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Aipmt Study Material Pdf In Hindi

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Generally mammals have seven cervical vertebrae while sea cow has six and sloth has nine cervical vertebrae. Fishes have gills for respiration while lung has alveolar sac like lungs. Scope of Biology Biology influences our daily life as well as our future.

The development and use of modern medicine depends on the understanding of structure and functions of cells, tissues, organs and organ-systems of the human body. Information about the life-histories of the causative agents of diseases and their relation with man are of much value for prevention and cure of many diseases. We can also develop the skill to understand the cause of many hereditary diseases and genetic disorders.

Biology helps to understand how organisms interact with nature and the significance of maintaining biodiversity.

It helps humans to assess their position in the living world as a part of the earths ecosystems. Anatomy and physiology help people become aware of the structure and function of human body. A biologist can learn things related to economic uses of plants and animals.

With modern biotechnology scientists have been able to produce genetically modified GM crops. Geneticists, evolutionists and ecologists, independently or collectively, can work to assess the efficacy of biotechnology and bring forth appropriate enlightenment in the modern society. The future directions of biotechnology, conservation of biodiversity maintenance of environment and human welfare are in the hands of biologists.

Biology in Ancient India Cultivation of rice was most likely achieved at Mehergarh about 6, years ago. Our Vedic literature recorded about plants and animals. The first attempt of classification is observed in Chandyogya Upanishad, which classified animals into three categories Jivaja Viviparous , e. Jangama mobile , e. Susruta Samhita also mentioned about classification of animals, such as Kulacara those herbivores who frequently visit the river banks.

Matsya fish , Janghala wild herbivorous quadrupeds, e. In Vedic time Dhanvantari was regarded as the God of Medicine. Actually, Susruta is one of the earliest scientists who studied human anatomy. He has described in detail, anatomy based on his studies on dead body. Susruta Samhita is considered as the oldest treatise on surgery. Susruta himself carried out plastic surgery of human nose rhinoplasty.

He used non- poisonous living leeches for preventing clotting of blood in the post-operative case. Susruta also specialized in ophthalmic surgery extraction of cataracts. He is therefore acknowledged as the Father of Surgery. Charaka was the first physician to present the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity. According to him, a body function because it contains three doshas, namely, bile, phlegm split and wind and illness is caused when the balance among the three doshas in a human body is disturbed.

Charaka knew the fundamentals of genetics. For instance, he knew the factore determinimg the sex of a child. The indigenous system of medicine in india is known as Ayurveda, which is the science of living or longevity.

Aristotle: An exceptionally talented person Aristotle relied on observations and contributed much in biology. About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones. Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies.

His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern. Formulated the concept of the Great Chain of Being or Scala Naturae a chain of progressive change in nature. This corresponds to a sort of evolution. Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them.

Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals. Observed the placenta in dolphins as a means of nourishment to the foetus. Based on this similarity with mammals he classified dolphins with mammals. Emergence of Contemporary Biology The earliest record of scientific approach in biology is that of a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius In this book, he has mentioned that the human body is composed of many complex subsystems each with its own function.

Andreas Vesalius is honoured as the Father of Anatomy. William Harvey , a British scientist, first demonstrated that the heart pumps blood and the blood circulates. His monograph was named as Anatomical exercise on the motion of the Heart and Blood. Robert Hooke , a British scientist, first coined the term cellulae in and this term is synonymous to cells. His book was named Micrographia. In , a Dutch cloth merchant turned into a scientist. Antony van Leeuwenhoek , observed the real living cells with the aid of a simple microscope made by him.

He is regarded as the inventor of simple microscope. He was the first to draw a diagram of bacteria in Aristotles work on classification went unchallenged until when Carolus Linnaeus , a Swedish naturalist, published another book Species plantarum. Also he published another book Systema Naturae in Linnaeus introduced the method of naming of plants and animals known as the Binomial Nomenclature.

