largest online database of objects in the collection of any museum in the world, with 2,, individual object entries, , of them illustrated, online at the start of In the museum received a record 6.

The British Museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport through a three-year funding agreement. Its head is the Director of the British Museum. The British Museum was run from its inception by a 'principal librarian' when the book collections were still part of the museum , a role that was renamed 'director and principal librarian' in , and 'director' in on the separation of the British Library.

A board of 25 trustees with the director as their accounting officer for the purposes of reporting to Government is responsible for the general management and control of the museum, in accordance with the British Museum Act and the Museums and Galleries Act The board was formed on the museum's inception to hold its collections in trust for the nation without actually owning them themselves, and now fulfil a mainly advisory role. Trustee appointments are governed by the regulatory framework set out in the code of practice on public appointments issued by the Office of the Commissioner for Public Appointments.

The pediment over the main entrance is decorated by sculptures by Sir Richard Westmacott depicting The Progress of Civilisation , consisting of fifteen allegorical figures, installed in The construction commenced around the courtyard with the East Wing The King's Library in —, followed by the North Wing in —, which originally housed among other galleries a reading room, now the Wellcome Gallery. Work was also progressing on the northern half of the West Wing The Egyptian Sculpture Gallery —, with Montagu House demolished in to make room for the final part of the West Wing, completed in , and the South Wing with its great colonnade, initiated in and completed in , when the Front Hall and Great Staircase were opened to the public.

The next major addition was the White Wing — added behind the eastern end of the South Front, the architect being Sir John Taylor. The architect Sir John James Burnet was petitioned to put forward ambitious long-term plans to extend the building on all three sides. Most of the houses in Montague Place were knocked down a few years after the sale. Of this grand plan only the Edward VII galleries in the centre of the North Front were ever constructed, these were built —14 to the design by J.

They now house the museum's collections of Prints and Drawings and Oriental Antiquities. There was not enough money to put up more new buildings, and so the houses in the other streets are nearly all still standing.

Although completed in , it was hit by a bomb in and remained semi-derelict for 22 years, before reopening in Other areas damaged during World War II bombing included: The roof is a glass and steel construction, built by an Austrian steelwork company, [57] with 1, uniquely shaped panes of glass. The Reading Room is open to any member of the public who wishes to read there. It was granted planning permission in December and was completed in time for the Viking exhibition in March Blythe House in West Kensington is used by the museum for off-site storage of small and medium-sized artefacts, and Franks House in East London is used for storage and work on the "Early Prehistory" — Palaeolithic and Mesolithic — and some other collections.

The British Museum houses the world's largest [h] and most comprehensive collection of Egyptian antiquities with over , [64] pieces outside the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

A collection of immense importance for its range and quality, it includes objects of all periods from virtually every site of importance in Egypt and the Sudan. Together, they illustrate every aspect of the cultures of the Nile Valley including Nubia , from the Predynastic Neolithic period c.

Egyptian antiquities have formed part of the British Museum collection ever since its foundation in after receiving Egyptian objects [66] from Sir Hans Sloane. After the defeat of the French forces under Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in , the Egyptian antiquities collected were confiscated by the British army and presented to the British Museum in These works, which included the famed Rosetta Stone , were the first important group of large sculptures to be acquired by the museum.

Thereafter, the UK appointed Henry Salt as consul in Egypt who amassed a huge collection of antiquities, some of which were assembled and transported with great ingenuity by the famous Italian explorer Giovanni Belzoni. By the collection consisted of some 10, objects. Antiquities from excavations started to come to the museum in the latter part of the 19th century as a result of the work of the Egypt Exploration Fund under the efforts of E.

Wallis Budge. Over the years more than 11, objects came from this source, including pieces from Amarna , Bubastis and Deir el-Bahari. Active support by the museum for excavations in Egypt continued to result in important acquisitions throughout the 20th century until changes in antiquities laws in Egypt led to the suspension of policies allowing finds to be exported, although divisions still continue in Sudan.

The British Museum conducted its own excavations in Egypt where it received divisions of finds, including Asyut , Mostagedda and Matmar s , Ashmunein s and sites in Sudan such as Soba , Kawa and the Northern Dongola Reach s. The size of the Egyptian collections now stand at over , objects. In autumn the eight million objects forming the museum's permanent collection were further expanded by the addition of six million objects from the Wendorf Collection of Egyptian and Sudanese Prehistory.