Aristotles Scala Naturac was the all to explain the cause of diversities of the living things. Georges Leopold Cuvier , a French palaeontologist, first rejected the traditional Scala Naturae as a unifying concept of evolution.

About 90 percent of his writing are on scientific subjects, mostly on biological ones.

Classified animal species and arranged them into hierarchies. His mode of classification was reasonable and in some cases strikingly modern. Formulated the concept of the Great Chain of Being or Scala Naturae a chain of progressive change in nature. This corresponds to a sort of evolution. Dealt with over five hundred type of animals and dissected nearly fifty of them.

Studied the developing embryo of a chick and reported that sharks give birth to live youngones viviparous but do not develop a placenta like mammals. Observed the placenta in dolphins as a means of nourishment to the foetus. Based on this similarity with mammals he classified dolphins with mammals. Emergence of Contemporary Biology The earliest record of scientific approach in biology is that of a Belgian scientist Andreas Vesalius In this book, he has mentioned that the human body is composed of many complex subsystems each with its own function.

Andreas Vesalius is honoured as the Father of Anatomy. William Harvey , a British scientist, first demonstrated that the heart pumps blood and the blood circulates. His monograph was named as Anatomical exercise on the motion of the Heart and Blood. Robert Hooke , a British scientist, first coined the term cellulae in and this term is synonymous to cells. His book was named Micrographia. In , a Dutch cloth merchant turned into a scientist.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek , observed the real living cells with the aid of a simple microscope made by him. He is regarded as the inventor of simple microscope. He was the first to draw a diagram of bacteria in Aristotles work on classification went unchallenged until when Carolus Linnaeus , a Swedish naturalist, published another book Species plantarum. Also he published another book Systema Naturae in Linnaeus introduced the method of naming of plants and animals known as the Binomial Nomenclature.

Aristotles Scala Naturac was the all to explain the cause of diversities of the living things. Georges Leopold Cuvier , a French palaeontologist, first rejected the traditional Scala Naturae as a unifying concept of evolution.

He was also the first one to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology, the study of fossils, as a branch of biology. Cuvier also made major contributions in comparative anatomy. Jean Baptiste Lamarck , a French naturalist, was the first to discard the idea of fixity of species.

His book Philosophie Zoologique was published in Charles Robert Darwin , a British naturalist, is the pioneer in the field of biology in the nineteenth century. His monumental treatise on the Origin of species by means of Natural Selection : The Preservation of Favoured Races in the struggle for life was published in In , Louis Pasteur , a French scientist, countered the prevailing concept of spontaneous origin of life.

He established the Germ Theory of disease. Gregor Johann Mendel , is regarded as the Father of Genetics. Darwin: - In his book On the Variation of Animals and Plants and under Domestication , Darwin put forward his own Theory of Pangenesis as the mechanism of inheritance. According to this theory, every organ of the body produces minute hereditary particles called pangenes or gemmules.

Darwin suggested that these gemmules were carried through blood from every organ of the body and were collected together into the gametes. Lamarcks concept of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics and Darwins theory of Pangenesis were rejected with the discovery of the Theory of Germplasm in by August Weismann , a German Biologist.

Waismanns experiment on rate established that the germ sex cells are set apart from the body somatic cells early in the embryonic development and it is only the changes in the germplasm that can affect the characteristics of future generations. The amniotic fluid contains cells amniocytes of the amniotic membrane and some foetal skin cells.

The centres for genetic counseling offer amniocentesis on request of women for chromosome analysis. The amniocentesis technique has been developed for detecting foetal abnormalities by analyzing chromosomal defect or aberration of the foetus. With the realization that the test could reveal the sex of the foetus, people are seen to take the test the mostly for knowing the sex of the foetus instead of the possible genetic anomalies.

Such misuse includes the development of antibiotic-resistant micro-oranisms with increased infectivity. For example, anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

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Spores of B. If a cloud of anthrax spores is released at a strategic location to be inhaled by the individuals under attack may act as an agent of effective weapon of bioterrorism. Fleming discovered penicillin in the culture of the bacterium , Staphylococcus. The penicillin found by Fleming was a toxic product of the blue mould Penicillium notatum that contaminated his culture of bacteria and was destroying the bacteria.

Cuvier was the first to identify the fossils of extinct bird-like reptile and laid the foundation of palaeontology. Lamarck first discarded the idea of fixity of species. Schlieden the first statement on cell theory. Darwin proposed natural selection as a mechanism of evolution of species.

The concept of spontaneous origin of life was countered by Pasteur, who proposed the germ theory of disease. James D. Watson and Francis H. Crick discovered the structure of Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid DNA in and this triggered a new ear of molecular biology. Astbury, a British scientist, first used and defined the term molecular biology in Isotype - Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype. Paratype - Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called paratype.

It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations. Nomenclature is invalid in absence of Herbarium sheet. Trinomial system: On the basis of dissimilarities this species is classified into sub species eg. Brassica oleracea var. The art of identifying distinctions among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect their most significant features and relationship is called biological classification.

The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number o known plants into categories that could be named, remembered and studied. According to A. Empirical Classification: Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group. For example: If the name of plants starts from A, then it is placed in a- group.

Similarly if it starts with B, then it is placed in B-group iv This is not a true classification. It has only one application: Listing of flora. Flora Plants growing in a particular area. Flora of Rajasthan Two books in which flora of India is written: Rational Classification: In this classification, plants are classified on the basis of their actual character or nature i.

Type of rational classification i Practical classification: In this type of classification, plants are classified on the basis of their economic importance.

In this type of classification morphology of plants in not considered. In this classification any one plant can be a member of more than one group. In this type of classification plants are classified on the basis of one or two morphological characters i. Linnaeus divided flowering plants into 23 classes starting with class monandria with a single stamen eg.

Canna and plants with twenty or more stamens attached with calyx were assigned to class Icosandia. He also included all non-flowering plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns in a separate class called cryptogamia or nonandria. In this type, plants are classified on the basis of their complete morphology. In it the classification of whole plant is included stem, root, Leaves, flower etc.

Maximum characters are taken as base in this classification. Importance - Natural classification is believed to be the best classification, because it represents the natural similarities and dissimilarities of plants i. In this classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows many similarities, while is artificial classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows only, 1 or 2 similar characters.

They have many dissimilarities. Natural classification is of two types a Natural formal b Natural phylogenetic a Natural formal In this classification, the phylogeny of the plant is not considered i. In phylogentic classification, the plants are arranged on the basis of their evolution. Proposed the term Phylogeny Ernest haeckel: Gave the concept of phylogeny Charles Darwin: Phylogenetic classification also known as cladistic classification.

Proposed by Sokel and Sneath. In it plants are classified on the basis of numbers of similarities and dissimilarities.

In this, importance to any one character is not given, all characters have same importance. While in natural classification floral reproductive characters have more importance than vegetative root, stem and leaves characters. Their are 7 main taxonomic categories. They are obligate categories i. There are some extra categories, like sub division, sub order, sub family tribe, sub tribe, etc. They are not regularly used. They are used only when they are needed. Classification Raddish: Adolf Mayer: First proposed the term Taxon - for animals H.

First proposed the term Taxon for plants The classification of any plant or animal is written is descending order. Hierarchy - Descending arrangement of taxonomic categories is known as hierarchy. Smallest taxonomic category It is basis unit of classification. Proposed the term and concept of species To explain the species different concepts were proposed, which are as follows A Biological concept of species: But character is not used in taxonomy.

In taxonomy, the determination of species is based on other characters. Mainly morphological characters 5 In higher plants, the determination of species is mainly based on the morphology of flower floral morphology. Because floral reproductive characters are more conservative s compared to vegetative Root, Stem, Leaf characters i. All the humans is this world can interbreed among themselves.