The second-floor galleries have a selection of the museum's collection of mummies and coffins, the largest outside Cairo. A high proportion of the collection comes from tombs or contexts associated with the cult of the dead, and it is these pieces, in particular the mummies, that remain among the most eagerly sought-after exhibits by visitors to the museum. Room 64 - Egyptian grave containing a Gebelein predynastic mummy , late predynastic , BC.

Room 4 — Three black granite statues of the goddess Sakhmet , c. Room 4 - Limestone statue of a husband and wife , BC. The British Museum has one of the world's largest and most comprehensive collections of antiquities from the Classical world , with over , objects. Archaeology was in its infancy during the nineteenth century and many pioneering individuals began excavating sites across the Classical world, chief among them for the museum were Charles Newton , John Turtle Wood , Robert Murdoch Smith and Charles Fellows.

The Greek objects originate from across the Ancient Greek world, from the mainland of Greece and the Aegean Islands, to neighbouring lands in Asia Minor and Egypt in the eastern Mediterranean and as far as the western lands of Magna Graecia that include Sicily and southern Italy.

The Cycladic , Minoan and Mycenaean cultures are represented, and the Greek collection includes important sculpture from the Parthenon in Athens, as well as elements of two of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World , the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the Temple of Artemis at Ephesos.

Beginning from the early Bronze Age , the department also houses one of the widest-ranging collections of Italic and Etruscan antiquities outside Italy, as well as extensive groups of material from Cyprus and non-Greek colonies in Lycia and Caria on Asia Minor. There is some material from the Roman Republic , but the collection's strength is in its comprehensive array of objects from across the Roman Empire , with the exception of Britain which is the mainstay of the Department of Prehistory and Europe.

The collections of ancient jewellery and bronzes, Greek vases many from graves in southern Italy that were once part of Sir William Hamilton 's and Chevalier Durand 's collections , Roman glass including the famous Cameo glass Portland Vase, Roman mosaics from Carthage and Utica in North Africa that were excavated by Nathan Davis , and silver hoards from Roman Gaul some of which were bequeathed by the philanthropist and museum trustee Richard Payne Knight , are particularly important.

Cypriot antiquities are strong too and have benefited from the purchase of Sir Robert Hamilton Lang 's collection as well as the bequest of Emma Turner in , which funded many excavations on the island. Roman sculptures many of which are copies of Greek originals are particularly well represented by the Townley collection as well as residual sculptures from the famous Farnese collection.

Objects from the Department of Greece and Rome are located throughout the museum, although many of the architectural monuments are to be found on the ground floor, with connecting galleries from Gallery 5 to Gallery On the upper floor, there are galleries devoted to smaller material from ancient Italy, Greece, Cyprus and the Roman Empire.

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Temple of Artemis in Ephesus. Room 21 — Fragmentary horse from the colossal chariot group which topped the podium of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus , one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World , Turkey, c. Room 22 - Colossal head of Asclepius wearing a metal crown now lost , from a cult statue on Melos , Greece, BC. Room 23 - The famous version of the ' Crouching Venus ', Roman, c. Room 22 — Apollo of Cyrene holding a lyre , Libya, c.

With a collection numbering some , works, [71] the British Museum possesses the world's largest and most important collection of Mesopotamian antiquities outside Iraq. A collection of immense importance, the holdings of Assyrian sculpture , Babylonian and Sumerian antiquities are among the most comprehensive in the world with entire suites of rooms panelled in alabaster Assyrian palace reliefs from Nimrud , Nineveh and Khorsabad.

The collections represent the civilisations of the ancient Near East and its adjacent areas. These cover Mesopotamia , Persia , the Arabian Peninsula , Anatolia , the Caucasus , parts of Central Asia, Syria , the Holy Land and Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean from the prehistoric period and include objects from the beginning of Islam in the 7th century.

The first significant addition of Mesopotamian objects was from the collection of Claudius James Rich in The collection was later dramatically enlarged by the excavations of A.

Layard at the Assyrian sites of Nimrud and Nineveh between and He later uncovered the Palace of Sennacherib at Nineveh with 'no less than seventy-one halls'. Layard's work was continued by his assistant, Hormuzd Rassam and in — he went on to discover the North Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh with many magnificent reliefs, including the famous Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal and Lachish reliefs.