Therefore they belong to same taxonomic species i. But these three can not interbreed among themselves. Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species. B Static concept of species: According to Linaneus species is un- changeable i. The species of present day are same as they were in past and they will remains same in future. According to this theory All the living organisms are created by God Every life is created by God and God gave the basis size and shape of all living organisms, they are still present in their actual former form.

But lamarck rejected this hypothesis. C Dynamic concept of species: Changes always occur in the characters of species from one generation to next generation. And these changes are know as evolution.

D Typological concept: Typological concept is based on single individual of species The species in which a fixed pattern of characters is present are called as monotypic species. Bacteria, BGA 3 In many species more than one type or pattern of characters are present.

These are called Polytypic species or Macrospecies eg. Brassica aleracea Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol Polytypic Species are of three types Biotype - Member o same species inhabiting similar environment and having some genetic variations are known as biotypes.

Variations found in these members are permanent. These members can not interbreed among them selves. Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol are three biotypes of one species. Ecotypes -Members of same species inhabiting different environment and having some genetic variations are known as ecotypes.

Variations are permanent. These members can interbreed among them selves but due to geographical barrier they can not interbreed. Crow Corvus splendense found in different regions are ecotypes of one species Corvus splendense splendense - Indian crow Corvus splendense insolense - Mynamer crow Corvus splendense protegatus - Srilankan crow Ecads or Ecophense - members of same species having some non genetic variations due to environment These variations re temporary.

Every living being Note: Those taxonomic species whose determination is bases on morphology. They are called as linneon species. They are also called morpho-species or taxonomic species.

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Most of species in taxonomy are linneon species 2 Microspecies or Joardans species: Those species in which variations are very less. They reproduce asexually so they have very less variations.

Members of species which are morphologically similar but reproductively isolated are known as sibling species i. Sibling species is one taxonomic species because these members have similar morpholoty but they are different biological species. Brassica oleracea 4 Allopatric species: Those species that are found in different geographical regions and have geographical barriors between them are known as allopratic species.

Geographical barriors like hills, oceans, Himalayan mountains 5 Sympatric species: The species found in similar geographical regions. The species found in different time periods. Man and Dinosaurs 7 Synchronic species: Those species hat are found in same era eg. Dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx 8 Palaeo species: Those species that are extinct now and are found in the form of fossils.

Dinosaurs 9 Neontological species: Those species which are living presently. It is based on external morphology, origin and evolution of plants. B Beta taxonomy or Explorative taxonomy: Besides external morphology, it also includes internal characters like embryological, cytological, anatomical characters etc.

C Omega taxonomy or Encyclopaedic taxonomy: Omega taxonomy has widest scope. It is based on all the informations or data available about plants. D Cytotaxonomy: The use of cytological characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called ctotaxonomy. Cytological characters constitute an important aid to plant taxonomy, especially in determining affinities at the generic and infrageneric levels. E Chemotaxonomy: The uses of chemical characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy.

It is based on the chemical constitution of plants. The fragrance and taste vary from species to species. The basis chemical compounds used in chemotaxonomy are alkaloids, carotenoids, tannis, polysaccharide, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, aromatic compounds etc.

F Karyotaxonomy: Based on characters of nucleus and chromosomes. Pattern of chromosomal bands dark bands and light bands is most specific characters. A Time - - B.

B He is known as father of ancient plant taxonomy and father of botany. D Theopharastus wrote many books on plants. Few of them are as follows a Historia plantarum B Causes of plants C Enquiry into plants E Theophratus gave names and descriptions of plants in his book Historia plntarum. F Theophrastus proposes the first classification of plant kingdom.

He classified plant kingdom in to four groups on the basis of growth habit - a Trees b Shrubs c Under shrubs d Herbs G It is artificial classification.

H He proposed the term Annual, Biennial and Perennials. He was the Swedish scientist C He is known as father of taxonomy, father of plant taxonomy and father of animal taxonomy.

D Linnaeus gave the two kingdom system classification. E Linnaeus wrote many books. Some important books are: G In Systema naturae Linnaeus gave the scientific names of animals. In this book he gives the detailed description of animals kingdom.