The collection was in the tradition of a schatzkammer or treasure house such as those formed by the Renaissance princes of Europe. In the trustees purchased the 69 houses surrounding the museum with the intention of demolishing them and building around the west, north and east sides of the museum.

British Museum

The first stage was the construction of the northern wing beginning All the while, the collections kept growing. Hogarth , Leonard Woolley and T. Lawrence excavated at Carchemish. Morgan had also acquired a major part of Sir John Evans 's coin collection, which was later sold to the museum by his son John Pierpont Morgan Junior in In , because of the threat of wartime bombing, some objects were evacuated via the London Post Office Railway to Holborn, the National Library of Wales Aberystwyth and a country house near Malvern.

On the return of antiquities from wartime storage in some objects were found to have deteriorated. A conservation laboratory was set up in May and became a permanent department in It is today the oldest in continuous existence. Disruption and reconstruction — [ edit ] New mezzanine floors were constructed and book stacks rebuilt in an attempt to cope with the flood of books.

In , the art dealer Sir Joseph Duveen offered funds to build a gallery for the Parthenon sculptures. Designed by the American architect John Russell Pope , it was completed in The appearance of the exhibition galleries began to change as dark Victorian reds gave way to modern pastel shades.

The evacuation was timely, for in the Duveen Gallery was severely damaged by bombing. Gold, silver and garnet grave goods from the Anglo-Saxon ship burial at Sutton Hoo and late Roman silver tableware from Mildenhall , Suffolk The immediate post-war years were taken up with the return of the collections from protection and the restoration of the museum after the Blitz.

Work also began on restoring the damaged Duveen Gallery. A new public face — [ edit ] The re-opened Duveen Gallery, In , the museum celebrated its bicentenary. Many changes followed: the first full-time in house designer and publications officer were appointed in , the Friends organisation was set up in , an Education Service established in and publishing house in In , a new Act of Parliament introduced administrative reforms.

It became easier to lend objects, the constitution of the board of trustees changed and the Natural History Museum became fully independent. By the Coins and Medals office suite, completely destroyed during the war, was rebuilt and re-opened, attention turned towards the gallery work with new tastes in design leading to the remodelling of Robert Smirke's Classical and Near Eastern galleries. More services for the public were introduced; visitor numbers soared, with the temporary exhibition "Treasures of Tutankhamun " in , attracting 1,, visitors, the most successful in British history.

In the same year the Act of Parliament establishing the British Library was passed, separating the collection of manuscripts and printed books from the British Museum. The Government suggested a site at St Pancras for the new British Library but the books did not leave the museum until The Great Court emerges — [ edit ] The departure of the British Library to a new site at St Pancras, finally achieved in , provided the space needed for the books.

Navigation menu

It also created the opportunity to redevelop the vacant space in Robert Smirke's 19th-century central quadrangle into the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court — the largest covered square in Europe — which opened in The ethnography collections, which had been housed in the short-lived Museum of Mankind at 6 Burlington Gardens from , were returned to new purpose-built galleries in the museum in The museum again readjusted its collecting policies as interest in "modern" objects: prints, drawings, medals and the decorative arts reawakened.

The Weston Gallery of Roman Britain, opened in , displayed a number of recently discovered hoards which demonstrated the richness of what had been considered an unimportant part of the Roman Empire. The museum turned increasingly towards private funds for buildings, acquisitions and other purposes. The museum nevertheless preserves its universality in its collections of artefacts representing the cultures of the world, ancient and modern.

The original collection has grown to over 13 million objects at the British Museum, 70 million at the Natural History Museum and million at the British Library. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 1. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.

Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Good look though, and I liked the added history as well. Izzylf rated it really liked it Jul 16, Gayle McCreedy marked it as to-read May 23, This section needs additional citations for verification.

Other galleries on the upper floors are devoted to its Japanese, Korean, painting and calligraphy , and Chinese ceramics collections. Retrieved 21 October Ancient Egypt at The British Museum. The museum nevertheless preserves its universality in its collections of artefacts representing the cultures of the world, ancient and modern. It is today the oldest in continuous existence.

Original Title.

Artefacts from the Islamic world are on display in Gallery 34 of the museum.

LEONORE from West Virginia
Review my other articles. I'm keen on second-language acquisition. I do fancy studying docunments sleepily .