H In Genera plantarum Linnaeus gave the detailed description of plant kingdom. He classified the plant kingdom into 24 classes on the basis of stamens and style. This was an artificial classification. The main basis of Linnaeus classification was the Sex organs.

Therefore this classification is also known as Sexual classification. I In Species plantarum he gave the scientific names of plants. De Candolle: A He wrote the book Theories Elementaire de la botanique B He was the first to propose the significance of vascular tissue in taxonomy.

On this basis of vascular tissue the classified plants into two groups a Cellular plants Non vascular plants - this group includes Thallophyta and Bryophyta b Vascular plants - This group includes Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm and Angiosperms. B Scientists working in botanical garden are known as curapor. C The wrote the book Genera plantarum In this boom Bentham and Hooker gave the biggest and natural classification of spermatophyta i.

In it, basically the description of plant with seeds is present. Merits of Bentham and Hooker classification. The classification of Bentham and Hooker was natural formal The classification of Behtham and Hooker was mainly based on the floral characters. This was very appreciable because floral characters are more stable than vegetative root, stem, leaves characters.

It is the simples classification. Therefore the arrangement of all plants in the botanical gardens and herbarium of the world is based on it Although it is not the best classification but yet the arrangement of plants in botanical gardens and herbarius is based on it, because it is the simpler one. The main reason for its simplicity is that this classification is based on actual observation.

Demerits of Bentham and Hooker: In this classification the phylogeny of plants is not considered, because in it, gymnosperms are placed in between dicots and monocots. The sequence of evolution is as follows: Syllabus de vorlesungen uber phanerogamen kunde - Book written by Eichler. In this book, Eichler gave the first phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom. The classification of Eichler is very little phylogenetic.

Contributors

Sub-kingdom Cryptogamia Phanerogamia Plant without flower Plant with flower life stru. This classification was more phylogenetic as compared to Eichlers classification Plant Kingdom on the basis of embryo Sub-kindom Thallophyta Embryophyta embryo absent embryo present Type of fertilization Division Zoodiogama Siphonogama Fertilization By - Zoodiogamy Fertilization by - Siphonogamy i.

Male gametes reach the female Two groups are include in this division gametes through pollen tube. A Proposed the biggest phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom. B This classification is the complete classification of plant kingdom.

C This is the most acceptable classification for books and study. Tipoo does not use the word pteridophyta 9 Karl Menz: A he show the importance of secrelogy in taxonomy. B Similarities and dissimilarities in stru. Living organisms which are phylogenetically close relatives have more similarities in their proteins. Organisms which are distantly related have different proteins.

Phylogenetic relationship of plants and animals can be established by animal serum. Serology indicates that chimpanzee is closest relative of man.

A Haeckel gave the three kingdom Protista, Planae, Animalia system of classification. B Haeckel established the kingdom Protista. C The term Protista was given by C.

D Haeckel grouped those living organisms in Protista which did not have tissues. He gave the Four kingdom system of classification.

All the prokaryote are grouped in Monera ii Protista or prototista: Copleland grouped those eukaryotes in protista, which are visually different that normal plants and animals. Brown algaem Red algae, Fungi Protozoa iii Plantae or metaphyta: Remaining all eukaryotic plants are grouped. Remaining all eukaryotic animals re grouped.

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Whittaker A He gave the Five kingdom system of classification. B This classification was believed to be modern The five kingdom classification of Whittaker was based on 3 main characters a Complexity of cell: Cell is prokaryote or Eukaryote, on this basis, kingdom Monera is formed. And all the proykaryotes are grouped in to it. Organism in unicellular or multicellular, on this basis kingdom Protista was formed and all the unicellular eukaryotes are grouped into it.

Organism in autotrophic or heterotrophic, on this basis kingdom Myctota. Planatae and Animalaia was formed. Except fungi heterotrophic all the plants are autotrophs. Therefore fungi is separated from plants and placed in kingdom mycota. And remaining all the autotrophic plants are placed in kingdom - Plantae. Since all the animals are heterotrophs, therefore they are placed in fifth kingdom i. True fungi 4.

Carl Woese suggested separate kingdom for Archaebacteria. Van Neil: Divided the living organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Main characteristic of prokaryotes: Cell wall of prokaryotes is made up of peptidoglycan or murein which is a type of mucopeptide.

The structure of peptidoglycan has two parts A Polysaccharides: They are made up of glucose, mannose, galacotse and amino sugar units. Amino sugars N-acetlyl glucosamine, N-acetyl muramic acid B Amino acids: Following amino acids are present in the cell wall of prokaryotes: Muramic acid - This acid is found in eubacteria and BGA 3. The structure of cell wall in prokaryotes is complicated and this is the primitive characster.

Generally the cell wall of prokaryotes is not made up of cellulose but exceptionally there are some prokaryotes in which cell wall made up cellulose, which are as follows - eg. Acetobacer acetogenum Acetobacter Xylenum Zymosarcina Prokayotes which are intra cellular lack cell wall e.

Mycoplasma 2 Cell membrane: This space, is analogus to lysomome because in this space the digestion of complex substance is done. A The cytoplasm of prokaryotes lacks membrane bound cell organelles. B In Prokaryotic cell, the nucleus is indistinct. The nucleus of prokaryotes is also known as incipient nucleus, genophore, nucleiod or fibrillar nucleus. Nuclear membrane is absent around nucleus. It also lacks nucleolus. Prokaryotes also lack the true chromosome. Non histone proteins are polyamines.

This false chromosome coils and forms the chromosomal region, which is known as nucleoid. C Is prokaryotes ribosomes are of 70s type. Locomotion by slipping They secrete mucilage and then glide on this mucilage. There is no particular structure like cilia, flagella for locomotion.

Flagella are present in many prokaryotes for swimming. Eubacteria B Non motile prokaryotes - eg. They were first observed in rainy water and later in teeth scum by Leeuwenhoek and called them Animalcule. This discovery was published in his book The Secrets of nature Discovered by Leeuwenhoek 2. Cohn and Ehrenberg first of all coined the name Bacteria. Bergey placed bacteria in Prosophyta group and wrote a book Munual of Determinative Microbiology. This book is known as Bible of bacterial classification.

Lister developed culture technique. He also developed the sterilization tech to sterlize the surgical instruments. He discovered the antiseptic nature of carbolic acid. Lister first of all cultured bacteria artificially. Louis Pasteur proposed germ theory and called the bacteria germ.

He discovered the Pasteurisation technique. Pasteurisation technique - it is a process which means heating of drinks. Robert Koch Koch first obtained pure culture of bacteria. He discovered the Anthrax. Koch gave some rules to prove that the bacteria are the cause of disease.

These rules are known as Koch postulates. He awarded Nobel Prize for his work. Koch postulates do not applicable on obligate parasite eg. On the basis of their shape bacteria are of different types.

Chapter-wise Important Revision Notes (CBSE)

Coccus Pl. Cocci Sing. Coccus - These bacteria are spherical These are smallest bacteria These are highly Maximum resistant. These are following types A. Monocossus - These spherical bacteria live alone single sphere e. Micrococcus, Dialister pneumosintes B. Diplococcus - These are found in pair. Diplococcus pneumniae, Neisseria C.

Tetra occurs - These are found in group of four cocci. Micrococcus luteus D. Streptococcus - These are found in form of chain e. Streptococcus lactis E. Sarcinae - 8 to 64 or ore bacteria are found in cubical mass form e. Sarcina F. Staphylococcus - These bacteria are found in a irregular bunch e.

Staphylococcus alvus 2. Bacillus Pl. Bacilli - Sing. Bacillus - This group includes most of the bacteria.

These are rod shaped They are following types A. Single Bacillus - Only one rod -like structure or bacterium. Diplobacillus - They are found in pairs e. Diplobacillus C. Streptobacillus - They are found in a chain e. Bacillus anthracis Bacillus subtilis -It is surrounded by mucilagenous sheath that is known as zooglea. It is also known as hay bacteria. Palisade bacillus - These roed shaped bacteria are found in form of stacks e.

Corynebacterium diphtheriae 3. Spirillum Pl. Spirilli - Sing. Spirillum These are spiral shaped bacteria e.

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Spirillum volutans, Spirochete, Helibacter, Treponema 4. Comma Vibrio - These are comma shaped bacteria e. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio comma 5. Stalked bacteria - These are single called bacteria with narrow stalked e. Caulobacter 6. Budding bacteria - They appear like a beaded cell e.

Rhodomicrobium 7. Pleomorphic bacteria - These bacteria change their shape according to the medium. Rhizobium Rhizobium bacterium is found in three forms X,T and Z Bacteria are motile as well as non motile.

Movement in bacteria takes place by means of flagella. On the basis of flagella bacteria are of following types 1. Atrichous - When flagella are absent, it is called atrocious form e. Micrococcus, Pasteurella 2. Monotrichous - When only one flagellum on one end of the bacterium e.

Vibrio, Thiobacillu, Pseudomonas 3. Lophotrichous - When a bunch of flagellum is present on one end of bacterium. Salmonella 4. Amphitrichous - When bunch of flagellum or single flagellum are present on both the ends of bacterium. Spirillu, Nitrosomonas 5. Peritichous - When flagella are found on the whole body of bacterium e. Salmonella typhi A flagellum of bacteria is made up of three parts.

Basal body - A. It is the basal part of flagellum and rod shaped in structure. It lies with in the cell wall and cell membrane C. This proteinaceous rod shaped structure is surrounded by two pairs of rings i Outer pair ii Inner pair D. Outer pair of ring lies with in the cell wall. One ring of this pair is called L and the another called P. Inner pair of ring lies with in the cell membrane.

One ring of this pair is called S and the another is M. Hook - A. In connects the basal body to filament B. It is the middle part of glagellum C. Filament - A. It is cylindrical hollow structure made up of protein monomers. Each omonomers is made up of flagellin protein. Flagellin is a contractile protein like the tubulin of eucaryotes. All monomers are joined with each other and so that in bacteria flagella in monofibrilla.

Pili - 1. Bacterial cell wall is covered by numerous hair like structures called pili. Pili are smaller than the flagella. Pili Sing. They are of two types A Longer pili, B Shorter pili 3.

Longer pili is also known as F pili or sex pili.

These are absent in recipient bacteria or female. The shorter pili take part in attachment. These are also known as infective pilo or fimbrae. These are found only in pathogenic bacteria. Every pilus is cylindrical hollow structure and composed of protein monomeres. Each momomere is made up of pilin protein.

Pilin is non-contractile protein. Pili have been reported only in Gram negative E. Capsule of Glycocolyx or Slime layer - A. When bacteria is surrounded by capsule, it is called capsulated bacteria. Formation of capsule is done by cell membrane. Capsulated bacteria are mostly pathogenic. Capsule is made up of unknown polysaccharides and polypeptides. Capsule protects the bacteria from W.

Cell Wall - Bacterial cell wall made up of mainly peptidoglycan or murein which is type of muco-peptide. It is made up of peptidoglycan. Lipids are also present but in less quantity.It is free because it is available for work under certain conditions.

Also he published another book Systema Naturae in During chemical reactions electrons are transferred from one atom to another. This word was produced by A. Our Vedic literature recorded about plants and animals. A hypothesis that survives repeated tests over a long period of time and that has central importance to an area of science, may be considered a theory. There is no question of exchange of matter between the internal environment of the thermos flask and its surroundings.

Thank you so much sir , I have downloaded physics notes and they are very very good. No cell manufactures energy but all organisms take in energy and transform it into other kind to do many kinds of work.

Spores of B.

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